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Www.atilf.fr James Bond is back: how secret agents from the Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) are promoting a paradigm shift in Romance etymology.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.atilf.fr James Bond is back: how secret agents from the Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) are promoting a paradigm shift in Romance etymology."— Presentation transcript:

1 www.atilf.fr James Bond is back: how secret agents from the Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) are promoting a paradigm shift in Romance etymology The Philological Society, 13 January 2012 Éva Buchi

2 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 2 Overview 1. Introduction 2. DÉRoms agents licence to reconstruct 3. Battle for the defense of a glorious tradition 4. Example: rŏtŭndus, 2. rĕtŭndus (REW 3 ) vs. */ro't ʊ nd-u/ (DÉRom) 5. Conclusion

3 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 3 DÉRoms MI6? Scientifically established at - ATILF (CNRS & University of Lorraine), Nancy - Saarland University, Saarbrücken Funded mostly by - ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche) - DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) 2008-2010 (300.000 ) and 2012-2014 (360.000 )

4 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 4 Moneypenny? Pascale Baudinot ATILF In charge of the bibliography (970 titles) Simone Traber Saarland University Moneypennies!

5 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 5 M? Bernard Lee and Judy Dench Wolfgang Schweickard Saarland University Éva Buchi ATILF

6 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 6 If it hadnt been for Q Branch, the DÉRom would have been dead long ago! Q? Gilles Souvay ATILF Computer scientist

7 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 7 Secret agents: 001? Xosé Afonso Álvarez Pérez Postdoctoral fellow University of Lisbon */'arbor-e/ fem.n. tree; shaft; spar

8 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 8 002? Giorgio Cadorini Lecturer University of Opava */'lun-a/ fem.n. moon Colloqui retoromanistic (Lavin [Graubünden], August 2011)

9 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 9 003? Ana María Cano González Professor University of Oviedo */ka'βall-u/ masc.n. horse La filología románica hoy (Madrid, November 2011, with Éva Buchi and Maria Reina Bastardas i Rufat)

10 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 10 004? Victor Celac Junior researcher Romanian Academy */'β ɪ ndik-a-/ trans.vb. save; avenge With Jean-Paul Chauveau

11 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 11 005 Jérémie Delorme Postdoctoral fellow FNRS/University of Liège */βi'n-aki-a/ fem.n. grape marc

12 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 12 006 Marco Maggiore PhD student Sapienza University of Rome Disciple of Rosario Coluccia (Lecce) */'kresk-e/ tr./intr. vb. sprout; grow

13 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 13 007? Sorry, but 007s identity is top secret ?

14 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 14 008? Jan Reinhardt Postdoctoral fellow ATILF Disciple of Wolfgang Schweickard */la'brusk a/ ~ */la'br ʊ sk a/ fem.n. wild grape; fruit of wild grape With Pascale Baudinot, Wolfgang Dahmen, Maria Iliescu and Johannes Kramer

15 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 15 009? Agata Šega Lecturer University of Ljubljana */'mur-u/ masc.n. wall Ceremony in honour of Mitja Skubic (Ljubljana, December 2010)

16 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 16 There is no equivalent to Felix Leiter in the DÉRom project, which is strictly European Felix Leiter? Unfortunately, the project wasnt (yet) able to attract scholars from the United Kingdom Although three young researchers working at the Anglo- Norman Dictionary (AND), Larissa Birrer, Jennifer Gabel and Heather Pagan, attended DÉRoms Summer school from 2010

17 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 17 Membership upward trend Funding cocktail 25 th Congrès international de linguistique et de philologie romanes (Innsbruck, September 2007) The project attracts more and more scholars (currently: 58 members from 12 European countries) Due in part to DÉRoms Summer school (Nancy, July 2010): 41 participants from 13 countries

18 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 18 DÉRoms Summer school (2010) 1. Attending lectures 2. Information retrieval 3. Compiling of DÉRom entries Marc-Olivier Hinzelin (lecturer University of Hamburg; postdoctorate with Martin Maiden)

19 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 19 Overview 1. Introduction 2. DÉRoms agents licence to reconstruct 3. Battle for the defense of a glorious tradition 4. Example: rŏtŭndus, 2. rĕtŭndus (REW 3 ) vs. */ro't ʊ nd-u/ (DÉRom) 5. Conclusion

20 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 20 How do DÉRoms agents carry out their mission? They are licensed to reconstruct No Walther PP involved in their mission Why is that unusual?

