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The role of urban buses in the concepts of sustainable mobility, climate protection, air quality improvement and noise reduction Falk Heinen Section Transport.

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Presentation on theme: "The role of urban buses in the concepts of sustainable mobility, climate protection, air quality improvement and noise reduction Falk Heinen Section Transport."— Presentation transcript:

1 The role of urban buses in the concepts of sustainable mobility, climate protection, air quality improvement and noise reduction Falk Heinen Section Transport and Environment, Electric Mobility (IG I 5) 13. Februar 2012 1 1

2 Overview Challenges: Climate and Transport, Air quality, Noise
Sustainability concepts for transport New buses in public transport Hybrid bus projects E-buses Ongoing activities/ situation in Germany Results on research of new bus concepts and projects - availability - fuel consumption - emissions/ noise

3 First Global Reconstruction of Temperature for Past 11
First Global Reconstruction of Temperature for Past years the Past Years Source: Marcott et al. Science 2013, aus: Schellnhuber, Klimakongress, 2013

4 Which reduction of GHG for 2-degrees-target?

5 Global challenge for transport
All sectors with reductions except transport sector, e. g. Germany reduction of all sectors by 30 % between 1990 and 2010; transport: reduction only 9,8 %. Reductions for 2°C-target needs in-sector achievements, i. e. no shift of obligations between sectors Targets for Transport Sector in Germany: Reduction Final Energy Consumption by 10 % (2020) and 40 % (2050); discussion about national sectoral targets Transport EU: Reduction of CO2-emissions by 60 % compared to 1990 until 2050 (Concept Text Transport) Energy EU: Minimum share of 10 % renewable Energy in the Transport Sector until 2020 EU-wide emissions sectors in CO2e, index. (1990=100), Eurostat Calculations: McKinsey for BMU, Remark: -50% is lower “Safety line” for 2 degrees target

6 Postponement of the attainment deadline for NO2
Notification of 57 air quality zones according to Art. 22 COM Decision 20 February 2013: 33 cases denied (limit value will not be attained in 2015) 17 allowed 7 allowed on conditions (submission of final air quality plans)

7 How to reduce emissions in passenger transport?
total emissions transport demand [passenger km] energy intensity [joule per pkm] CO2- intensity [CO2e per joule] = x x approaches Avoid traffic e.g. reduce needs for mobility and distances by means of integrated planning Shift traffic and push efficiency e.g. reduce fuel consumption of vehicles and shift traffic to towards more efficient modes Switch fuel e.g. use low carbon fuels such as sustainable biofuels or renewable electricity Hybrid buses Electric buses Source: Composition of total emissions in passenger transport, simplified display after Creutzig/Edenhofer in IVW

8 Instruments of sustainable mobility
Emission standards Land transport  EURO-standards Environmental zones Reduction of transport noise Innovation programmes for rail vehicles EU-standards for tyres International Noise standards for airplanes Requirements of BImSchG (e. g. noise action plans) Taxes as environmental steering instrument Reduction of fuel taxation for public transport Benefits for refit with particulate filter Tax exemptions for fuels with significat reductions of CO2 emissions Support/ funding of environmental beneficial vehicles New version of national transport plan (in preparation) Environmental standards for public procurement in public transport National cycling plan Stand: Dezember 2007

9 Key reasons for funding „better buses“
Main goals Reduction of CO2-emission, pollutants and noise within the sector of public transport Support of Market penetration with existing, highly efficient transport technologies Establishing new technology with lower emissions as permanent element in the fleet of transport companies Stimulation of economy for bus industry and related suppliers Increase attractiveness of Public Transport Noise measurement (source: BMU)

10 What are „better buses“?
Main elements – different stages Reduction of air pollutants, mainly NOx and PM: today SCR, particulate filter Gas buses?: 1. CNG: no real CO2-benefit 2. lower NOx/ PM emission 3. Biogas: CO2-benefit dependent on well-to-wheel balance, waste problem, competition with food 4. Noise problems remain Hybrid buses: efficiency technology, introduces electric mobility to public transport Electric buses: various technologies available, test phase, main challenges: battery and charging Der Markt für Hybridbusse im ÖPNV Nahverkehrsbusse sind durch ihren Stopp-and-Go-Betrieb besonders für Hybridantriebe geeignet Schon 2008 hat das BMU ein Interessenbekundungsverfahren für Hybridbusse durchgeführt Etwa 30 Verkehrsbetriebe in Deutschland wollten dabei mindestens 10 Fahrzeuge anschaffen Verkehrsbetriebe sind bereit, Hybridbusse anzuschaffen und dafür auch zu investieren Die Schwelle zum Einsatz von Kleinserien im ÖPNV war bereits erreicht

