3 Water divide IMPORTANT TERMS Drainage basin: the area drained by a single river system i.e. main river and its tributaries.Water divide: elevated area or an upland that separates two drainage basin.Water divide
6 Drainage patternsDendritic: forms when river follows the slope of the land ,river and its tributaries resembles the branches of the tree.Trellis: it develops over alternate band of hard and soft rocks (ridge and valley topography) tributaries join main river at approx. right angle.Rectangular : formed over hard and strongly jointed rocky terrain tributaries join main river at right angle.Radial: It develops when streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure.
7 River cycle and fluvial landforms Features formed in youthful stage: v shape valley, waterfall alluvial fansFeatures formed in mature stage: meanders , ox bow lake , flood plains, leveesFeatures formed in old stage: Delta , distributaries
9 Himalayan and peninsular rivers Himalayan river1.Perennial in nature2.Source of origin -glaciers3.Have long courses and perform intense erosion.4.Mainly of dendritic patternand forms well developed deltas.5.Comparatively younger in origin.Peninsular riverNon perennial in natureSource of origin lakes.Have shallower and shorter courses.Combination of dendritic, trellis and rectangular pattern .Show graded profile.
11 s.noName of the riverOrigin & drain intoTributariesremarks1.IndusNear lake Mansarowar in TibetArabian seaZaskas, Nubra , Shyok, Hunza in Kashmir region;Satluj ,Beas, Ravi,Chenab and Jhelum near MithankotEmerges from mountain at Attock.Gentle slopeTotal length 2900km2.GangaGangotri Glacier in UttrakhandBay of BengalFrom Himalayan side-Yamuna,Ghaghara, Gandhak,KosiFrom peninsula side-Chambal,Betwa,SonFormes the largest delta of the world along rivert Brahmaputra-Sunderban3.BrahmaputraEast of lake Mansarowar in TibetDibang, Dihang and LohitTake u turn at Namcha Barwa to enter India
12 Indus Water Treaty : This treaty is about Sharing of the water of the River Indus between India and Pakistan. India can use 20% of the total water.
13 Ganga River SystemHeadwater of River Ganga – Bhagirathi(origin Gangotri) and Alaknanda joins at Devaprayag to form GangaAt Haridwar emerge from mountainsNorthernmost point of Ganga delta-Farakka in W.BengalDivide into Bhagirathi and HooglyMainstream flows southward joined by Brahmaputra and known as Meghna. Forms Sunderban delta named after sundari tree.Total length 2500kmAmbala forms water divide between Indus and Ganga
14 Bramhmaputra river system Also known as Tsang Po in Tibet and jamuna in BangladeshCarries less silt in Tibet region and lagre amount of silt in Indian partMany problems are associated with it –floods, sedimentation of river bed and frequent shifting of its channel.Forms worlds largest riverine island- Majuli island in the state of Assam.
16 Peninsular River River Origin and drain into Tributaries Remark NarmadaAmarkantak hills in M.PInto Arabian seaHiran, Kolar ,TawaForms Dhuan Dhar fall in Jabalpur (Marble Rock)Forms esturieTapiMultai in Betul distt of M.PPurna,Betul,AmravatiCalled twin of River NarmadaMahanadiDhandkaranyain ChhattisgarhDrains into Bay of BengalIb,Sheonath,TelHirakund Dam is built on this riverIt is the most important river ofPeninsular River
17 Peninsular River River Origin and drain into Tributaries Remark GodavariNasik district in MaharashtraDrain into Bay of BengalPenganga,Wainganga, IndravatiLongest river of peninsular IndiaAlso called Dakshin GangaForms Denderitic patternKrishnaRises from The western ghats near MahabaleshwarDrain into Bay of BengalKoyna, Bhima,Ghataprabha, Tungabhadra,MusiSecond largest river of peninsulaFamous city of Hyderabad is located on the bank of River Musi one of the main tributaryCauvery (Kaveri)Rise in Brahmagri range of Western GhatesAmaravati and ShivaMain river for southern -most statesForms DeltaPeninsular River
18 Economic Benefits of river Agricultural use, industrial useHydro electricity productionFormation of flood plainsInland transportationWater for domestic use
19 Lakes of India Classification on the basis of the origin: Natural lakes-Glacial lakes (Dal lake),Lagoons(Pulicat lake),lakes formed due to inland drainage(Sambhar lake)Man made lakes-Nagarjuna Sagar, Nizam Sagar, Gobind sagarImportance of the lakes: Have moderating effect on nearby area, unique aquatic life, source of water for irrigation and other uses, eco tourism.