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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

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Presentation on theme: "Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Dr. Maha Arafah

2 Objectives Understand the Pathophysiology of reflux esophagitis.
Upon completion of this lecture the students will : Understand the Pathophysiology of reflux esophagitis. Know clinical features of reflux esophagitis Describe the pathology (gross and microscopic features) of reflux esophagitis Know the complications of reflux esophagitis

3 Anatomic radiographic landmarks of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES).

4 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Gastroesophageal reflux is a normal physiologic phenomenon experienced intermittently by most people, particularly after a meal. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the amount of gastric juice that refluxes into the esophagus exceeds the normal limit, causing symptoms with or without associated esophageal mucosal injury.


6 Definition American College of Gastroenterology (ACG)
Symptoms OR mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus Often chronic and relapsing May see complications of GERD in patients who lack typical symptoms

7 Physiologic vs Pathologic
Physiologic GER Postprandial Short lived Asymptomatic No nocturnal sx Pathologic GERD Symptoms Mucosal injury Nocturnal sx --distinction between normal and GERD is blurred because some degree of reflux is physiologic is all folks Physiologic—postprandially, short lived, asymptomatic, not during sleep Pathologic—symptoms or mucosal injury and often with nocturnal symptoms

8 GERD Pathophysiology or Abnormal lower esophageal sphincter
Increase abdominal pressure

9 GERD Pathophysiology Abnormal lower esophageal sphincter
Functional (frequent transient LES relaxation) Mechanical (hypotensive LES) Foods (eg, coffee, alcohol), Medications (eg, calcium channel blockers), Location hiatal hernia or B. Increase abdominal pressure The most common cause of (GERD). decrease the pressure of the LES. obesity Pregnancy increased gastric volume

10 Pathophysiology Primary barrier to gastroesophageal reflux is the lower esophageal sphincter LES normally works in conjunction with the diaphragm If barrier disrupted, acid goes from stomach to esophagus --At level of diaphragmatic hiatus—main deterrant to reflux --disruption due to –review slide--multifactorial

11 Summary of Pathogenesis of GERD
impaired lower esophageal sphincter-low pressures or frequent transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation hypersecretion of acid decreased acid clearance resulting from impaired peristalsis or abnormal saliva production delayed gastric emptying or duodenogastric reflux of bile salts and pancreatic enzymes.

12 Clinical Manisfestations
Most common symptoms Heartburn—retrosternal burning discomfort Regurgitation—effortless return of gastric contents into the pharynx without nausea, retching, or abdominal contractions --gerd related chest pain may mimic angina—squeezing/burning, substernal, radiates to back, neck, jaw, arms. Minutes to hours. After meals, awakens patient from sleep, exacerbated by emotional stress --water brash—hypersalivation—heartburn and regurg of sour fluid or tasteless saliva into mouth --globus—lump in throat irrespective of swallowing --odynophagia—esophageal ulcer --nausea—infrequent --hrt burn 70-85%//regurg 60%//dysphagi 15-20%//angina 33%//asthma 15-20% Atypical symptoms….coughing, chest pain, and wheezing.

13 Extraesophageal manifestations of GERD
Otolaryngeal: hoarsness/laryngitis Ch. Sore throat Other: Noncardial chest pain

14 Diagnostic Evaluation
If classic symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation exist in the absence of “alarm symptoms” the diagnosis of GERD can be made clinically and treatment can be initiated --heartburn +/- regurgitation high specificity, low sensitivity

15 Esophagogastrodudenoscopy
Endoscopy (with biopsy if needed) In patients with alarm signs/symptoms Those who fail a medication trial Those who require long-term tx The procedure lacks sensitivity for identifying pathologic reflux Absence of endoscopic features does not exclude a GERD diagnosis Allows for detection, and management of esophageal injury or complications of GERD --if trial of med did not work or if alarm symptoms or long term 5yrs need egd 1a evidence—dysphagia/early satiety/gi bleed/odynophagia/vomiting/wt loss/anemia % of patient’s with gerd will have a neg egd.

16 pH 24-hour pH monitoring Accepted standard for establishing or excluding presence of GERD for those patients who do not have mucosal changes Trans-nasal catheter or a wireless, capsule shaped device --Transnasal catheter or a wireless capsule shaped device affixed to distal esophagus --cather positioned 5cm above manometrically defined upper limit of les --capsul attached 6cm proximal to endoscopically defined squamocolumnar jxn --if mucosal changes—have dx and do not need 24hph.

17 Complications Erosive esophagitis Stricture Barrett’s esophagus
--dysphagia, odynophagia, early satiety, gi bleed, anemia, vomit, wt loss

18 Complications Erosive esophagitis
Responsible for 40-60% of GERD symptoms Severity of symptoms often fail to match severity of erosive esophagitis --black arrow squamo-columnar jxn—Z-line --Z-line has undulating smooth contours --green arrow—gastric columnar epithelium above round black sphincter --red arow—pink white esophageal squamous epithelium --ulcerations in 2-7%

19 Esophagitis Elongation of lamina propria papillae
Eosinophils and neutrophils Elongation of lamina propria papillae basal zone hyperplasia,

20 Complications Esophageal stricture
Result of healing of erosive esophagitis May need dilation 4-20% of patients

21 Complications Barrett’s Esophagus
8-15% Barrett’s Esophagus Intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus Associated with the development of adenocarcinoma --1950—Norman Barrett % --black arrow squamo-columnar jxn—Z-line --Z-line has undulating smooth contours --green arrow—gastric columnar epithelium above round black sphincter --red arow—pink white esophageal squamous epithelium --RFs—male, smoker, age, obese

22 Pathophysiology of Barrett’s Esophagus
Acid damages lining of esophagus and causes chronic esophagitis Damaged area tries to heal in a metaplastic process and damaged squamous cells are replaced by metaplastic columnar cells defined by the presence of goblet cells (intestinal metaplasia) This specialized intestinal metaplasia can progress to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma Many patients with Barrett’s are asymptomatic Adenoca with barretts 0.5%/yr without barretts 0.07%/yr

23 Complications dysplasia Barrett’s esophagus adenocarcinoma

24  The risk of cancer in Barrett's esophagus is estimated to be 40 to 100 times
Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for all patients with Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopy is performed every 2 years, and biopsies are taken from the area of abnormal mucosa. If the biopsies reveal low-grade dysplasia, then the frequency of endoscopies is increased.

25 If high-grade dysplastic changes are seen and confirmed by a second pathologist, then the risk of subsequent adenocarcinoma is greater than 25%, and surgical resection should be considered.

26 Summary

27 Treatment H 2 receptor Blockers Proton pump inhibitors
Once established h&p dx and no alarm symptoms can proceed with dx/therapeutic trial of tx. Antireflux surgery

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