11 BMU project 2010/ 11 12 companies: Stadtverkehr Lübeck GmbH
Üstra Hannoversche Verkehrsbetriebe AG 10 transport companies in Saxony Introduction of 50 hybrid buses in scheduled service 65 – 85 % of extra costs for hybrid elements and support Der Markt für Hybridbusse im ÖPNV Nahverkehrsbusse sind durch ihren Stopp-and-Go-Betrieb besonders für Hybridantriebe geeignet Schon 2008 hat das BMU ein Interessenbekundungsverfahren für Hybridbusse durchgeführt Etwa 30 Verkehrsbetriebe in Deutschland wollten dabei mindestens 10 Fahrzeuge anschaffen Verkehrsbetriebe sind bereit, Hybridbusse anzuschaffen und dafür auch zu investieren Die Schwelle zum Einsatz von Kleinserien im ÖPNV war bereits erreicht

12 Environmental criteria BMU project
Definition of ambitious environmental criteria in order to promote market entry and to save environmental standards: Reduction of CO2-Emissionen by 20 % compared to equivalent dieselbus NOX- and PM-emissions at EEV level Exhaust aftertreatment with closed particulate filter Underscore EU-noise level Control of criteria with extensive research program: noise measurements on testing area, control of emissions on roller test bench, extensive additional analyses on practicability, technical problems, cost-benefit, acceptance

13 Continuation of support of hybrid buses
As of 2012 new project with financial support of the BMU-National Climate initiative (NKI) Huge political support for promotion of new climate friendly technologies Environmental requirements (like 2010) - 20 % improvement compared to conv. veh. - EEV plus closed particulate filter, EuroVI underscore noise standards Key issue: cost effectiveness/ profitability Main goal: closure of gap between costs and return Result: - despite reduced funding rate about 60 buses in the programme as of today, e. g. in Hamburg, Wolfsburg, Ingolstadt

14 E-buses – a new perspective with potential
New trend - No local LAQ emissions - good climate balance, but only with renewables - reduction of noise emissions Energy storage Regular service of urban buses of 300 km and more with corresponding energy consumption of about 500 kWh Recharging in most cases necessary Fast charging: Due to limited stopping time high charging power necessary (200 kW or more) Further work required on infrastructure Auxiliary technology (heating, climatisation, …) Extra energy source or significant increase in electric energy consumption Further evolution - main challenges battery and recharging/ time for recharging - economic consideration - environmental performance towards climate * Quelle: Fraunhofer

15 E-buses in „Erneuerbar mobil“
E-buses in Hannover: Pilot project with three E-buses in scheduled service Fast charging at final station with electricity of overhead line of the üstra system One circle line of inner urban area in Hannover Additional research in order to analyse technical feasibility, cost effectiveness, acceptance, benefit for the environment Hamburg: Service of three Plug-In-Hybrid- and three E-buses in scheduled service of Hamburger Hochbahn AG Recharging at starting and endpoint of line with pantograph with high charging power (up to 300 kW) Collection of information in context with practical day-to-day application, acceptance, reduction of emissions, cost-benefit analysis

16 Innovative Antriebe Bus
Gemeinsame AG Innovative Antriebe Bus Common working group „Alternative options for public land transport“ of transport and environment ministry Exchange of transport companies, manufacturers, scientific experts, associations Goals: Exchange about technologies, practicability, environmental performance, cost-effectiveness Documentation and assessment of state-of-the-art Data collection and analysis of all projects with BMU/ BMVBS funding Identification of possible optimisation of technologies and application KEY QUESTIONS: Which technology is promising, where and how?

