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Early Contact with the New World

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1 Early Contact with the New World 1491-1607

2 p23

3 I. The Shaping of North America (cont.)
The Canadian Shield—a zone undergirded by rocks―became part of the North American landmass. Other mountain ranges were formed, along with rivers and valleys. After the glaciers retreated, the North American landscape was transformed.

4 Figure 1.1 The Arc of Time Figure 1.1 p5

5 II. Peopling the Americas
The North American continent's human history was beginning to be formed, perhaps by people crossing over land. Low sea levels exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America where the Bering Sea now lies between Siberia and Alaska. This brought the “immigrant” ancestors of Native America. See Map 1.1.

6 Map 1.1 The First Discoverers of
America The origins of the first Americans remain something of a mystery. According to the most plausible theory of how the Americas were populated, for some twenty-five thousand years people crossed the Bering land bridge from Eurasia to North America. Gradually they dispersed southward down ice-free valleys, populating both the American continents. Map 1.1 p6

7 Map 1.2 North American Indian Peoples at the Time of First Contact with Europeans Because
this map depicts the location of various Indian peoples at the time of their first contact with Europeans, and because initial contacts ranged from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, it is necessarily subject to considerable chronological skewing and is only a crude approximation of the “original” territory of any given group. The map also cannot capture the fluidity and dynamism of Native American life even before Columbus’s “discovery.” For example, the Navajo and Apache peoples had migrated from present-day northern Canada only shortly before the Spanish first encountered them in the present-day American Southwest in the 1500s. The map also places the Sioux on the Great Plains, where Europeans met up with them in the early nineteenth century—but the Sioux had spilled onto the plains not long before then from the forests surrounding the Great Lakes. The indigenous populations of the southeastern and mid-Atlantic regions are especially difficult to represent accurately in a map like this because pre-Columbian intertribal conflicts had so scrambled the native inhabitants that it is virtually impossible to determine which groups were originally where. Map 1.2 p9

8 Chronology 7000 BC Agriculture developed in Mexico and Andes
AD Hopi and Zuni Tribes build planned towns 1200s Cahokia city empire along the Mississippi 1400s Iroquois League established

9 Earliest Americans The Mound Builders were in the Ohio River valley.
1392AD the “mound builders” flourished The large community contained a series of giant semicircular mounds on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi R. Commercial and government center with trade routes through the Mississippi R. and Ohio Valley Archeologists have found copper and flint mined in Indiana

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11 III. The Earliest Americans
The Mississippian settlement Cahokia rose after the fall of the mound builders in present day St. Louis. The civilization had between 10,000-30,000 They also built mounds of which the largest stood 100 ft high A temple was built on the highest mound The settlement was the largest until New York and Philadelphia in 1800.

12 Cahokia Houses and mounds dot the landscape in an artist’s rendering of ancient Cahokia circa 1150,
when its population of twenty thousand exceeded London’s. p10

13 Hopi and Zuni Largest town was Pueblo Bonita in Chaco Canyon, NM Highest building stood 5 stories high and had more than 600 bedrooms Organized towns, multiple family dwellings, constructed dams and canals to distribute water Traded with groups in from Central Mexico to the Mississippi R. valley Downfall-Drought Survivors moved south and east where they perfected desert farming and irrigation systems. These people were called the Pueblo Indians by the Spanish because they lived in small communities

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15 The Earliest Americans
North American Tribes Pueblo Indians Lived on the side of cliffs Pueblo = village Very intricate irrigation system allowed them to farm Contact with Spanish in 16th century

16 The Earliest Americans
North American Tribes Corn did not reach region until 1000 C.E = no large centralized groups. Three-sisters farming: (beans, squash, corn) beans used corn as trellis while squash covered mounds to retain moisture = higher populations due to sustenance.

17 III. The Earliest Americans (cont.)
Three-sister farming—maize, beans, and squash—supported dense populations. The Iroquois Confederacy developed political and organizational skills. The natives had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively.

