3 I. The Shaping of North America (cont.) The Canadian Shield—a zone undergirded by rocks―became part of the North American landmass.Other mountain ranges were formed, along with rivers and valleys.After the glaciers retreated, the North American landscape was transformed.
5 II. Peopling the Americas The North American continent's human history was beginning to be formed, perhaps by people crossing over land.Low sea levels exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America where the Bering Sea now lies between Siberia and Alaska.This brought the “immigrant” ancestors of Native America. See Map 1.1.
6 Map 1.1 The First Discoverers of America The origins of the firstAmericans remain something of a mystery.According to the most plausible theoryof how the Americas were populated, forsome twenty-five thousand years peoplecrossed the Bering land bridge fromEurasia to North America. Gradually theydispersed southward down ice-freevalleys, populating both the Americancontinents.Map 1.1 p6
7 Map 1.2 North American Indian Peoples at the Time of First Contact with Europeans Because this map depicts the location of various Indian peoples at the time of their first contact with Europeans, andbecause initial contacts ranged from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, it is necessarily subject toconsiderable chronological skewing and is only a crude approximation of the “original” territory of anygiven group. The map also cannot capture the fluidity and dynamism of Native American life even beforeColumbus’s “discovery.” For example, the Navajo and Apache peoples had migrated from present-daynorthern Canada only shortly before the Spanish first encountered them in the present-day AmericanSouthwest in the 1500s. The map also places the Sioux on the Great Plains, where Europeans met up withthem in the early nineteenth century—but the Sioux had spilled onto the plains not long before then fromthe forests surrounding the Great Lakes. The indigenous populations of the southeastern and mid-Atlanticregions are especially difficult to represent accurately in a map like this because pre-Columbian intertribalconflicts had so scrambled the native inhabitants that it is virtually impossible to determine which groupswere originally where.Map 1.2 p9
8 Chronology 7000 BC Agriculture developed in Mexico and Andes AD Hopi and Zuni Tribes build planned towns1200s Cahokia city empire along the Mississippi1400s Iroquois League established
9 Earliest Americans The Mound Builders were in the Ohio River valley. 1392AD the “mound builders” flourishedThe large community contained a series of giant semicircular mounds on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi R.Commercial and government center with trade routes through the Mississippi R. and Ohio ValleyArcheologists have found copper and flint mined in Indiana
11 III. The Earliest Americans The Mississippian settlement Cahokia rose after the fall of the mound builders in present day St. Louis.The civilization had between 10,000-30,000They also built mounds of which the largest stood 100 ft highA temple was built on the highest moundThe settlement was the largest until New York and Philadelphia in 1800.
12 Cahokia Houses and mounds dot the landscape in an artist’s rendering of ancient Cahokia circa 1150, when its population of twenty thousand exceeded London’s.p10
13 Hopi and ZuniLargest town was Pueblo Bonita in Chaco Canyon, NMHighest building stood 5 stories high and had more than 600 bedroomsOrganized towns, multiple family dwellings, constructed dams and canals to distribute waterTraded with groups in from Central Mexico to the Mississippi R. valleyDownfall-DroughtSurvivors moved south and east where they perfected desert farming and irrigation systems.These people were called the Pueblo Indians by the Spanish because they lived in small communities
15 The Earliest Americans North American TribesPueblo IndiansLived on the side of cliffsPueblo = villageVery intricate irrigation system allowed them to farmContact with Spanish in 16th century
16 The Earliest Americans North American TribesCorn did not reach region until 1000 C.E = no large centralized groups.Three-sisters farming: (beans, squash, corn) beans used corn as trellis while squash covered mounds to retain moisture = higher populations due to sustenance.
17 III. The Earliest Americans (cont.) Three-sister farming—maize, beans, and squash—supported dense populations.The Iroquois Confederacy developed political and organizational skills.The natives had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively.
