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What this seminar will cover 1 Important factors to bear in mind when choosing a bilingual dictionary How to use the dictionary navigation tools to get to the right answer quickly and efficiently Abbreviations and symbols used in the dictionary How the dictionary can help you with: How the dictionary can help you with verbs: Avoiding mistakes Extra features irregular plurals gender case tense, subject and object transitive and intransitive verbs reflexive, impersonal, separable & phrasal verbs verb lists & verb complementation © Oxford University Press 2005 compound words the position of adjectives idioms
What any good dictionary should offer 2 Range of vocabulary Up-to-date vocabulary Ease of use Clarity of design Clear entry structure Large number of examples Pointers towards the right translation Help with forming sentences in German Model letters, verb lists, and other helpful material And – only with the Oxford-Duden German Dictionary – a free pronunciation CD-ROM that lets you type in any German word, phrase, or sentence and hear it spoken back so you can practise speaking German for presentations or exams © Oxford University Press 2005
What your dictionary can help you with 3 Shes been waiting since three oclock for the train to London. Sie wartet seit fünfzehn Uhr auf den Zug nach London. © Oxford University Press 2005 finding wait for quickly at wait ? translation of since and the correct tense in German? zu/nach? warning that for = auf + accusative in this context? warning that the 24 hour clock is much more likely in German?
Navigating the dictionary 4 German-English section first, then English-German blue-edged section in the middle separates the two sides printed thumb tabs on the outside margin of every page show which letter appears on that page running heads at the top of the page show the first and last words on that page NB: All this applies to the Oxford-Duden German Dictionary. Other dictionaries may have different conventions. © Oxford University Press 2005
5 Navigating a German-English entry © Oxford University Press 2005 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 nouns listed with gender swung dash represents first element dots and underlines indicate stress position and length of vowel plural of nouns older spellings marked with asterisk irregular verbs marked genitive of nouns
Navigating an English-German entry (I) 6 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 phonetic symbols using the IPA noun translations with gender signposts to meaning in parentheses headword, in bold same spelling, different meaning grammatical categories indicated by letters senses indicated by numbers swung dash represents headword guidance on register and usage freely interchangeable translations are separated by a semi-colon
Bier brauen to brew beer Navigating an English-German entry (II) 7 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 der Tee zieht © Oxford University Press 2005 brew: transitive verb, intransitive verb, or noun? narrow the meaning by using context
Common Grammatical Categories 8 © Oxford University Press 2005 Adj.adjectivedescribes a nounsad, traurig Adv.adverbtells you how sth is donequickly, schnell Art., art.articledefinite article = the indefinite article = a the, der, die, das a, ein, eine, ein Hilfsv.auxiliary verbused with main verb to show tense I have made ich habe gemacht Konj.conjunctionlinks two phrases or two wordsand, und Demonstrativpron.determinerdefines which nounthe, those, das, diese n.nounthing, person or idealife, Leben 2. Part.past participleforms perfect tense with aux verb I have travelled ich bin gereist Präp.prepositionused with noun to show positionnear, nahe Pron., pron.pronounstands instead of a nounhe, er Possessivpron.possessive pronoun word used to show who sth belongs to my, mein refl.reflexive verbverb requiring a reflexive pronoun to wash oneself, sich waschen
Grammatical Categories Exercise 9 © Oxford University Press 2005 blau gern der bin aber dieses gestohlen bei ihr sich denken Art. Adj. Possessivpron. unr. refl. V. Präp. Adv. 2. Part. Demonstrativpron. Hilfsverb Konj. Match these words with the correct part of speech
Swung Dash (or Tilde) ~ and Hyphen - 10 © Oxford University Press 2005 The swung dash stands for the whole headword so the ending is added: Frau, die woman ~en women Koch-: ~schinken der boiled ham In compounds the swung dash replaces the first word in the compound: Subject Field Labels (Zool.) = Zoological (Jägerspr.) = Jägersprache (i.e. to do with hunting) Check the list of subject field labels in the abbreviations list inside the front cover of the dictionary to see whether it covers areas you are interested in
Regional Usage 11 © Oxford University Press 2005 (Brit.) = British usage(österr.) = Austrian usage (Amer.) = American usage(schweiz.) = Swiss usage (südd.) = southern German (nordd.) = northern German (schwäb.) = Swabian, e.g. Stuttgart (hess ) = Hessen, e.g. Frankfurt-am-Main (DDR ) = term used in former GDR derb (crude, coarse) dichter. = dichterisch (poetical) fam. = familiär (informal) fig. = figurativ (figurative) geh. = gehoben (elevated, refined) Kinderspr. = Kindersprache (used by small children) Papierdt. = Papierdeutsch (stilted) Gürtel der belt ; den ~ enger schnallen ( fig. ugs.) tighten ones belt ( fig.) salopp (slang) scherzh. = scherzhaft (humorous) spött. = spöttisch (derogatory) ugs. = umgangssprachlich (colloquial) veralt. = veraltet (old-fashioned) volkst. = volkstümlich (vernacular term) vulg. = vulgär (vulgar) Register figurative = metaphorical rather than literal, e.g.
