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1. Substitute the word “average kinetic energy” for “___________” to make questions easier.Temperature
2. Sublimation is a phase change from a _____directly to a____2. Sublimation is a phase change from a _____directly to a____. Two examples: CO2 and I2 SOLID GAS
3. Solutions containing ions of elements ____ (group 3-11) are often colored. Example:_______Transition CuSO4
4. Only two elements exist as liquids as STP.Hg(metal) & Br(non-metal)
5. Elements are arranged in the periodic table according to their __________atomic number
6. The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the element naturally___________occurring isotopes
7. The mass number of an atom is found by adding the ____________number of protons + neutrons
8. One atomic mass unit (1 amu) is defined as exactly 1/12 the mass ofCarbon-12
9. Atoms that become ions by losing electrons _______in size while those that gain e-______decrease increase
10. The nuclear charge of an atom is the same as its number of _______protons
11. The nucleons of an atom are those particles found in the__________nucleus (protons & neutrons)
12. Molecular substances generally contain only covalent bonds, have low_____and are______melting point soft.
13. Molecules with polar bonds may be non-polar because their shapes are__________symmetrical
14. Carbon dioxide has 2-Double bonds and is nonpolar because it is _________(shape=linear)symmetrical
15. Memorize the 7 elements that are diatomic:H2 N2 O2 F2 Br2 I2 CI2
16. Memorize: 1 mole= ________ molecules= ______ grams= ______ liters (if it is a gas at STP)6.02 x 1023 GFM 22.4
17. Water, NH3 and HF have unusually high boiling points due to strongintermolecular forces (H bonds)
melting points very hard18. Network solids contain covalent bonds, have high ________and are _______. Example: diamonds melting points very hard
19. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of ____________ valence electrons
principle energy levels(shells)20. Elements in the same period have the same number of ________________ principle energy levels(shells)
21. Metallic elements generally obtain a complete octet bylosing electrons
22. The most metallic elements are located in the __________region of the periodic tablelower left
“sea of mobile electrons”23. Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity because of their _______________ “sea of mobile electrons”
24. Group 1 & 2 metals are so reactive they are found in nature as _____________and must be obtained by electrolysis found as compounds
25. Semi-metals are located stair bold line and exhibit _________ and __________propertiesmetallic nonmetallic
high temperature low pressure26. Gases behave most like ideal gases under conditions of _________and ________ high temperature low pressure
27. The two gases that behave most like ideal gases under any conditions are _____ and _____H He
28. An __________is a substance that is capable of conducting electricity when dissolved in waterelectrolyte
29. Three examples of electrolytes are ____, ______and ______NaNO3(aq) NaCl(aq) KCl(aq)
30. Salt contains ionic bonds and are easily identified because they contain a _______ and ________metal and a nonmetal
31. Memorize and know the significance of LEO-GER and RED CAT –AN OX
32. Saturated hydrocarbons only contain elements of H & C and have all __________single bonds
33. Chemical reactions are spontaneous when they are _________ and entropy increasesexothermic
34. All reactions (especially redox reactions), there must be conservation of mass and ________charge
35. Identify which diagram represent an element, compound, and a mixturez: mixture of two elements X: compound y: element
36. When one element changes to another, the process is known astransmutation
37. Isotopes of all elements with atomic numbers greater than 83 are _________ and decay over time.radioactive
38. Alpha and beta decay are examples of________natural transmutation
conversion of mass energy39. Fission and fusion both release large amounts of energy due to the ____________ to _________ conversion of mass energy
40. Intermolecular forces between hydrocarbons are generally _______weak
41. Larger hydrocarbons have ___________ and higher ____________ and __________stronger intermolecular forces (van der walls forces) higher melting and boiling point
42. Polar solutes generally dissolve in polar solvents42. Polar solutes generally dissolve in polar solvents. The most common polar solvent is _____ H2O
43. As the _____________ of dissolved particles in the solution increases the boiling point increases and the melting point decreases. concentration
44. ____________affect the m. p. and b. p44. ____________affect the m.p. and b.p. to a greater extent than molecular solutes, because they dissociate in H2O ionic solutes
45. Electrons must _______ energy to move to the excited state and __________ energy to move to the ground state. gain release
46. Rutherfold’s gold foil experiment revealed than an atom is made of mostly ________________empty space
47. Equilibrium exist when the rate of forward and reverse reaction areequal
48. When a system is at equilibrium, the concentration of reactants and products are ____________constant
49. Electronegativity is a measure of an atom’s attraction for ________________.electrons
50. Ionization energy is the energy required to ___________ an electron from an element.remove
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