18 The Earliest Americans North American TribesIn present day New York and Pennsylvania-Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca and Onondaga-formed a Great League of Peace, bringing stability. The met each year to coordinate how to deal with outsiders.Iroquois- (Northeast woodlands, NE area)Iroquois Confederacy- Chief Hiawatha brought six tribes together to form closest North American approximation to the great empires of Mexico/PeruCreated a robust military alliance which protected people from unwelcome neighbors (Natives/Europeans)
19 The Earliest Americans North American TribesSoutheast-Choctaw, Cherokee, Chicksaw united in a loose partnership.Plains Indians (Midwest)Nomadic buffalo huntersBecame good on horseback after Spanish brought horses from Europe.They evolved which allowed them to survive longer than most tribes
20 The Earliest Americans Mexico/South American Native CivilizationsAgricultural (Corn) accounted for the size and sophistication of the civilizationsDeveloped corn around 5,000 B.C.EThey are a centralized people (NOT NOMADIC)Inca = PeruMayan = Central AmericaAztec = Mexico
21 North American TribesEach indigenous group had their own political system and set of religious beliefsThe indigenous peoples of the Americas did not see themselves as one unified groupTheir identity came from their confederacy, tribe and or settlement*When Europeans arrived on the scene tribes sought to use them to enhance their standing against other tribes.
22 ReligionAnimism-The belief sacred spirits could be found in all kinds of living and inanimate things-animals, trees, plants, water, and wind.Ceremonies tied the spiritual power of nature to secure crop yields and ward off evil spirits.Medicine men and shamans held positions of respect and authority.Native people believed in a single CreatorWhat did Europeans think of native religion?
23 Land and PropertyMost of the time plots were assigned to individuals or familyLand was not owned rather there were rights given to use the land.Land was a means to having an economic valueEvery so many years tribes moved to find fertile soilTradeThe exchange of goods was seen as more than an exchange, ceremonies accompanied tradeThere were no hungry among the tribes or beggars
24 Gender Women could choose their husbands, as well as divorce Families were matrilineal, centered around joining the mother’s familyWomen often selected chiefsWomen had property rightsWomen mostly had agricultural and domestic duties while men hunted
25 How did Europeans view Indians? Noble SavageWitch DoctorsIndian men were lazyWomen had too much freedomUnchristian like
26 II. Peopling the Americas (cont.) The Incas in Peru, the Mayans in Central America, and the Aztecs in Mexico shaped complex civilizations:These people built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce.They were talented mathematicians.They offered human sacrifices to their gods.
28 III. The Earliest Americans Agriculture, especially corn growing, became part of Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America.Large irrigation systems were created.Villages of multistoried, terraced buildings began to appear (Pueblo means “village” in Spanish).Map 1.2 –Native American Indian peoples.
29 Corn Culture This statue of a corn goddess from the Moche culture of present-daycoastal Peru, made between 200 and600 b.c.e., vividly illustrates the centralityof corn to Native American peoples athousand years before the rise of thegreat Incan and Aztec empires that theEuropeans later encountered.p8
30 Map 1.2 North American Indian Peoples at the Time of First Contact with Europeans Because this map depicts the location of various Indian peoples at the time of their first contact with Europeans, andbecause initial contacts ranged from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, it is necessarily subject toconsiderable chronological skewing and is only a crude approximation of the “original” territory of anygiven group. The map also cannot capture the fluidity and dynamism of Native American life even beforeColumbus’s “discovery.” For example, the Navajo and Apache peoples had migrated from present-daynorthern Canada only shortly before the Spanish first encountered them in the present-day AmericanSouthwest in the 1500s. The map also places the Sioux on the Great Plains, where Europeans met up withthem in the early nineteenth century—but the Sioux had spilled onto the plains not long before then fromthe forests surrounding the Great Lakes. The indigenous populations of the southeastern and mid-Atlanticregions are especially difficult to represent accurately in a map like this because pre-Columbian intertribalconflicts had so scrambled the native inhabitants that it is virtually impossible to determine which groupswere originally where.Map 1.2 p9
32 IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World Norse seafarers from Scandinavia came to the northeastern shore of North America, near present-day Newfoundland, to a spot they called Vinland.Ambitious Europeans started a chain of events that led to a drive toward Asia, the penetration of Africa, and the completely accidental discovery of the New World.