18 The Earliest Americans
North American Tribes In present day New York and Pennsylvania-Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca and Onondaga-formed a Great League of Peace, bringing stability. The met each year to coordinate how to deal with outsiders. Iroquois- (Northeast woodlands, NE area) Iroquois Confederacy- Chief Hiawatha brought six tribes together to form closest North American approximation to the great empires of Mexico/Peru Created a robust military alliance which protected people from unwelcome neighbors (Natives/Europeans)

19 The Earliest Americans
North American Tribes Southeast-Choctaw, Cherokee, Chicksaw united in a loose partnership. Plains Indians (Midwest) Nomadic buffalo hunters Became good on horseback after Spanish brought horses from Europe. They evolved which allowed them to survive longer than most tribes

20 The Earliest Americans
Mexico/South American Native Civilizations Agricultural (Corn) accounted for the size and sophistication of the civilizations Developed corn around 5,000 B.C.E They are a centralized people (NOT NOMADIC) Inca = Peru Mayan = Central America Aztec = Mexico

21 North American Tribes Each indigenous group had their own political system and set of religious beliefs The indigenous peoples of the Americas did not see themselves as one unified group Their identity came from their confederacy, tribe and or settlement *When Europeans arrived on the scene tribes sought to use them to enhance their standing against other tribes.

22 Religion Animism-The belief sacred spirits could be found in all kinds of living and inanimate things-animals, trees, plants, water, and wind. Ceremonies tied the spiritual power of nature to secure crop yields and ward off evil spirits. Medicine men and shamans held positions of respect and authority. Native people believed in a single Creator What did Europeans think of native religion?

23 Land and Property Most of the time plots were assigned to individuals or family Land was not owned rather there were rights given to use the land. Land was a means to having an economic value Every so many years tribes moved to find fertile soil Trade The exchange of goods was seen as more than an exchange, ceremonies accompanied trade There were no hungry among the tribes or beggars

24 Gender Women could choose their husbands, as well as divorce
Families were matrilineal, centered around joining the mother’s family Women often selected chiefs Women had property rights Women mostly had agricultural and domestic duties while men hunted

25 How did Europeans view Indians?
Noble Savage Witch Doctors Indian men were lazy Women had too much freedom Unchristian like

26 II. Peopling the Americas (cont.)
The Incas in Peru, the Mayans in Central America, and the Aztecs in Mexico shaped complex civilizations: These people built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce. They were talented mathematicians. They offered human sacrifices to their gods.

27 p7

28 III. The Earliest Americans
Agriculture, especially corn growing, became part of Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America. Large irrigation systems were created. Villages of multistoried, terraced buildings began to appear (Pueblo means “village” in Spanish). Map 1.2 –Native American Indian peoples.

29 Corn Culture This statue of a corn goddess
from the Moche culture of present-day coastal Peru, made between 200 and 600 b.c.e., vividly illustrates the centrality of corn to Native American peoples a thousand years before the rise of the great Incan and Aztec empires that the Europeans later encountered. p8

30 Map 1.2 North American Indian Peoples at the Time of First Contact with Europeans Because
this map depicts the location of various Indian peoples at the time of their first contact with Europeans, and because initial contacts ranged from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, it is necessarily subject to considerable chronological skewing and is only a crude approximation of the “original” territory of any given group. The map also cannot capture the fluidity and dynamism of Native American life even before Columbus’s “discovery.” For example, the Navajo and Apache peoples had migrated from present-day northern Canada only shortly before the Spanish first encountered them in the present-day American Southwest in the 1500s. The map also places the Sioux on the Great Plains, where Europeans met up with them in the early nineteenth century—but the Sioux had spilled onto the plains not long before then from the forests surrounding the Great Lakes. The indigenous populations of the southeastern and mid-Atlantic regions are especially difficult to represent accurately in a map like this because pre-Columbian intertribal conflicts had so scrambled the native inhabitants that it is virtually impossible to determine which groups were originally where. Map 1.2 p9

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32 IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World
Norse seafarers from Scandinavia came to the northeastern shore of North America, near present-day Newfoundland, to a spot they called Vinland. Ambitious Europeans started a chain of events that led to a drive toward Asia, the penetration of Africa, and the completely accidental discovery of the New World.

