2 ActivatorWhat are some major reasons why war starts?
3 The Crusades “Cities and Thrones and Powers Strand in time’s eye, Almost as long as flowers,Which daily die;Just as new buds put forthTo glad new men,Out of the spent and unconsidered EarthThe Cities rise again.”Kipling
4 The Crusades Definition: A series of military expeditions carried out by European Christians against the Muslims from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries
5 The Crusades Cause: death of the Seljuk leader Malik Shah Turks broke into smaller groups and were closing in on the Byzantine Empirethe Eastern Orthodox Christians asked for help from the Roman Catholic around A.D. 1093
6 The CrusadesCause:began when Pope Urban II agreed to help Byzantine Emperor Alexius I and issued a call for a “holy war”Pope wanted to provide leadership for a great causeurged Christians to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Land (Palestine) from the MuslimsSeveral crusades were launched over a period of about 300 years
8 Goals of the CrusadesReclaim Palestine for the Christians (places where Jesus and the Apostles lived)Get rid of troublesome knightsOpportunity for land, wealth, and a new position in societyAdventureNew trade routes
10 First CrusadeCause: expansion of Ottoman’s, Pope Urban II call to all Christians, answered by three armies of knights that gathered at ConstantinopleResult: Crusaders will capture a strip of land extending from Edessa in the north to Jerusalem in the south in 1099 and established 4 feudal crusader states ruled by European nobles
12 Second CrusadeCause: Muslims counterattack in 1144 wins back Edessa (movie: Kingdom of Heaven). The loss of Edessa spurred a new battle to win it back from Muslim control.Result: Saladin, Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader will fight off Crusader force and recapture Jerusalem by 1187
14 Third Crusade Results: Phillip goes home after argument over leadership with RichardFrederick drownedRichard led attempt against Saladintruce signed after many battlesJerusalem would stay under Muslim rulegranted Western pilgrims access to Christian holy placesThird CrusadeCauses:loss of JerusalemChurch extend leadership to European MonarchsPhillip II of France, Frederick I of Prussia and Richard the Lion Heart of England
15 The WarsCauses: Pope not content with 3rd Crusade and still intended to retake JerusalemResults: a complete failure; Crusaders never made it to fight, knights looted Constantinople instead4th Crusade:
16 Subsequent CrusadesChildren’s Crusade: no one knows what happened to the peasant children once they got off the boatCrusades five through nine: no change of result as compared to the first three crusadesReconquista: Spanish and Portuguese recapture of the Iberian Peninsula against the Muslims (Moors) in the thirteenth to fifteenth century
17 Impact of the Crusades Islamic World: slowed the advance of Islam prevented the formation of a unified Islamic powerByzantine Empire fell to the turksCommercial trading shifted from Muslims to Italians in the Mediterranean
18 Impact of the Crusades Europe: advancements for women, while men were off fightingExpanded trade for Europea gradual shift to the Atlantic, and Spain and Portugal seeking new trade routes and opening the world up to additional explorationWeakened the power of the ChurchStrengthened the power of Kings in Europe
19 Bitterness between Christians and Muslims to this day
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