Sentence patterns 12 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 jmd. (jemand – Nominative) somebody jmdn. (jemanden – Accusative) somebody jmdm. (jemandem – Dative) somebody jmds. (jemands – Genitive) somebodys sb. somebody etw. (etwas) something sth. something ask sb.s name nach jmds. Namen fragen example sentences are given within entries to show where prepositions are needed: abbreviations are used to illustrate the order of elements in a sentence:
Phonetics 13 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 = short vowel_ = long vowel / = stress on 1 st syllable | = separable verb dot shows that the word erweise does not form part of betrüblicherweise stress pattern given, so stress on ge- of gehen no stress pattern given, so stress on hin- of hinter as usual
Irregular Plurals 14 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 Torverhältnis Torverhältnisse plural form same as plural adjective lice lice = Läuse
Gender 15 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 14 25 3 6
Case 16 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, or Dative? Read the examples: jmdn. = jemandenuse the Accusative jmdm. = jemandemuse the Dative dich shows the accusative is used here I fell in love with my Julia = Ich verliebte mich in meine Julia I help my friends = Ich helfe meinen Freunden ihm shows the dative is needed here
The position of adjectives Compound Words 17 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 Hinterziehung hintereinander Hintergrund hinterher Hinterlegung Hintern Hinterziehung attr. = precedes a noun präd. = follows a verb
Finding Idioms Idioms 18 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 An idiom is a saying or expression whose meaning has evolved so that it is now different from the original literal meaning of the key words within it. be out of the wood = über den Berg sein Ich muss zugeben, dass mein Bruder mir manchmal auf den Keks geht.
Types of verbs: Transitive and Intransitive Reflexive Separable English phrasal verbs Verb tables Verb complementation Other help with verbs: Verb Basics 19 © Oxford University Press 2005
Tense = present, future, past, conditional, imperfect etc. Subject = the noun or pronoun that causes the action indicated by the verb –Gertrude loves Eric = Gertrude liebt Eric –The dog ate the meat = der Hund hat das Fleisch gefressen Object = the word or group of words which is affected by the action indicated by the verb –Gertrude loves Eric = Gertrude liebt Eric –The dog ate the meat = der Hund hat das Fleisch gefressen Quick refresher on grammatical verb terms (I) 20 © Oxford University Press 2005
Quick refresher on grammatical verb terms (II) 21 © Oxford University Press 2005 Direct object = the noun or pronoun directly affected by the verb - Gertrude liebt Eric = Gertrude loves Eric - Gertrude liebt ihn = Gertrude loves him - der Hund hat das Fleisch gefressen = The dog ate the meat - der Hund hat es gefressen = The dog ate it Indirect object = the noun or pronoun indirectly affected by the verb. In English, indirect objects are usually preceded by a preposition (from, to, at, etc.) - Gertrude gab ihrem Bruder das Buch = Gertrude gave the book to her brother - Gertrude gab ihm das Buch = Gertrude gave the book to him - Eric lächelt Gertrude an = Eric smiles at Gertrude - Eric lächelt sie an = Eric smiles at her
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (I) 22 © Oxford University Press 2005 Transitive verb = tr. V. (transitives Verb) = verb used with direct object I wrote the letter = ich habe den Brief geschrieben Gertrude loves Eric and Wilhelmina = Gertrude liebt Eric und Wilhelmina she loves them = sie liebt sie Intransitive verb = itr. V. (intransitives Verb) = verb that doesnt have an object he died yesterday = er ist gestern gestorben she ran very fast = sie ist sehr schnell gelaufen Eric and Wilhelmina arrived yesterday = Eric und Wilhelmina sind gestern angekommen Transitive verbs do something to the object that follows them. Intransitive verbs stand on their own without an object following them.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (II) 23 © Oxford University Press 2005 The same verb can be used both transitively and intransitively: burn burn coal in the stove = den Ofen mit Kohle feuern (transitive use) her skin burns easily = sie bekommt leicht einen Sonnenbrand (intransitive use) fahren links/rechts fahren = drive on the left/right (intransitive use) jmdn. über den Fluss fahren = ferry sb. across the river (transitive use)
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Exercise 24 © Oxford University Press 2005 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 transitive ( v.t. ) and intransitive ( v.i. ) auseinander treiben: Die Polizei trieb die Menge auseinander. sich zerstreute: Die Menge zerstreute sich.
Reflexive Verbs (I) 25 © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 © Oxford University Press 2005 English-German: v. refl. = reflexive verb German-English: refl. V. = reflexives Verb German reflexive verbs can be identified by the pronoun sich in front of the infinitive. 1st pers. sing.ichmichIch freue mich auf... Im looking forward to... 2 nd pers. sing.dudichBeeile dich! Hurry up! 3 rd pers. sing.er / sie / essichSie setzte sich. She sat down. 1 st pers. pl.wirunsWann treffen wir uns? When shall we meet? 2 nd pers. pl.ihreuchBeeilt euch! Hurry up! 3 rd pers. pl.sie / SiesichSie legen sich hin. Theyre having a rest. Versetzen Sie sich in meine Lage. Put yourself in my position.