33 Zheng He

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35 Zheng He Expeditions 7 Expeditions in the Indian Ocean
62 ships larger than any European nation 25,000 men Explored East Africa Purpose was to impress other nations with China’s might 1433 China no longer supported the expense Portugal extended trade and travel using new technology

36 Indirect Discovery of New World
1. Norse explorers from Scandinavia (Vikings) Around 1000 CE Norse seafarers from Scandinavia came to the northeastern shore of North America, near present-day Newfoundland, to a spot they called Vinland. Ambitious Europeans started a chain of events that led to a drive toward Asia, the penetration of Africa, and the completely accidental discovery of the New World. 2. Crusades Purpose: take back the Holy Land from Muslim rule Cultivated a taste for fine goods (Crusaders) Brought back desire for wealth to Europe B/C of expense it led to search for less expensive route to Asia or another source for goods.

37 IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World (cont.)
3. Marco Polo 20yr voyage to China (Prob never got there) His book intensified European desire for cheaper route Marco Polo’s tales also stimulated European desire for a cheaper route to the treasures of the East.. They founded the modern plantation system. They pushed further southward. The Christian crusaders rank high among America’s indirect discoverers. The crusaders aroused desire for the luxuries of the East from the Spice Islands (Indonesia), China, and India; Muslim middlemen exacted a heavy toll en route. See Map 1.3—Major Trade Routes with Asia, 1492.

38 Marco Polo Passing Through the Strait of Hormuz This illustration, from the
first printed edition of The Travels of Marco Polo in 1477, shows the traveler crossing the Persian Gulf between the Arabian Peninsula and Persia (present-day Iran). p12

39 V. Europeans Enter Africa (cont.)
Spain was united by the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, and by the expulsion of the “infidel” Muslim Moors. The Spanish were ready to explore the wealth of India. Portugal controlled the southern and eastern African coast, thus forcing Spain to look westward.

40 Indirect Discovery of New World (Cont’d)
3. Technology New ship design (Caravel). Allowed ships to sail more directly into wind. Mariners compass was invented Also found new current in 1450 which allowed sailors to return to Europe by sailing Northwesterly from Africa. New doors for exploration. 4. Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator- created school for explorers = encouraged by the government Set up trading posts in Africa (coast) for gold and slaves Bartholomeu Dias 1488 rounded the southern tip of Africa = New way to Asia Vasco da Gama 1498 reached India by sailing south around Africa Fueled desires by returning with small cargo of jewels

41 Portuguese In 1434, the Portuguese sailed below the Sahara into Mali
The Portuguese established fortified trading posts on the western coast of Africa They began to conquer Maderia, Azores and the Canary Islands off the west coast of Africa The Portuguese established sugar plantations on the islands and used African slaves replacing the native populations. This was a precedent for what would happen in the New World

42 Indirect Discovery of New World (Cont’d)
Spain Spain is unified under Ferdinand and Isabella and the expulsion of Muslim Moors out of Spain after centuries of warfare Spain are rivals with Portuguese = competitive spirit B/C Portugal already controls the African Coast Spain must look for another route to Asia

43 Map 1.3 The World Known to Europe and Major Trade Routes with Asia, 1492 Goods on
the early routes passed through so many hands along the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans. Map 1.3 p11

44 Gorée Island Slave Fortress From this holding
station off the coast of Senegal, thousands of African captives passed through the “Door of No Return” into a lifetime of slavery in the New World. p13

45 Gorée Island Slave Fortress From this holding
station off the coast of Senegal, thousands of African captives passed through the “Door of No Return” into a lifetime of slavery in the New World. p13

46 VI. Columbus Comes upon a New World
Christopher Columbus persuaded the Spanish to support his expedition on their behalf. On October 12, 1492, he and his crew landed on an island in the Bahamas. A new world was within the vision of Europeans.