21 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 21 The Romanists splendid isolation Leading paradigm in etymology of inherited lexicon all over the world: comparative reconstruction, a classical bottom-up approach, where the common ancestor of a language family is reconstructed from current languages (Indo European, Germanic, Slavic, Semitic, Austronesian…) Romanists discard generally the comparative method as unnecessary in the face of written testimony of classical Latin, from Plautus via Caesar to Tacitus. Instead, they apply a top-down method, which stresses the disintegration of high Latin into low Romance languages. So, since its beginning in the 19 th century, Romance etymology and etymography always promoted classical Latin etyma

22 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 22 Romanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (REW 3 1935) Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1861–1936) DÉRoms illustrious ancestor One of the most outstanding Romanists Etyma of inherited lexicon < Latin dictionaries < Latin texts

23 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 23 DÉRoms claim Hence DÉRoms objective: recreating Romance etymology on the basis of comparative grammar Romance languages are normal languages Their study has to be carried out relying on normal procedures (which may be completed by Romance specific ones) No bypassing of the normal ones!

24 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 24 No Aston Martin, but... A web site: http://www.atilf.fr/DERomhttp://www.atilf.fr/DERom A ressource book: Livre bleu (please contact pascale.baudinot@atilf.fr for a copy)pascale.baudinot@atilf.fr

25 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 25 Overview 1. Introduction 2. DÉRoms agents licence to reconstruct 3. Battle for the defense of a glorious tradition 4. Example: rŏtŭndus, 2. rĕtŭndus (REW 3 ) vs. */ro't ʊ nd-u/ (DÉRom) 5. Conclusion

26 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 26 DÉRom in the middle of a methodological debate Criticism from leading scholars in Romance linguistics In particular Alberto Vàrvaro (former president and honourary member of the Société de linguistique romane): 2 papers Revue de linguistique romane 2011 Vàrvaro 2011a; 2011b; Buchi & Schweickard 2011a; 2011b Fights a totally selfless battle for the defense of a glorious tradition (Vàrvaro 2011b: 626: Ma la mia è una battaglia del tutto disinteressata per la difesa di una tradizione gloriosa)

27 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 27 Vàrvaro 2011b: 625 [1.2.] At this point I go back to the pages Büchi and Schweickard kindly dedicated to me and I realize that those do not broach at all the essential point of my short article: the advisability, indeed the absolute necessity of distinguishing between the etymologi- cal methodology applied to a fully historical linguistic stage and that to be applied, for lack of something better, to prehistoric stages. I never said comparative reconstruction […] should not be used where we lack direct information, in short for prehistory. But Romance etymology concerns a fully historical stage and benefits from ample documentation. Moreover, it is the only one to be in this favourable position and to be able to provide sophisticated models to the other etymologies. Thus it seems to me absurd that Romance etymology should adopt methods imposed by the lack of documentation for prehistoric stages.

28 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 28 Kramer 2011: 779 [2.2.] The new Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman, which Éva Buchi in Nancy and Wolfgang Schweickard in Saarbrücken compile with their teams […], deals only with the pan-Romance lexicon of a little less than 500 units. It is based on Proto-Romance etyma (i.e. words reconstructed from Romance on the basis of the historical-comparative method), which only incidentally have someting to do with what we traditionnally mean by an etymon, namely a word pertaining to the Latin language continuum which ideally is documented in written form. Once Proto-Romance reconstruction is carefully established, a comparison between those etyma and philologically established data for classical Latin becomes possible (Buchi/Schweickard 2008, 353). But by doing so, we dismiss as second-rate the etymon in the true sense, i. e. the element which really existed in one of Latins manifestations, presented a real semantic spectrum and a real integration in the real-linguistic environment and work within Romance linguistics only with bloodless reconstructed etyma. As for highlighting the different manifestations of the Latin ancestors of Romance words within their actual linguistic context, one cannot expect much from the new DÉRom, for in this respect it is stuck in an irreal theoretical structure.

29 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 29 Overview 1. Introduction 2. DÉRoms agents licence to reconstruct 3. Battle for the defense of a glorious tradition 4. Example: rŏtŭndus, 2. rĕtŭndus (REW 3 ) vs. */ro't ʊ nd-u/ (DÉRom) 5. Conclusion

30 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 30 Justifying the comparative method So, what is the use, in our case, of the comparative-reconstructive method? Shouldnt one give some explicit examples of its usefulness […]? (Vàrvaro 2011b: 625: Insomma, a che serve, nel nostro caso, la méthode comparative-reconstruction? Non sarebbe il caso di darcene qualche esempio esplicito […]?)

