Presentation on theme: "Tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 ETHICS AND CULTURE IN JOURNALISM A question of: -Professionality -Competence -Personality -Media Environment (Organization,"— Presentation transcript:
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 ETHICS AND CULTURE IN JOURNALISM A question of: -Professionality -Competence -Personality -Media Environment (Organization, Audience) -Social Environment -Political Environment (Political System, Political Culture) A question of: -Professionality -Competence -Personality -Media Environment (Organization, Audience) -Social Environment -Political Environment (Political System, Political Culture)
Journalistic moral in field of tension of different rationalities power influence profit calculation truth truthfulness correctness transparency agreement communicative rationality responsibility freedom service to public interest ethical rationality economical rationality
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 Areas of Competence of Scientific Media Studies Praxeology Analysis/ Interpretation PracticePragmatics Low Level of Competence Advancied Level of Competence Thematic Application General Application Increasing Complexity of Practice Increasing ComplexityOf Conceptualization
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 Social Factors of Destinction of Media Use Individuals position in social hierarchy: Lifestyle-Model (Rosengreen) Capital Theory (Bourdieu) - Positional and individual indicators influence the Handling of media -Media menus and media knowledge used as means of keeping or improving the social position Criteria: Work- orientation (accumulation of cultural capital) Meaning (use of media as a character of distinction and identity management (Source: Meyen, Michael (2007): Medienwissen und Medienmenüs als kulturelles Kapital und Distinktionsmerkmale. In: Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft 3/2007, 333-354)
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 Media User Typology (Source: Meyen, Michael (2007): Medienwissen und Medienmenüs als kulturelles Kapital und Distinktionsmerkmale. In: Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft 3/2007, 333-354 ) The dutiful ones Die Pflichtbewussten The independent ones Die Unabhängigen Work Orientation / ArbeitsorientierungMeaning of Media Bedeutung der Medien The frugal ones Die Genügsamen The consumers Die Konsumenten The hoovers Die Profis The elitists Die Elitären The epicurs Die Hedonisten
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 COMMUNICATION SPACE EUROPE European Public Sphere under Conditions of Cultural Diversity
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - GOAL - 2. Getting aware that media management is a platform of developing society and shaping the communicational culture through media 4. Getting aware of similarities / differences between categories and positions of analysis 5. In reference to different structures and cultures 3. Getting reminded of the societal and cultural impacts and responsibility working with and in media management 1. Realizing that media management is depending from knowledge of cultural conditions of usage of media
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - Referencies - 2.Hallin, Daniel C. / Mancini, Paolo: Drei Modelle von Medien und politischer Kultur in Europa. Grundlegenede Überlegungen zu einer komparativen europäischen Journalismusforschung. In: Kopper/Mancini,2003: 11 - 28 3.Löffelholz, Martin (ed.) (2000): Theorien des Journalismus. Ein diskursives Handbuch. Wiesbaden 4.Internationales Handbuch Medien, 2004/2005 ed. By Hans Bredow Institut für Medienforschung an der Universität Hamburg. Baden Baden 5.Gavranovic, Ante (2006): Medijska obratnica. Novi citatelji traze drugacije novine. Zagreb 1.Kopper, Gerd G. / Mancini, Paolo (eds) (2003): Kulturen des Journalismus und politische Systeme. Berlin
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - MEDIA CULTURE (MC) - The way and the mind how people use media in order to connect or to get connected to the environment of political and conversational discourses. The question IS NOT: What does media do with people ? The question IS: What does people do with media ? contextual consideration: Contemporaneous self-description: Media- (Communication-, Knowledge-) Society: There is no media-free existence of people, knowledge, events (medialized relevance) Interconnectivity of quality between media production (journalism), media consumption (public, recipient), socio-cultural environment, political environment MC always an integrative part of a society and its collective psychic structure / Analysis of media always is an analysis of the society and vice verse) MC also a product of specific historical development, of structural forms and of mentalities which reflect how the society deals with social conflicts or divergences.
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - EUROPEAN MEDIA ORDER - now 27 nations EU - Identiy building in progress: One Voice Europe? structural conditions of political and social system different languages different cultural symbols different historical conditions mutual resentments (clichés) TECHNOLOGY Satellite covering 500 Mio. people, 40 states, 17 national languages crossborder broadcasting (ARTE, Phönix,...) digitalisation and media convergence EU Policy European media order in progress (Radio/TV) European Commission not yet a transnational order system -> developing (centralized) EU Media Order is limited! European Council with strong position European Court of Human Rights Media freedom is a part of freedom of opinion, must be secured by state through positive legislation
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - JOURNALISM CULTURE - What are the main characteristics of the political structure of a country, which effect the media system – and vice verse ? How does the form of democracy effect the media system? Does the form of political participation correlate to the form how the media system is organized? Are there important functional differences in media (print / TV) and does this relation effect the political system? What is the degree of media literacy in a country (critical reading)? Is there a self-referential reflection of media? Approximativ Theory of Difference in Media/Journalism Culture in Europe measured at the for of relationship between media and politics loosing specific character due to globalisation, commercialisation and secularisation Comparison based on regions sharing common history and mutual influences!
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - JOURNALISM CULTURE at MEDITERRANEAN - Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal weak bourgeoisie and capitalism, late industrialisation, strong aristocracy, strong clergy, late introduction of press freedom, low circulation, Journalism close to literature, politics and economy press = intervention of politics, TV = gossiping newspaper = politically oriented Public broadcasting pluralisation of ideologies politics Journalistic professionalism based on 3 elements patterns different from culture existence of ethics media entrepreneurs from journalistic branch All in all Mediterranean media culture follows a model of strong ideological direction, fundamental pluralism, controversial ad polarized public communication – both in political and in conversational formats.
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - JOURNALISM CULTURE at NORTH CENTRAL EUROPE - Scandinavia, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, BeNeLux democratic corporatistic way of cooperation between media and politics Influential commercialists, high rate of alphabetisation, high circulation, coexistence of mighty and party newspapers, strong external pluralism, information-oriented approach Public broadcasting Differently structured (party political, institution- political, no party political influence, independent) with strong position in public life (Austria) strict regulation of commercial broadcasting Journalistic professionalism free accessibility, umbrella organisations
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - JOURNALISM CULTURE at WESTERN EUROPE - UK and Ireland (Anglo-American Model) early developed market economy and consolidation of liberal capitalism dominant commercial press, monetary power as background considerably ideal US System Press freedom above all principles, freedom as question of economical resources, commercial before journalistic interests UK System often party politically directed: Westminster System, independent broadcasting (BBC), no market regulation For all of them strong journalistic culture in form of self control within the media companies, important independence of journalists within the news media focus on journalistic education (early start in US) changes remarkable because of internationalisation and globalization
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - JOURNALISM CULTURE at Eastern Europe - Baltic, Eastern Europe and South-Eastern Europe long history of changeful belongingness to different cultures and administration systems no national independences 40 years of societal and political system of communism 1990 breakdown of political system -> breaking apart of multinational political community emerging of mutual hostility/national hate Now transition status with ambivalent feeling towards the European Union media landscape paralysed situation in structures and culture! low media literacy level, mistrust against media and public/political institutions, isolated national media islands with hate speech, weak journalism culture due to few complete educated journalists causing a high tabloidization and flat but aggressive investigative journalism media law work in progress, high foreign commercial participation
tab / uni maribor ws 07/ 08 - COMMUNICATION SPACE EUROPE - THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! o. Univ. Prof. Dr. Thomas A. Bauer www.thomasbauer.at