2 The History of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements Feminist scholars, often refer to three 'waves'. Each is described as dealing with different aspects of the same feminist issues.The first refers to the feminism movement of the 19th through early 20th centuries, which dealt mainly with the Suffrage movement.
3 The second (1960s-1980s) dealt with the inequality of laws, as well as cultural inequalities The Third (1990s-current), is seen as both a continuation and a response to the issues raised in the Second-wave.
4 During the Second World War women were able to contribute much more than in the previous war, especially in skills and professional expertise, as a result of the educational and employment opportunities that had opened to them. However at the end of the war they again found that many of the apparent gains were short term.
5 Women and men’s workWomen were asked to return to the ‘home’ and give back their jobs in industry to the men returning from the war.
6 Second WaveThe second (1960s-1980s) dealt with the inequality of laws, as well as cultural inequalitiesWomen began to question their role in society and rebel against the confines ofinequality and patriarchal oppression.Gender politics became a rallying issue for many men and women on a social and personal level
8 Women's role 1950—70’s Women in the home – wife and mother Needs consent of father or husband to take out any debt or get a mortgageSingle parents condemned –many forced to give up their children for adoptionLow pay – subservient jobs
9 Issues Right to vote Reproductive rights – birth control – abortion Hidden from history – reclaiming historyEqual pay and equal rights at workRecognition of women’s contribution to the economy as a wholeSexuality –Freedom to express sexual desires and feelingsBody image and the male gazePornography Rape, sexual and physical violence against women.Patriarchal society and Man made Language
11 Hidden from historyMany facts about women in history were excluded from the history books.The so called objective status of historical facts was then put into questionThe gendered image is a construct and it alerts us to the question of the non neutrality of knowledge. –
12 Hidden from historyRediscovered women of the past and explored why women as defined by males were excluded from many history books.Women were very energised by rediscovering the past and rejecting the long held interpretations of patriarchy which wanted to subjugate and oppress women into a lesser role in society.
13 Women discover there are women artists in the theatre throughout history Roman times --Theadoraa mimes born in Constantinople – father a bear keeperShe was a dancer and Mimes performer –eventually married to ruler Justinian AD521 becomingempressMid 10th centuryHrotsvit Von GandersheimShe worked in a convent wrote several playse.g Dulcitius –Callimachus which centres on rape and consent to sexual relationsThey were rediscovered by the suffragettes andPapphinutus– performed in London in 1914 by the Pioneer players directed by Edith Craig –(suffragette actress/.director)
14 ) Aphra BehnWrote eighteen plays – made a living from her writing – several plays had major runs in the west end. She was widowed at a young age and forced to earn her livingHer first play The forced Marriage produced in 1670‘The Busy Body’ had over 450 performances.Best known play ‘The Rover was on stage form 1677 – 1760 – ) – SUSANNA CENTLIVREshe would dress as a man and go to the university and attend classesWrote the ‘The Perjur’d husband ‘ 1700We have a theme of cross-dressing in many feminist textsShe has been an inspiration for women sinceVirginia Wolf looked to her for inspiration1773 Mrs Mercy Otis Warren –American playwright – starts by writing plays in support of the American revolutionaries.The Ladies of Castile 1790 – heroine is a female revolutionary leader called Maria
15 Start again!!By 1970 much knowledge of Edwardian women in theatre and performance is lost and has to be rediscoveredWomen’s plays are often not mentioned in the history books or in literatureThis creates a false picture that women are not able to write plays of lasting worth.
16 Influential Books or Texts Mary wolstencroft –The Rights Of Women (1792)Simone de BeauvoirThe Second Sex (1949).Germane GreerThe Female Eunuch (1970)Gloria Steinem -Ms. Magazine (1970)Kate Millett'sSexual Politics (1970)This is a bleak survey of male writers and their attitudes and biases to demonstrates her thesis that sex is politics, and politics is power and there is an imbalance in relationships.
17 Influential Books or Texts Sheila Rowbotham'sWomen's Liberation and the New Politics (1969)Hidden from History (1973)Susan Brownmiller'sAgainst Our Will in 1975,Marylyn FrenchThe Women's room (1977)Andrea DworkinPornography Men Possessing Women (1981)Susan GriffinPornography and Silence (1981).