35 Zheng He Expeditions 7 Expeditions in the Indian Ocean 62 ships larger than any European nation25,000 menExplored East AfricaPurpose was to impress other nations with China’s might1433 China no longer supported the expensePortugal extended trade and travel using new technology
36 Indirect Discovery of New World 1. Norse explorers from Scandinavia (Vikings)Around 1000 CE Norse seafarers from Scandinavia came to the northeastern shore of North America, near present-day Newfoundland, to a spot they called Vinland.Ambitious Europeans started a chain of events that led to a drive toward Asia, the penetration of Africa, and the completely accidental discovery of the New World.2. CrusadesPurpose: take back the Holy Land from Muslim ruleCultivated a taste for fine goods (Crusaders)Brought back desire for wealth to EuropeB/C of expense it led to search for less expensive route to Asia or another source for goods.
37 IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World (cont.) 3. Marco Polo20yr voyage to China (Prob never got there)His book intensified European desire for cheaper routeMarco Polo’s tales also stimulated European desire for a cheaper route to the treasures of the East..They founded the modern plantation system.They pushed further southward.The Christian crusaders rank high among America’s indirect discoverers.The crusaders aroused desire for the luxuries of the East from the Spice Islands (Indonesia), China, and India; Muslim middlemen exacted a heavy toll en route.See Map 1.3—Major Trade Routes with Asia, 1492.
38 Marco Polo Passing Through the Strait of Hormuz This illustration, from the first printed edition of The Travels of Marco Polo in 1477, shows the traveler crossingthe Persian Gulf between the Arabian Peninsula and Persia (present-day Iran).p12
39 V. Europeans Enter Africa (cont.) Spain was united by the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, and by the expulsion of the “infidel” Muslim Moors.The Spanish were ready to explore the wealth of India.Portugal controlled the southern and eastern African coast, thus forcing Spain to look westward.
40 Indirect Discovery of New World (Cont’d) 3. TechnologyNew ship design (Caravel). Allowed ships to sail more directly into wind.Mariners compass was inventedAlso found new current in 1450 which allowed sailors to return to Europe by sailing Northwesterly from Africa. New doors for exploration.4. PortuguesePrince Henry the Navigator- created school for explorers = encouraged by the governmentSet up trading posts in Africa (coast) for gold and slavesBartholomeu Dias1488 rounded the southern tip of Africa = New way to AsiaVasco da Gama1498 reached India by sailing south around AfricaFueled desires by returning with small cargo of jewels
41 Portuguese In 1434, the Portuguese sailed below the Sahara into Mali The Portuguese established fortified trading posts on the western coast of AfricaThey began to conquer Maderia, Azores and the Canary Islands off the west coast of AfricaThe Portuguese established sugar plantations on the islands and used African slaves replacing the native populations.This was a precedent for what would happen in the New World
42 Indirect Discovery of New World (Cont’d) SpainSpain is unified under Ferdinand and Isabella and the expulsion of Muslim Moors out of Spain after centuries of warfareSpain are rivals with Portuguese = competitive spiritB/C Portugal already controls the African Coast Spain must look for another route to Asia
43 Map 1.3 The World Known to Europe and Major Trade Routes with Asia, 1492 Goods on the early routes passed through so many hands along the way that their ultimate source remainedmysterious to Europeans.Map 1.3 p11
44 Gorée Island Slave Fortress From this holding station off the coast of Senegal, thousands ofAfrican captives passed through the “Door of NoReturn” into a lifetime of slavery in the New World.p13
45 Gorée Island Slave Fortress From this holding station off the coast of Senegal, thousands ofAfrican captives passed through the “Door of NoReturn” into a lifetime of slavery in the New World.p13
46 VI. Columbus Comes upon a New World Christopher Columbus persuaded the Spanish to support his expedition on their behalf.On October 12, 1492, he and his crew landed on an island in the Bahamas.A new world was within the vision of Europeans.
