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1. What are Human Rights? What are Human Rights?

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1 1. What are Human Rights? What are Human Rights?
Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights 1. What are Human Rights? Julia Kozma and Johanna Lober University of Vienna Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, Vienna What are Human Rights?

2 The Golden Rule Do naught to others which, if done to thee,
would cause thee pain: this is the sum of duty. Hinduism What is hateful to you, do not to your fellow man. That is the entire law; all the rest is commentary. Judaism Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Christianity No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. Islam Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful. Buddhism

3 What are Human Rights? Descriptive, legal and philosophical approaches
Those fundamental rights, which empower human beings to shape their lives in accordance with liberty, equality and respect for human dignity The sum of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and collective rights laid down in international and regional human rights instruments, and in the constitutions of states The only universally recognized value system under present international law comprising elements of liberalism, democracy, popular participation, social justice, the rule of law and good governance

4 Human Rights Terminology
Human rights Fundamental rights (international law) (national constitutional law) Human rights Citizen‘s rights (for everyone) (for citizens) Human rights Peoples‘ rights (individual rights) (collective rights)

5 History of Human Rights
Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights 2. History of Human Rights Julia Kozma und Johanna Lober University of Vienna Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, Vienna History of Human Rights

6 Timeline International Human Rights Law Constitutionalism
Selective Protection Regimes Diplomatic protection Humanitarian Law Prohibition of Slavery Minority Protection Vienna World Conference on Human Rights Socialism Banjul Charter / Decl. Right to Development Magna Charta Liberalism 1993 Natural Law Doctrine Covenants: CCPR / CESCR 1981/ 1986 1215 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Habeas Corpus 1966 United Nations Charter American Decl. of Independence/Constitution Atlantic Charter 1948 WW II 1679 1945 Déclaration des droits de l‘homme/ French Const. Peace Treaty of Versailles / League of Nations 1941 1776/ 1789 Belgium Const. WW I German Const. 1789/ 1791 ICRC 1919 1831 1848 1875

7 Philosophical Foundations I
Doctrine of natural law: inalienable rights Samuel Pufendorf (De iure naturae et gentium, 1672, 2. Book, 1. Chapter §5) Der Mensch ist von höchster Würde, weil er eine Seele hat, die ausgezeichnet ist durch das Licht des Verstandes, durch die Fähigkeit, die Dinge zu beurteilen und sich frei zu entscheiden [...]. John Locke (Two Treatises of Government, 1690, II, §§124, 123, 87) ‚the great and chief end, therefore, of men uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property-that is, their lives, liberties and estates.‘ =>Individual human beings as subjects endowed with rights =>New relationship between state and individual: social contract

8 Philosophical Foundations II
American ‚Declaration of Independence‘ 1776 ‚we hold these truths to be self-evident – that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.‘ French ‚Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen ‘ 1789 Article II: ‚‘Le but de toute association politique est la conservation des droits naturels et imprescriptibles de l’homme. Ces droits sont la liberté, la propriété, la sûreté et la résistance a l’oppression.’ Article III: ‘Le principe de toute souveraineté réside essentiellement dans la nation.’ Article VI: ‘La loi est l’expression de la volonté générale. Tous les citoyens ont droit de concourir personnellement ou par leurs représentants à sa formation.’ =>Revolutionary and emancipatory concept: freedom, individual self-determination, political participation (democracy)

9 Philosophical Foundations III
Liberalism: freedom from state interference Immanuel Kant (Über den Gemeinspruch 1793) ‚Die Freiheit als Mensch, deren Prinzip für die Constitution eines gemeinen Wesens ich in der Formel ausdrücke: Niemand kann mich zwingen auf seine Art (wie er sich das Wohlsein anderer Menschen denkt) glücklich zu sein, sondern jeder darf seine Glückseligkeit auf dem Wege suchen, welcher ihm selbst gut dünkt, wenn er nur der Freiheit Anderer, einem ähnlichen Zwecke nachzustreben, die mit der Freiheit von jedermann nach einem möglichen allgemeinen Gesetze zusammen bestehen kann, (d.i. diesem Rechte des Anderen) nicht Abbruch thut .‘ John Stuart Mill (On Liberty 1859) ‚[...]to assert one very simple principle, as entitled to govern absolutely the dealings of society with the individual in the way of compulsion and control, whether the means used be physical force in the form of legal penalties or the moral coercion of public opinion. That principle is that the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number is self-protection…Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign .‘

10 Philosophical Foundations IV
Socialism: equality over individual rights Karl Marx (Zur Judenfrage, 1843) ‚Vor allem konstatieren wir die Tatsache, dass die sogenannten Menschenrechte, die droits de l’homme im Unterschied von den droits du citoyen, nichts anderes sind als die Rechte des Mitglieds der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, d.h. des egoistischen Menschen, des vom Menschen und vom Gemeinwesen getrennten Menschen .‘ Friedrich Engels (Anti-Dühring, 1877/78) ‚Die Proletarier nehmen die Bourgeoisie beim Wort: die Gleichheit soll nicht bloß scheinbar, nicht bloß auf dem Gebiet des Staates, sie soll wirklich, auch auf dem gesellschaftlichen, ökonomischen Gebiet durchgeführt werden .‘ => Priority of economic, social and cultural rights