47 Christopher Columbus Sailed for Spain in 1492 Many were scared to sail west into the unknown At this time the world was believed to be flat but that idea is fading. Sailed on the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria Landed in Bahamas on October 12, 1492 (six weeks at sea) Almost had to turn around due to mutiny by the crew Why is Columbus considered one of the most successful failures in History?

48 Driving Forces of Exploration
European desire for more/cheaper goods from Mediterranean and beyond Africa is source for cheap slave labor for agriculture (Portuguese) Portuguese proved long-range ocean navigation possible Spain was now a modern nation-state with unity, wealth and power to handle discovery, conquest and colonization. The dawn of the Renaissance nurtured an ambitious spirit of optimism and adventure. The Printing Press (1450) facilitated the spread of scientific knowledge The Mariners compass was invented which made navigation easier. New Technology

49 When Two Worlds Collide
What Happens When You Take Two Different Things (People, Places, Customs, ETC) And Mix Them? Columbian Exchange- The exchange of two ecosystems both good and bad between the New World and Old World. What is good and bad about the sharing of ideas/ways of life from Old World to New World?

50 VI. Columbus Comes upon a New World (cont.)
Columbus called the native peoples “Indians.” Columbus’s discovery convulsed four continents—Europe, Africa, and the two Americas. An independent global economic system emerged. The world after 1492 would never be the same.

51 VII. When Worlds Collide
The clash reverberated in the historic Columbian exchange (see Figure 1.2). While the European explorers marveled at what they saw, they introduced Old World crops and animals to the Americas. Columbus returned in 1493 to the Caribbean island of Hispaniola.

52 Choose one or two items: In which way(s) did these items transform the NEW WORLD and the OLD WORLD?

53 When Two Worlds Collide
New World Old World Tobacco Corn Beans Tomatoes Potatoes Syphilis Perhaps 3/5 of crops cultivated around world today originated in the Americas. Horses Livestock Disease (yellow fever, malaria, etc) Caused as much as 90% of Native peoples to die within centuries of Columbus’ landfall. Sugar cane Led to Sugar Revolution = more slaves.

54 Figure 1.2 The Columbian Exchange
Columbus’s discovery initiated the kind of explosion in international commerce that a later age would call “globalization.” Figure 1.2 p15

55 When Two Worlds Collide
The Columbian Exchange creates a new interdependent global economic system From New World to Old World: „Tobacco, beans, tomatoes, potato transformed European diet and economy ***** Europe provides… Markets (consumers) Technology Finances New World provides… Raw materials Europe saw New World as a source of goods not as something that could survive on its own.

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57 The Spanish Conquistadores
Europeans were thirsty for the prizes of the American continents. Gold/Silver of advanced Indian civilizations (Mexico/Peru) Agricultural Products Land Treaty of Tordesilias (1494)- Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing the “heathen lands” of the New World. Spain got the majority of the land (they went west) Portugal got lands of Africa, Asia and Brazil WHO GOT THE BETTER DEAL? Why? We begin to see a shift in power from Portugal to Spain in exploration.

58 The Spanish Conquistadores
Conquistadores- Explorers for Gold, God and Country Vasco Nunez Balboa- Discovered the Pacific Ocean (1513) Ferdinand Magellan completed the first circumnavigation of the world. Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida in search of gold (not Fountain of Youth). Killed by Indians Francisco Coronado- Found the Pueblo Indians. Found Grand Canyon and Colorado River. Went as far as Kansas Hernano de Soto Took 600 man military force through Florida and marched west in search of gold. Discovered the Mississippi River. Very cruel to Indians.