47 Christopher ColumbusSailed for Spain in 1492Many were scared to sail west into the unknownAt this time the world was believed to be flat but that idea is fading.Sailed on the Nina, Pinta and Santa MariaLanded in Bahamas on October 12, 1492 (six weeks at sea)Almost had to turn around due to mutiny by the crewWhy is Columbus considered one of the most successful failures in History?
48 Driving Forces of Exploration European desire for more/cheaper goods from Mediterranean and beyondAfrica is source for cheap slave labor for agriculture (Portuguese)Portuguese proved long-range ocean navigation possibleSpain was now a modern nation-state with unity, wealth and power to handle discovery, conquest and colonization.The dawn of the Renaissance nurtured an ambitious spirit of optimism and adventure.The Printing Press (1450) facilitated the spread of scientific knowledgeThe Mariners compass was invented which made navigation easier. New Technology
49 When Two Worlds Collide What Happens When You Take Two Different Things (People, Places, Customs, ETC) And Mix Them?Columbian Exchange- The exchange of two ecosystems both good and bad between the New World and Old World.What is good and bad about the sharing of ideas/ways of life from Old World to New World?
50 VI. Columbus Comes upon a New World (cont.) Columbus called the native peoples “Indians.”Columbus’s discovery convulsed four continents—Europe, Africa, and the two Americas.An independent global economic system emerged.The world after 1492 would never be the same.
51 VII. When Worlds Collide The clash reverberated in the historic Columbian exchange (see Figure 1.2).While the European explorers marveled at what they saw, they introduced Old World crops and animals to the Americas.Columbus returned in 1493 to the Caribbean island of Hispaniola.
52 Choose one or two items: In which way(s) did these items transform the NEW WORLD and the OLD WORLD?
53 When Two Worlds Collide New WorldOld WorldTobaccoCornBeansTomatoesPotatoesSyphilisPerhaps 3/5 of crops cultivated around world today originated in the Americas.HorsesLivestockDisease (yellow fever, malaria, etc)Caused as much as 90% of Native peoples to die within centuries of Columbus’ landfall.Sugar caneLed to Sugar Revolution = more slaves.
54 Figure 1.2 The Columbian Exchange Columbus’s discovery initiated the kind of explosion in international commerce that a later agewould call “globalization.”Figure 1.2 p15
55 When Two Worlds Collide The Columbian Exchange creates a new interdependent global economic systemFrom New World to Old World: Tobacco, beans, tomatoes, potato transformed European diet and economy *****Europe provides…Markets (consumers)TechnologyFinancesNew World provides…Raw materialsEurope saw New World as a source of goods not as something that could survive on its own.
57 The Spanish Conquistadores Europeans were thirsty for the prizes of the American continents.Gold/Silver of advanced Indian civilizations (Mexico/Peru)Agricultural ProductsLandTreaty of Tordesilias (1494)- Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing the “heathen lands” of the New World.Spain got the majority of the land (they went west)Portugal got lands of Africa, Asia and BrazilWHO GOT THE BETTER DEAL? Why?We begin to see a shift in power from Portugal to Spain in exploration.
58 The Spanish Conquistadores Conquistadores- Explorers for Gold, God and CountryVasco Nunez Balboa- Discovered the Pacific Ocean (1513)Ferdinand Magellan completed the first circumnavigation of the world.Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida in search of gold (not Fountain of Youth). Killed by IndiansFrancisco Coronado- Found the Pueblo Indians. Found Grand Canyon and Colorado River. Went as far as KansasHernano de Soto Took 600 man military force through Florida and marched west in search of gold. Discovered the Mississippi River. Very cruel to Indians.