11 First Legal Codifications of Fundamental Rights
Era of constitutionalism Applicable between the citizens and the state United States of America: first 10 amendments to US Constitution (1789/91) France: Declaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen as part of French constitutions (1791) Belgium: Constitution of 1831 as model for 19th century bills of rights Germany: Paulskirchenverfassung (1848), Weimarer Reichsverfassung (1919), Bonner Grundgesetz (1949) Austria: Staatsgrundgesetz (1867) Russia (USSR): ‘Declaration of the rights of the working and exploited people (1917), Stalin Constitution (1936), Breshnjev Constitution (1977), 1993 Yeltsin Constitution (Russian Federation) China: Constitutions of 1949, 1954, 1975, 1978 and 1982 India: Constitution of 1950 Brazil: Constitution of 1988 Uganda: Constitution of 1995 South Africa: 1994 interim Constitution, 1996 Constitution European Union: Charter of Fundamental Rights of 2000

12 Antecedents of the International Protection of Human Rights
Limited by the doctrine of national sovereignty and principle of reciprocity Selective protection regimes in specific areas of mutual interest to states Diplomatic protection of aliens Prohibition of slavery (Quintuple Treaty (London 1841/42) with 26 states parties, General Act of Berlin 1885, General Act and Declaration of Brussels 1890, Slavery Convention 1926/27) Protection of religious freedom (Augsburger Religionsfriede of 1555, Treaty of Westphalia of 1648, Treaty of Versailles of 1871) Protection of minorities (various bi- and multilateral (peace) treaties, League of Nations 1919) Humanitarian law (see next slide) Protection of labour rights (International Labour Office/ILO)

13 Development of International Humanitarian Law
Lieber Code 1863 (‘Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field’) Red Cross societies in Europe since 1863 – today 178 countries have national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies International Committee of the Red Cross 1875 Hague Convention 1907 Geneva Conventions 1929 Geneva Conventions 1949 and Additional Protocols 1977

14 Internationalisation of Human Rights
Holocaust painfully reveals double standard of international law Atlantic Charter 1941 (Roosevelt/Churchill) ‘Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, the hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want;’ Need to protect human rights in international law/international relations Preamble of the UN Charter 1945 ‘We the Peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person,…hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.’ Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 ‘Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind…’

15 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
Need for a common understanding of human rights […]Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge, […](Preamble) […]All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Art. 1) First comprehensive universal catalogue of human rights: non-discrimination (Art. 2), personal liberties and freedoms (Art. 3-5, 12-13, 16, 18-20), procedureal guarantees (Art. 6-11), rights to nationality and to seek asylum (Art. 14, 15), political participation (Art. 21), economic, social and cultural rights (17, 22-27) But: no binding instrument, „only“ declaration of intent

16 Three Generations/ Dimensions of Int. Human Rights Law
Civil and Political Rights Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 Economic, social and cultural rights Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 Collective Rights UN GA Res „Declaration on the Right to Development“ 1986 African Charter of Human and Peoples‘ Rights 1981

17 1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
‚4. ‘The promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms must be considered as a priority objective of the United Nations in accordance with its purposes and principles, in particular the purpose of international cooperation. In the framework of these purposes and principles, the promotion and protection of all human rights is a legitimate concern of the international community…’ 5. ‘All human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated. The international community must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing, and with the same emphasis. While the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of states, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms.’

18 The Three P‘s Promotion Protection Prevention Standard setting
Advisory Service Human Rights Education Protection Individual complaints Inter-state complaints State reporting Inquiry and investigation Fact-finding Human rights field monitoring Condemnation Sanctions Humanitarian intervention Prevention Early warning and early action Conflict resolution Preventive visits to places of detention Preventive deployment of civilian and/or military field personnel International criminal law

19 From Declarations to Enforcement of Human Rights (I)
non-binding document/resolution of political bodies (UNGA, Parliamentary Assembly, etc.), e.g. Universal Declaration 1948 American Declaration 1948 Convention/Covenant binding international treaty, e.g. UN Covenants 1966/76 European Convention 1950/53 American Convention 1969/78 African (Banjul) Charter 1981/86

20 From Declarations to Enforcement of Human Rights (II)
Implementation human rights treaty monitoring, e.g. complaints procedure reporting procedure inquiry procedure Enforcement sanctions and enforced measures, e.g. expulsiom from international organizations economic sanction humanitarian interventions international criminal tribunals reduction or suspension of development cooperation, financial aid, etc.


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