59 The Spanish Conquistadores
Fransisco Pizarro He conquered the Incan empire in Peru adding a huge amount of silver to the Spanish treasury. By 1600 Spain had so much New World wealth it caused enormous inflation (500%). May have fed the growth of capitalism Spain set up its own testing grounds for invading on the islands of the Caribbean due to increased desire for gold. Encomienda- This allowed the Spanish government to give Indians to colonists in return for a promise to Christianize them. Slavery in all but name. Hernan Cortes- Conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico for Spain. His attacks along with disease killed the Mexican Population (20million to 2 million in less then a century) Attacked Capital (Tenochtitlan) Aztec’s thought he was a god (rode on a horse from west) Cortez did intermarry (mestizes- people of mixed Indian/European heritage) Don juan de Onate Abused Pueblo people along Rio Grande We see the growing harsh treatment of natives by the Spanish (Trend)

60 VII. When Worlds Collide (cont.)
The Introduction of horses changed many Native American societies. A “sugar revolution” took place in the European diet, fueled by the forced migration of millions of Africans to work the canefields and sugar mills of the New World. An exchange of diseases between the explorers and the natives took place.

61 The Scourge of Smallpox These scenes of Aztec Indians
afflicted with smallpox contracted from the Spaniards were drawn by a native artist to illustrate Father Bernardino de Sahagun’s remarkable sixteenth-century treatise, “General History of the Things of New Spain,” a pioneering work of ethnography and anthropology p15

62 Spread of the Spanish Empire
Other European nations began to covet the wealth gained by Spain (English and French) = COMPETITION English: Sent Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) and 1498 he explored the Northeastern coast of North America French: Sent many explorers to North America in search of wealth 1534―Jacques Cartier journeyed up the St. Lawrence River. The Spanish began to build forts to protect against what they saw as growing threats.

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64 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru
Spain secured its claim to Columbus’s discovery in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), which divided the New World with Portugal. See Map 1.4. The West Indies served as offshore bases for staging the Spanish invasion of the mainland.

65 Map 1.4 Principal Voyages of Discovery Spain, Portugal, France, and England reaped the
greatest advantages from the New World, but much of the earliest exploration was done by Italians, notably Christopher Columbus of Genoa. John Cabot, another native of Genoa (his original name was Giovanni Caboto), sailed for England’s King Henry VII. Giovanni da Verrazano was a Florentine employed by France. Map 1.4 p17

66 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.)
The encomienda allowed the government to “commend” Indians to certain colonists in return for promise to try to Christianize them. Spanish missionary Bartolomé de Las Casas called it “a moral pestilence invented by Satan.” In service of God, in search of gold and glory, Spanish conquistadores (conquerors) came to the New World.

67 Conquistadores, ca. 1534 This illustration for a book called the Köhler Codex of
Nuremberg may be the earliest depiction of the conquistadores in the Americas. It portrays men and horses alike as steadfast and self-assured in their work of conquest. p18

68 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.)
In 1519 Hernan Cortés set sail with eleven ships for Mexico and her destiny. Along the way he rescued several people who would be important for his success. Near present-day Veracruz, Cortés made his final landfall. He determined to capture the coffers of the Aztec capital at Tenochtitlán.

69 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.)
Aztec chieftain Moctezuma sent ambassadors to greet Cortés and invite Cortés and his men to the capital city. On June 30, 1520, noche triste (sad night), the Aztecs attacked Cortés. On August 13, 1521, Cortés laid siege to the city and the Aztecs capitulated. The combination of conquest and disease took its toll.