59 The Spanish Conquistadores Fransisco Pizarro He conquered the Incan empire in Peru adding a huge amount of silver to the Spanish treasury.By 1600 Spain had so much New World wealth it caused enormous inflation (500%). May have fed the growth of capitalismSpain set up its own testing grounds for invading on the islands of the Caribbean due to increased desire for gold.Encomienda- This allowed the Spanish government to give Indians to colonists in return for a promise to Christianize them. Slavery in all but name.Hernan Cortes- Conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico for Spain.His attacks along with disease killed the Mexican Population (20million to 2 million in less then a century)Attacked Capital (Tenochtitlan)Aztec’s thought he was a god (rode on a horse from west)Cortez did intermarry (mestizes- people of mixed Indian/European heritage)Don juan de Onate Abused Pueblo people along Rio GrandeWe see the growing harsh treatment of natives by the Spanish (Trend)
60 VII. When Worlds Collide (cont.) The Introduction of horses changed many Native American societies.A “sugar revolution” took place in the European diet, fueled by the forced migration of millions of Africans to work the canefields and sugar mills of the New World.An exchange of diseases between the explorers and the natives took place.
61 The Scourge of Smallpox These scenes of Aztec Indians afflicted with smallpox contracted from the Spaniardswere drawn by a native artist to illustrate Father Bernardinode Sahagun’s remarkable sixteenth-century treatise,“General History of the Things of New Spain,” a pioneeringwork of ethnography and anthropologyp15
62 Spread of the Spanish Empire Other European nations began to covet the wealth gained by Spain (English and French) = COMPETITIONEnglish:Sent Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) and 1498 he explored the Northeastern coast of North AmericaFrench:Sent many explorers to North America in search of wealth1534―Jacques Cartier journeyed up the St. Lawrence River.The Spanish began to build forts to protect against what they saw as growing threats.
64 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru Spain secured its claim to Columbus’s discovery in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), which divided the New World with Portugal.See Map 1.4.The West Indies served as offshore bases for staging the Spanish invasion of the mainland.
65 Map 1.4 Principal Voyages of Discovery Spain, Portugal, France, and England reaped the greatest advantages from the New World, but much of the earliest exploration was done by Italians,notably Christopher Columbus of Genoa. John Cabot, another native of Genoa (his original namewas Giovanni Caboto), sailed for England’s King Henry VII. Giovanni da Verrazano was a Florentineemployed by France.Map 1.4 p17
66 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.) The encomienda allowed the government to “commend” Indians to certain colonists in return for promise to try to Christianize them.Spanish missionary Bartolomé de Las Casas called it “a moral pestilence invented by Satan.”In service of God, in search of gold and glory, Spanish conquistadores (conquerors) came to the New World.
67 Conquistadores, ca. 1534 This illustration for a book called the Köhler Codex of Nuremberg may be the earliest depiction of the conquistadores in the Americas. It portraysmen and horses alike as steadfast and self-assured in their work of conquest.p18
68 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.) In 1519 Hernan Cortés set sail with eleven ships for Mexico and her destiny.Along the way he rescued several people who would be important for his success.Near present-day Veracruz, Cortés made his final landfall.He determined to capture the coffers of the Aztec capital at Tenochtitlán.
69 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.) Aztec chieftain Moctezuma sent ambassadors to greet Cortés and invite Cortés and his men to the capital city.On June 30, 1520, noche triste (sad night), the Aztecs attacked Cortés.On August 13, 1521, Cortés laid siege to the city and the Aztecs capitulated. The combination of conquest and disease took its toll.