17 AG Bus - Projektübersicht
28 Projekte 146 Dieselhybridbusse 70 Solobusse 76 Gelenkbusse 25 Elektrobusse 8 BZ Busse G = Gelenk S = Solo M = Mini-/Midi- Suffix E = Elektro- Suffix BZ = Brennstoffzelle Suffix P = Plug-In Hybrid VB Hamburg-Holstein (10 S) eBTO Hamburger Hochbahn (5 G) ErPaD Hamburger Hochbahn (5 S, 15 G) Held Hamburger Hochbahn (3 SP, 3 SE) SaHyb Jasper (10 S), Süderelbe Bus (5 S) NaBuZ demo Hamburger Hochbahn (4 S BZ) Stadtverkehr Lübeck (5 S, 5 G) Inmod Mecklenburg-Vorpommern GBB (1 ME), BBW (1 S), HS Wismar (1 S) Hybridbus Wolfsburg Wolfsburger Verkehrsgesell. (3 S) RegioHybrid Döbeln, Freiberg Regiobus Mittelsachsen (10 S) Dresden - DVB (3 S, 3 G) Leipzig - LVB (3 G) SaxHybrid Dresden - DVB (10 G) Leipzig - LVB (10 G) SaxHybrid Plus Stadt – Verkehrsbetrieb (1 G) Linie 79 Dresden – DVB (1 ME) eBus Batterfly Leipzig – LVB (2 ME) eBus Skorpion Leipzig – LVB (vorauss. 1 GE) Hybridbusse in Hannover üstra (10 G) Hub Osnabrück Stadtwerke Osnabrück AG (2 ME) E-bus Berlin BVG (5 SE) EMIL Braunschweiger Verkehrs-AG (1 SE, 5 GE) EFBEL Verkehrsverbund Rhein Ruhr Krefeld - SWK Mobil (4 G) Hagener Straßenbahn (2 S, 2 G) Dortmund - TRD Reisen (2 S) Bochum - BOGESTRA (5 G) Hybridbusse für Ingolstadt Stadtbus Ingolstadt (3 S) Primove Road Pilsting (1 SE) FREE Kassel - Regionalmanagement Nordhessen (1 ME) Hybridbuserprobung Münchener Verkehrsgesellschaft (MVG) (2 S, 2 G) Hyline S Stuttgart - SSB (5 GP) S presso Stuttgart - SSB (4 S BZ) ElvoDrive Voith AG (1 S) Primove Mannheim Mannheim - RNV GmbH (2 SE) BMVBS BMU BMWi Stand: Source: PE International, AG Bus

18 Some results

19 Technical evaluation Performance and time of operation
Collection data of 57 Hybridbussen Performance Sum: 1,3 Mio. km Performance per vehicle: – km, (Ø ca km) Average daily performance: 229 km Time of operation overall: hours Daily average: 15,3 h Source: PE International, AG Bus

20 Availability Hybrid vs. Diesel
Comp. 2 Comp. 3 Comp. 4 Comp. 5 Hybrid Diesel 79% 77% 69% 70% 64% 92% 98% 100% 71% Period: Jan - September 2013 Comp. 1 Average availability BMU project (2011/ 2012: Hybrid buses: 81% Reference buses: 92% Hybrid elements: availability 93 % Lower availability in cold months January/ February Increased availability over period; nearly equal to conventional buses Source: PE International, AG Bus

21 Fuel consumption: first results
Comparison with comparable conventional diesel vehicles (Euro V/EEV) BMU-Projekt projects with fuel savings of up to 19% (average > 10 %) dependency on route characteristics, technology, energy storage, manufacturer (some at the beginning with extra fuel consumption) variations over the year: better results over summer WG buses (only few months, statistical uncertainties) m: up to 34 %, 18 m: up to 21 % (some below 10 %) average between 10 and 20 % currently parallel hybrids significantly better, robust results over 20 % first companies expect break-even during lifetime (!) complete restart of cost-benefit analysis > FURTHER DETAILED ANALYSIS NECESSARY

22 Test bench measurements/ noise
All buses within BMU project achieved requirements for NOx/ PM (PM below detection limit) Exhaust temperature higher than concv. Engines (SCR) CO2 reductions between 20 and 30 % Gelenkbus auf dem Rollenprüfstand (Diesel-Referenz), (Quelle: TÜV NORD) Significant reductions of noise in particular in front part of the bus Perception of passengers and among pedestrians: much lower noise, very important element of acceptability Geräuschmessung auf der ISO-Messstrecke in Papenburg (Quelle: TÜV NORD)

23 Some conclusions Significant GHG reductions in transport sector required to achieve 2°-target Other important requirements: air quality and noise reduction Public transport one important element but further improvement of technology necessary Technological evolution started and is accelerating: more electricity (with all suboptions) and less conventional fuel. Hybrid buses as new element in German and European fleets introduced Various projects on different paths: hybrid buses, plug-in hybrid buses and electric buses E-buses as new element with main challenges „battery“, „charging“ and „costs“ High acceptance of new technologies among passengers and pedestrians, but also drivers New bus trends lead to more sustainability: less emissions, less noise Economic questions/ cost effectiveness will remain as one key issue

24 Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit! Thank you for your attention!
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25 Vergleich der Umweltwirkungen von ÖPNV und Auto im Nahverkehr
Berufsverkehr ÖPNV viel klimafreundlicher als Pkw auch bei Optimierung der Pkw bei Emissionen und Verbrauch bleibt die Rangfolge bestehen Freizeitverkehr Pkw meist gut, Bus und Bahn eher gering ausgelastet Aber: Busse und Bahnen fahren sowieso (Funktion einer Daseinsfürsorge), Pkw zusätzlich Nicht online stellen! Stand: Dezember 2007


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