70 Artist’s Rendering of Tenochtitlán Amid tribal strife in the fourteenth century, the Aztecs built a
capital on a small island in a lake in the central Valley of Mexico. From here they oversaw the most powerful empire yet to arise in Mesoamerica. Two main temples stood at the city’s sacred center, one dedicated to Tlaloc, the ancient rain god, and the other to Huitzilopochtli, the tribal god, who was believed to require human hearts for sustenance. p20

71 An Aztec View of the Conquest, 1531 Produced just a dozen years after Cortés’s arrival in 1519, this drawing by an Aztec artist pictures the Indians rendering tribute to their conquerors. The inclusion of the banner showing the Madonna and child also illustrates the early incorporation of Christian beliefs by the Indians. p19

72 Arrival of Cortés, with Dona Marina, at Tenochtitlán in 1519 This painting by a
Mexican artist depicts Cortés in the dress of a Spanish gentleman. His translator Malinche, whose Christian name was Marina, is given an honorable place at the front of the procession. She eventually married one of Cortés’s soldiers, with whom she traveled to Spain and was received by the Spanish court. p22

73 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.)
Invaders brought more than conquest. They intermarried with surviving Indians, creating culture of mestizos, people of mixed Indian and European heritage. Mexico blends Old and New Worlds. 1532: Francisco Pizarro crushed Incas (Peru). Booty and silver may have led to capitalism; certainly transformed the world economy.

74 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry
Other explorers came to the New World: 1513: Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean. 1519: Magellan rounded tip of South America. 1513 and 1521: Ponce de León explored Florida. 1540–1542: Coronado explored Arizona and New Mexico. 1539–1542: Hernando de Soto discovered the Mississippi River.

75 Map 1.5 Principal Early Spanish Explorations and Conquests Note that Coronado traversed northern Texas and Oklahoma. In present-day eastern Kansas, he found, instead of the great golden city he sought, a drab encampment, probably of Wichita Indians. Map 1.5 p21

76 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry (cont.)
The Spanish began to build forts to protect their territories. The Spanish cruelly abused the Pueblo peoples in the Battle of Acoma (1599). They founded the province of New Mexico in 1609 and its capital in 1610 (see Map 1.6). The Roman Catholic mission became the central institution in colonial New Mexico.

77 Map 1.6 Spain’s North American Frontier, 1542–1823
Map 1.6 p22

78 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry (cont.)
The native Indians rose up against the missionaries in Popé’s Rebellion (1680). The Pueblo Revolt was the most successful win for Native Americans over Europeans. In the 1680s the French sent Robert de La Salle down the Mississippi River. In 1716 the Spanish settled in Texas. In 1769 Spanish missionaries led by Father Junipero Serra founded San Diego and 21 mission stations.

79 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry (cont.)
The Black Legend is a false record of the misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World. While there were Spanish misdeeds, the Spanish invaders laid the foundations for a score of Spanish-speaking nations. Spaniards were genuine empire builders and cultural innovators in the New World.

80 French-The Rivals French were looking for gold and a northwest passage
They attempted to settle Newfoundland and Nova Scotia but were unprepared. Samuel Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 In 1673 Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit Priest and Louis Joliet located the Mississippi R. Rene-Robert Cavalier and Sieur de la Salle traveled to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the Mississippi River valley for France. BY 1700 only 19,000 inhabited French Colonies The French sought to create military, commercial and diplomatic connections with the indigenous people. They allowed Indians to retain their own religion although many were converted to Christianity.

81 The Dutch In 1609, Henry Hudson, and englishman employed by the Dutch East India Company sailed into New York Harbor. He was looking for a northeast passage to Asia He traded furs for European goods He planted the seeds for the Dutch and for what would become New York City. The Dutch invented the joint stock company, a method of pooling money together from multiple sources that would share the risk. The Dutch prided themselves on religious freedom. The Dutch colonies were ruled by the military and dominated the way for slavery in New Netherlands.

82 The Dutch Women had legal rights
Women could borrow money and own property Men and women would share property Margaret Hardenbroeck, widowed, expanded her husband’s business and became one of the town’s richest until 1661.

83 The Dutch and Native Relations
The Dutch recognized native sovereignty over land and were against settlement until land had been bought. Although native tribews were required to make payments to colonial authorities Conflict began oon fertile land when Governor Kieft began seizing fertile land from the Algonquian Indians. A three year battle ensued, resulting in 1,000 indian deaths and 200 colonist casualties.

84 p23


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