70 Artist’s Rendering of Tenochtitlán Amid tribal strife in the fourteenth century, the Aztecs built a capital on a small island in a lake in the central Valley of Mexico. From here they oversaw the mostpowerful empire yet to arise in Mesoamerica. Two main temples stood at the city’s sacred center, onededicated to Tlaloc, the ancient rain god, and the other to Huitzilopochtli, the tribal god, who wasbelieved to require human hearts for sustenance.p20
71 An Aztec View of theConquest, 1531 Producedjust a dozen years after Cortés’sarrival in 1519, this drawing byan Aztec artist pictures the Indiansrendering tribute to theirconquerors. The inclusion ofthe banner showing theMadonna and child also illustratesthe early incorporation ofChristian beliefs by the Indians.p19
72 Arrival of Cortés, with Dona Marina, at Tenochtitlán in 1519 This painting by a Mexican artist depicts Cortés in the dress of a Spanish gentleman. His translatorMalinche, whose Christian name was Marina, is given an honorable place at the frontof the procession. She eventually married one of Cortés’s soldiers, with whom shetraveled to Spain and was received by the Spanish court.p22
73 VIII. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (cont.) Invaders brought more than conquest.They intermarried with surviving Indians, creating culture of mestizos, people of mixed Indian and European heritage.Mexico blends Old and New Worlds.1532: Francisco Pizarro crushed Incas (Peru).Booty and silver may have led to capitalism; certainly transformed the world economy.
74 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry Other explorers came to the New World:1513: Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.1519: Magellan rounded tip of South America.1513 and 1521: Ponce de León explored Florida.1540–1542: Coronado explored Arizona and New Mexico.1539–1542: Hernando de Soto discovered the Mississippi River.
75 Map 1.5 Principal EarlySpanish Explorations andConquests Note thatCoronado traversed northernTexas and Oklahoma. Inpresent-day eastern Kansas,he found, instead of the greatgolden city he sought, a drabencampment, probably ofWichita Indians.Map 1.5 p21
76 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry (cont.) The Spanish began to build forts to protect their territories.The Spanish cruelly abused the Pueblo peoples in the Battle of Acoma (1599).They founded the province of New Mexico in 1609 and its capital in 1610 (see Map 1.6).The Roman Catholic mission became the central institution in colonial New Mexico.
77 Map 1.6 Spain’s North American Frontier, 1542–1823 Map 1.6 p22
78 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry (cont.) The native Indians rose up against the missionaries in Popé’s Rebellion (1680).The Pueblo Revolt was the most successful win for Native Americans over Europeans.In the 1680s the French sent Robert de La Salle down the Mississippi River.In 1716 the Spanish settled in Texas.In 1769 Spanish missionaries led by Father Junipero Serra founded San Diego and 21 mission stations.
79 IX. Exploration and Imperial Rivalry (cont.) The Black Legend is a false record of the misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World.While there were Spanish misdeeds, the Spanish invaders laid the foundations for a score of Spanish-speaking nations.Spaniards were genuine empire builders and cultural innovators in the New World.
80 French-The Rivals French were looking for gold and a northwest passage They attempted to settle Newfoundland and Nova Scotia but were unprepared.Samuel Champlain founded Quebec in 1608In 1673 Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit Priest and Louis Joliet located the Mississippi R.Rene-Robert Cavalier and Sieur de la Salle traveled to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the Mississippi River valley for France.BY 1700 only 19,000 inhabited French ColoniesThe French sought to create military, commercial and diplomatic connections with the indigenous people.They allowed Indians to retain their own religion although many were converted to Christianity.
81 The DutchIn 1609, Henry Hudson, and englishman employed by the Dutch East India Company sailed into New York Harbor.He was looking for a northeast passage to AsiaHe traded furs for European goodsHe planted the seeds for the Dutch and for what would become New York City.The Dutch invented the joint stock company, a method of pooling money together from multiple sources that would share the risk.The Dutch prided themselves on religious freedom.The Dutch colonies were ruled by the military and dominated the way for slavery in New Netherlands.
82 The Dutch Women had legal rights Women could borrow money and own propertyMen and women would share propertyMargaret Hardenbroeck, widowed, expanded her husband’s business and became one of the town’s richest until 1661.
83 The Dutch and Native Relations The Dutch recognized native sovereignty over land and were against settlement until land had been bought.Although native tribews were required to make payments to colonial authoritiesConflict began oon fertile land when Governor Kieft began seizing fertile land from the Algonquian Indians.A three year battle ensued, resulting in 1,000 indian deaths and 200 colonist casualties.