2 Mechanical Handling Systems Definition A mechanical handling system is a classification of a method of transporting loads from one place to another. A conveyor system is simply a method of transferring material mechanically from one place to another, usually in a linear fashion. There are different conveyor methods of transferring different materials, such as: Belt conveyors, Screw conveyors, Drag chain conveyors, Roller conveyors, Pocket conveyors. Types of crane also come under the category, we will consider Gantry Cranes & Jib Cranes.
4 Belt ConveyorsIn its simplest form, a conveyor belt is usually made from long lengths of rubber joined together at each end and is usually driven from 1 of the ends of the roller system. The belt is supported along its length via a series of rollers that turn when the conveyor belt runs along in contact with them. A conveyor belt requires periodic checks and maintenance for: 1) Belt condition 2) Belt alignment 3) Roller condition and 4) Mechanical component lubrication. Conveyor belts are commonly used throughout industry in cement manufacturing handling, transportation of aggregate and in supermarkets. These belts are extremely popular and versatile due to their flexibility of product and range things it can be used to transport.
6 Screw ConveyorsThese are generally used to transport small objects along a length of a place. This is achieved by using an Archimedes type screw method to effectively draw the product along its desired length to its final destination. The maintenance process with this is includes: 1) Ensure the supporting parts remain set at their correct height 2) The mechanical moving parts remain well lubricated with the correct type of grease This process would never want to become too overloaded with the product it is transporting, because system blockage could occur.
8 Drag Chain ConveyorThis type of mechanical transfer device is simply a method of mechanically transferring products such as small shingle type material or clinker from a kiln. The method is simply achieved by the product being caught up in one of the conveyor dragging plates and being effectively pulled along to its final destination. The drag chain convenor works in a identical type method of transferring its products to a screw conveyor & requires similar maintenance regarding lubrication schedules & clearance settings. The only difference is that the chain parts of the mechanism would require the same degree of care & maintenance as that of any other chain type drive.
10 Roller ConveyorThis type of Mechanical Handling System is simply a set of rollers of any amount driven / rolling at the same speed and carry a product from on place to another. This type of conveyor is quite commonly driven by a chain drive, which will guarantee synchronous timing, so all of the rollers will rotate at exactly the same speed. Common uses for a roller conveyor is the transportation of hot coils of freshly rolled steel, cardboard boxes, cartons or trays.
11 Drag Chain ConveyorThis type of mechanical transfer device is simply a method of mechanically transferring products such as small shingle type material or clinker from a kiln. The method is simply achieved by the product being caught up in one of the conveyor dragging plates and being effectively pulled along to its final destination. The drag chain convenor works in a identical type method of transferring its products to a screw conveyor & requires similar maintenance regarding lubrication schedules & clearance settings. The only difference is that the chain parts of the mechanism would require the same degree of care & maintenance as that of any other chain type drive.
13 Pocket ConveyorsVisually, a pocket conveyor appears exactly as it is named, a long system of pockets running along a conveyor system. This system would be used for transporting material small stone like objects, such as clinker, gypsum or crushed mined ores. As the pocket conveyor rotates & goes along it usually carries its product up at an incline, to a plane higher than its starting point level.
14 Conveyor System Safety Considerations The safety practices that would need to be seriously considered when working with or maintaining any of these type of conveyor systems would be:Ensure all guards are securely in place before running the systemSystem to be correctly isolated before commencing any maintenance activitiesAll emergency stops are to be correctly functionalAny lifting of heavy items whilst working on a conveyor system such as a roller, to be handled using the correct handling methods.
16 Gantry CranesThis type of crane is used within a workshop and runs along a system of parallel rails, either side of the building and operate at just below the ceiling height internally. It is usually operated via a remove control at floor level, with the control connected to the higher situated crane via a pendant type cable control visual arrangement. One type of this crane is capable of lifting weight up to tons.
18 Jib CranesThis type of crane is different to a gantry crane, with it being supported only a 1 end and with the type that is able to swing (slewing), an angle is possible revolution up to 360 degrees. The fixed type can be used to lift weights of up to 350 tons. These type of crane are to be seen on a regular basis in many places for a wide range of applications. The type of crane that can be seen driven on our roads is a type of Jib Crane
19 Crane Safety Considerations The crane should be always safely & correctly isolated before any maintenance activities are commencedAny guarding should be securely in place before running the crane mechanics.If working at height, the operators / maintainers should be wearing correct safety equipment such as lanyard & be securely fastened.If lubrication etc is taking place, correct PPE should be worn.Only correctly trained and certified persons permitted to run / operate the crane.
20 Crane Maintenance Checks All mechanical fasteners to be checked for tightnessCrane lifting wire rope should be checked for physical conditionCrane lifting wire rope should be correctly lubricatedLifting hook or other fastening gear checked for physical conditionHoist drum conditionEnd stops are secureCorrect entire lubrication has taken placesCrane wheels are in good physical conditionCrane general structure is physically sound.