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The Crusades September 27th.

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Presentation on theme: "The Crusades September 27th."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Crusades September 27th

2 Activator What are some major reasons why war starts?

3 The Crusades “Cities and Thrones and Powers Strand in time’s eye,
Almost as long as flowers, Which daily die; Just as new buds put forth To glad new men, Out of the spent and unconsidered Earth The Cities rise again.” Kipling

4 The Crusades Definition:
A series of military expeditions carried out by European Christians against the Muslims from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries

5 The Crusades Cause: death of the Seljuk leader Malik Shah
Turks broke into smaller groups and were closing in on the Byzantine Empire the Eastern Orthodox Christians asked for help from the Roman Catholic around A.D. 1093

6 The Crusades Cause: began when Pope Urban II agreed to help Byzantine Emperor Alexius I and issued a call for a “holy war” Pope wanted to provide leadership for a great cause urged Christians to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Land (Palestine) from the Muslims Several crusades were launched over a period of about 300 years

7 Pope Urban II

8 Goals of the Crusades Reclaim Palestine for the Christians (places where Jesus and the Apostles lived) Get rid of troublesome knights Opportunity for land, wealth, and a new position in society Adventure New trade routes

9 The Wars First Crusade

10 First Crusade Cause: expansion of Ottoman’s, Pope Urban II call to all Christians, answered by three armies of knights that gathered at Constantinople Result: Crusaders will capture a strip of land extending from Edessa in the north to Jerusalem in the south in 1099 and established 4 feudal crusader states ruled by European nobles

11 The Wars Second Crusade

12 Second Crusade Cause: Muslims counterattack in 1144 wins back Edessa (movie: Kingdom of Heaven). The loss of Edessa spurred a new battle to win it back from Muslim control. Result: Saladin, Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader will fight off Crusader force and recapture Jerusalem by 1187

13 The Wars Third Crusade

14 Third Crusade Results:
Phillip goes home after argument over leadership with Richard Frederick drowned Richard led attempt against Saladin truce signed after many battles Jerusalem would stay under Muslim rule granted Western pilgrims access to Christian holy places Third Crusade Causes: loss of Jerusalem Church extend leadership to European Monarchs Phillip II of France, Frederick I of Prussia and Richard the Lion Heart of England

15 The Wars Causes: Pope not content with 3rd Crusade and still intended to retake Jerusalem Results: a complete failure; Crusaders never made it to fight, knights looted Constantinople instead 4th Crusade:

16 Subsequent Crusades Children’s Crusade: no one knows what happened to the peasant children once they got off the boat Crusades five through nine: no change of result as compared to the first three crusades Reconquista: Spanish and Portuguese recapture of the Iberian Peninsula against the Muslims (Moors) in the thirteenth to fifteenth century

17 Impact of the Crusades Islamic World: slowed the advance of Islam
prevented the formation of a unified Islamic power Byzantine Empire fell to the turks Commercial trading shifted from Muslims to Italians in the Mediterranean

18 Impact of the Crusades Europe:
advancements for women, while men were off fighting Expanded trade for Europe a gradual shift to the Atlantic, and Spain and Portugal seeking new trade routes and opening the world up to additional exploration Weakened the power of the Church Strengthened the power of Kings in Europe

19 Bitterness between Christians and Muslims to this day

20 Video

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