31 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 31 Meyer-Lübkes REW 3 (1935) [3.] Headword classical Latin (as found in Latin dictionaries) Subentry fiddled with classical Latin (vowel system based on quantity, not timbre) Does not account for Romanian rătund nor for its cognates Exceptionally, similar to comparative method, but not comparative method in the technical sense

32 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 32 Corresponding DÉRom entry [4.] Compiled by Maria Hegner PhD student Saarland University Participant of DÉRoms summer school */ro't ʊ nd-u/ adj. round With decisive contributions from eight internal revisors, in particular from Jean-Pierre Chambon

33 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 33 Presents a nuanced picture REW: one etymon: rĕtŭndus DÉRom: four etyma: I.1. */ro't ʊ nd-u/ I.2. */to'r ʊ nd-u/ (metathesis) II. */'t ʊ nd-u/ (apheresis) III. */re't ʊ nd-u/ (dissimilation) I.1. */ro't ʊ nd-u/: Sardinian; northern Italian, Ladin, Romansh, French, Francoprovençal I.2. */to'r ʊ nd-u/: northern Italian, Friulian, Ladin II. */'t ʊ nd-u/: Sardinian; central and southern Italian III. */re't ʊ nd-u/: almost general (including Romanian), but without Sardinian

34 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 34 Ontogeny and stratification I.1. */ro't ʊ nd-u/: Sardinian; northern Italian, Ladin, Romansh, French, Francoprovençal I.2. */to'r ʊ nd-u/: northern Italian, Friulian, Ladin II. */'t ʊ nd-u/: Sardinian; central and southern Italian III. */re't ʊ nd-u/: almost general (including Romanian), but without Sardinian Proto-Romance Sardinian Continental Romance RomanianItalo-Western Romance I.1.II. III.I.2. Before voicing of intervocalic voiceless plosives (definitional of Italo-Western Romance)

35 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 35 Correlates in written Latin of the Antiquity? I.1. */ro't ʊ nd-u/: Sardinian; northern Italian, Ladin, Romansh, French, Francoprovençal I.2. */to'r ʊ nd-u/: northern Italian, Friulian, Ladin II. */'t ʊ nd-u/: Sardinian; central and southern Italian III. */re't ʊ nd-u/: almost general (including Romanian), but without Sardinian I.1. */ro't ʊ nd-u/: documented since Varro I.2. */to'r ʊ nd-u/: not documented II. */'t ʊ nd-u/: not documented III. */re't ʊ nd-u/: documented only in the 7 th century (when Latin had ceased to be a mother tongue influenced from Romance)

36 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 36 Model of diglossia/variation linguistics Within the Latin diasystem: - I.2. (*/to'r ʊ nd-u/), II. (*/'t ʊ nd-u/) and III. (*/re't ʊ nd-u/) = distinctive (oral) features of L (low variety) without access to H (high variety) H uniformity / L diversity - I.2. and II. (and I.1. by archaism) = regionalisms With all due respect to the glorious tradition of Romance etymology, at least in this case, comparative reconstruction yields more interesting results What is more bloodless: rĕtŭndus (REW 3 ) or this reconstruction of a complex micro-diasystem of words for round? Living, bloodfilled languages present internal variation!

37 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 37 Overview 1. Introduction 2. DÉRoms agents licence to reconstruct 3. Battle for the defense of a glorious tradition 4. Example: rŏtŭndus, 2. rĕtŭndus (REW 3 ) vs. */ro't ʊ nd-u/ (DÉRom) 5. Conclusion

38 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 38 To conclude Underlying idea: the comparative method is better suited to Romance etymology than the Latin-centered and grapho-centered method practiced traditionally DÉRom contributes to the debate surrounding the vitality and future of historical Romance linguistics and its need to forge stronger links with general linguistics (Dworkin 2005: 125)

39 Analyse et Traitement Informatique de la Langue Française 39 Why is this methodological debate so important? 64 auxiliary arts: 1. Singing 2. Music 3. Dance 4. Painting […] Kama Sutra 54. Etymology 55. Lexicography Etymology has a social impact


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