20 Creative politics The political is personal and the personal is political Women's theatre groups mushroomed during the 1970s and 1980s, reflecting the socialist and feminist spirits of the age. Issues they tackled ranged from the gender-based ,reproductive rights, domestic violence to the cultural and political -mental health, the nuclear threat, equal pay.The watchword was collaboration, the emphasis on devised work.These groups were determined to demolish the restricting stereotypes of what women should be and how they should behave.
21 Bag and BaggageCunning StuntsFemale TroubleThe Hairy MarysHormone ImbalanceReSistersMonstrous RegimentScarlet HarlotsSpare tyreWomen's Theatre GroupClean Break
22 Theatre groups from 1970’s- Their names said it all: Bag and BaggageCunning StuntsFemale TroubleThe Hairy MarysHormone ImbalanceReSistersMonstrous RegimentScarlet Harlots,Spare tyreWomen's Theatre GroupClean BreakDuring the feminist days women turned to theatre and the arts to express their politics, communal bonds and artistic visions. They used space that was other than designed theatres- they performed in many different places and took theatre and performance into the community.
23 1975 The Monstrous Regiment Theatre Company Was established by a series of female and male performers from a wide background from theatre to television.discovering and encouraging new women writersexploring the theory of feminist culturereasserting the 'hidden history' of womencreating non-stereotyped images of womenacting as a consciousness-raising group,
24 Monstrous Regiment The aims of the new group included creating non-stereotyped images of women,acting as a consciousness-raising group,attempting the theorising and practice of collectively and finding a new audience.They also intended to address the issue of women's economic status in the theatre, where average income was around 50% of male performers by offering them new working opportunities both on and off the stage.From 1976 they obtained funding from the Arts Council of Great Britain for their work and set about producing a number of productions
25 Oval TheatreOval House Theatre's reputation as "one of the most important centres for pioneer fringe theatre groups" dates from the 1960s, supporting the experimental theatre companies of the '60s and '70sHelping the emergence of gay, lesbian and women's theatre.Also the development of new Black and Asian writing in the '90s and into the next millennium.Oval House still today programmes work by some of the most innovative, cutting edge theatre practitioners in Britain and beyond.
26 Playwrights Out of the movement as with the suffragettes have developed many established and successful women writersShelagh DelaneyCaryl Churchill – Top girls – Vinegar TomSarah Daniels- Masterpieces- Gut girls –Byrony LaveryMichelene Wandor;Adrienne Scullion;Timberlake WertenbakerPam Gems:– Dusa Fish Stas and ViSarah Kane, ---BlastedCharlotte Keatley, My Mother said I never should.April De AngelisWinsome Pinnock,Claire MacDonald
28 TodayNow, with a few notable exceptions – women's theatre as a genre is not so popular. Still around are;The Women's Theatre Group now called SphinxClean Break --which still works with women ex- offenders1990’s gender is not the main issue women no longer want to be ghettoised as ‘ women’s theatre groups’ .
29 Was the Battle Won? So what happened between then and now? The movement was held back by Margaret Thatcher, whose ideas that er are all individuals was destructive to reconstructing communal bonds between women.Divisions within feminism may also have played a part. Different companies had distinct philosophies, particularly on the question of whether the artistic aspects of theatre or its political message should come first.
30 Was the Battle Won? In some ways the battles had been won? Women had achieved greater economic social and sexual freedom ?Had the establishment managed to discredit feminism with images of raging bra burning harridans?The next generation wanted a new focus?Women are equal?
31 Third Wave Postmodernism – recognises contradictory experience Younger feminists do not want to think in categories which divide people into ‘Us’ and ‘Them’They embrace ambiguity rather than certainty and engage in multiple views but at the same time are aware of exploitation and inequality.
32 Women in Theatre and the Arts Today Women are now much more involved in all aspects of the theatre – film – music dance- TVManagersAdministratorsArtistic DirectorsExperienced artists
34 Sheffield group 2011Hello From Sheffield FemsPosted in Sheffield Fems on April 08, 2010 by Sheffield FemsSheffield Fems was started a few years ago by the wonderful Laura Woodhouse (of the F word blog) and a group of women from Sheffield University with the aim of campaigning on issues and bringing like mind women together.
35 Web sites https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bug6EyIb_AE&nohtml5=False (slide show )
36 Web sites Below is web site re women and film directors