Reflexive Verbs (II) 26 © Oxford University Press 2005 Remember: just because a verb is reflexive in the source language, it doesnt mean its reflexive in the target language. None of the examples in the table on the previous slide were translated by a reflexive verb in English. You may have to adapt the given translation, changing sich to mich, dich etc. Many verbs can be used both reflexively and not reflexively: - I really enjoyed myself. (enjoy is used here as a reflexive verb) - I really enjoyed that party. (here, enjoy is not a reflexive verb in English) make fun of sb. Ich mache mich über ihn lustig A similar pattern of dative pronouns is used with verbs which have a direct object: ich wasche michbutich wasche mir die Haare zieh dich an!butzieh dir die Jacke an! sich über jmdn. lustig machen I make fun of him
Impersonal Usage of a Verb 27 © Oxford University Press 2005 Impersonal usage of a German verb is marked unpers. Impersonal usage of an English verb is marked impers. When used impersonally, verbs take the impersonal pronoun es in German and it in English: es regnet = it is raining es schneit = it is snowing es fehlt an Lehrern = there is a lack of teachers es gibt ein Problem = there is a problem es gibt Probleme = there are problems A few German verbs hardly ever occur without the impersonal es: hapern: es hapert an etw. (Dat.) = there is a shortage of sth.
Phrasal verbs are at the end of the entry, marked verb + preposition or adverb e.g. run away Other examples: give up, take off, let down There are no phrasal verbs in German Separable and Inseparable Verbs 28 © Oxford University Press 2005 Listed alphabetically according to the particle: fing…anunder A:an|fangen brachte…hinunterunder H:hinunter|bringen kreuzte…durchunder D:durch|kreuzen durchkreuzteunder D:durch kreuzen Phrasal verbs are at the end of the entry, marked English Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs
Verb Tables 29 © Oxford University Press 2005 Verbs are listed under their infinitive form. Common forms of some irregular verbs are cross-referenced to the infinitive: German irregular verbs (marked unr. (unregelmäßig)) are listed in a section at the back of the dictionary, with the infinitive, preterite (with preterite subjunctive in parentheses) and past participle. For compound verbs (e.g. herunterreißen), look up the simple verb – in this case reißen. Look up a German verb to see whether you need sein.
Verb Complementation 30 © Oxford University Press 2005 = the range of structures that can be used after any given verb I want Matt to leave. You wont find exactly this phrase in the dictionary, but you will find a similar construction, e.g.: I dont want you to get the idea… ich möchte nicht, dass Sie den Eindruck gewinnen… So the translation is: Ich möchte, dass Matt weggeht. © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4
Adapting Examples 31 © Oxford University Press 2005 Nouns: may have irregular plurals may require modifications to definite and indefinite articles or possessive adjectives (e.g. mein meine or meinen) if you refer back to nouns in a following sentence, you need to use the correct masculine, feminine or neuter pronoun Verbs: need to be in the correct form, unless the sentence uses the infinitive need the appropriate reflexive pronoun, if they are reflexive (e.g. I had my hair cut = ich habe mir die Haare schneiden lassen ) need to use the right prepositions (e.g. send down to the store for sth. = etw. aus dem Lager holen lassen ) Careful! Sometimes you may need to adapt a given translation: © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4
a German word has several meanings you are unsure which German translation to choose you dont know if the German word you know can be used in a certain context you want to check the genitive or plural form Cross-checking in the other side of the dictionary helps when: Cross-checking 32 © Oxford University Press 2005
What else can a good dictionary offer you? 33 © Oxford University Press 2005 Correspondence – letter, CV, and email templates; useful phrases when using the telephone, and an SMS glossary Supplement on the German spelling reforms and outline of basic German grammar, irregular verb tables, glossary of grammatical terms Free pronunciation CD-ROM to help you practise your spoken German © Oxford Duden German Dictionary 3 rd edition 0-19-860974-4 Information about life and culture 1 2 Thematic boxes explaining grammatical points and giving extra vocabulary, cross- referenced from the headword 3 4 5
Important factors to bear in mind when choosing a bilingual dictionary Navigating through an entry – German-English, then English-German Explaining abbreviations and symbols: How the dictionary can help you with: Review (I) 34 © Oxford University Press 2005 common grammatical categories swung dash (or tilde) and hyphen subject field labels regional labels register labels sentence patterns phonetics irregular plurals gender case compound words the position of adjectives idioms
Review (II) 35 © Oxford University Press 2005 Questions A chance to discuss any ideas or points raised in the seminar How the dictionary can help you with verbs: tense, subject, and object direct and indirect objects transitive and intransitive reflexive impersonal Avoiding mistakes: adapting examples cross-checking Extra features separable and inseparable English phrasal verbs verb tables verb complementation
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