THE CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATE The United States Constitution, Amendment I, states: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. United States Constitution, Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8, states: The Congress shall have Power... To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.
THE GOVERNING STATUTES The Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. section 106 provides: Subject to sections 107 through 120, the owner of copyright under his title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (1) to reproduce the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords; (2) to prepare derivative works based on the copyrighted work.
THE GOVERNING STATUTES The Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. section 107 provides: Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use of the factors to be considered shall include: (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
THE GOVERNING STATUTES The Lanham Act, section 43(a)(1), 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a)(1) provides: (a)(1)Any person who, on or in connection with any goods or services, or any container for goods, uses in commerce any word, term, name, symbol, or device, or any combination thereof, or any false designation of origin, false or misleading description of fact, or false or misleading representation of fact, which – (A)is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive as to the affiliation, connection, or association of such person with another person, or as to the origin, sponsorship or approval of his or her goods, services, or commercial activities by another person.
THE GOVERNING STATUTES The Lanham Act, section 43(c)(4), 15 U.S.C. § 1125(c)(4) (emphasis added) provides: (c) Remedies for dilution of famous marks…. (4) The following shall not be actionable under this section: (A) Fair use of a famous mark by another person in comparative commercial advertising or promotion to identify the competing goods or services of the owner of the famous mark. (B) Noncommercial use of a mark. (C) All forms of news reporting and news commentary.
THE GOVERNING STATUTES 141 Cong. Rec. S19310 (daily ed. Dec. 29, 1995) (excerpt from legislative history of The Lanham Act, section 43(c)(4)(B), 15 U.S.C. § 1125(c)(4)(B)): Parody, satire, editorial and other forms of expression that are not part of a commercial transaction are entitled to First Amendment protection. -Statement of Senator Orrin Hatch
PARODIE Parodie, nom féminin ; pluriel. Parodies, [Terme français, parodie du grecque parodia; para et odë, ode] 1. Composition littéraire ou musicale imitant le style caractérisé par dautres œuvres ou dun écrivain ou compositeur, mais en traitant sérieusement un sujet dune façon grotesque avec lintention de ridiculiser ou de faire de lhumour. 2. Une imitation légère ou médiocre. Parodier, verbe transitif : parodié, participe passé, en parodiant, participe présent. 1. Faire la parodie ; écrire une parodie sur ; imiter, un poème ou une chanson de façon grotesque. Parody, n, pl. parodies [Fr. parodie ; Gr. Parodia ; para and ode, ode] 1. Literary or musical composition imitating the characteristic style of some other work or of a writer or composer, but treating a serious subject in a nonsensical manner in an attempt at humor or ridicule. 2. A poor or weak imitation. Parody, v.t. parodied, pt, pp. ; parodying, ppr. 1. To turn into a parody; to write a parody upon; to imitate, as a poem or song, in a ludicrous manner. PARODY
SATIRE Satire, nom féminin, [Terme français du latin satira ou satura, satire, satura, féminin de satur] 1. (a) Ouvrage littéraire dans lequel les vices, les sottises, les bêtises, les insultes, etc. sont tournés en ridicule et en dérision; (b) lensemble de tels ouvrages littéraires ou lart de les écrire. 2. Lutilisation du ridicule, du sarcasme, de lironie, etc. pour exposer, attaquer ou rire des vices, des sottises, etc. Satire, [Fr.. from L, satira or satura, satire, satura, f. of satura, full] 1. (a) A literary work in which vices, follies, stupidities, abuses, etc. are held up to ridicule and contempt; (b) such literary works collectively, or the art of writing them. 2. The use of ridicule, sarcasm, irony, etc. to expose, attack or deride vices, follies, etc. SATIRE
PURPOSE OF COPYRIGHT LAW [T]o promote the Progress of Science.... U.S. Const. Art. 1, §8, cl. 8
IDEA/EXPRESSION DICHOTOMY Only Expression of Idea (not the idea itself) is Protected AREAS OF NON-PROTECTABILITY IdeasFactsFair Use
OPERATIVE LANGUAGE IN STATUTE [T]he fair use of a copyrighted work... is not an infringement of copyright 17 U.S.C. § 107
FAIR USE FACTORS Focus on secondary creator: Focus on the incentives and entitlements of the copyright proprietor: 1.The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use if of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit-educational purposes; 2.The nature of the copyrighted work; 3.The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and 4.The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the coyrighted work. (17 U.S.C. §107)
THE MISSTEPS AND DETOURS Sony Corp. vs. Universal City Studios (1984) Commercial Use = Presumption that such use is unfair (Corollary: Non-commercial private use by consumer = fair use) Harper & Row vs. Nation Enterprises (1985) Unpublished nature of work and right of author to control first publication outweighs claim of fair use. Effect of secondary use on value and/or potential market is single most important fair use factor.
LOWER COURTS RELIANCE ON Sony and Nation Salinger vs. Random House (2d Cir. 1987) New Era Productions vs. Henry Holt (2d Cir. 1987) Second Circuit rejects trial courts finding of fair use and holds, in part, that unpublished works normally enjoy complete protection. Acuff-Rose vs. Campbell (6th Cir. 1992) Sixth Circuit reverses and remands; holds that rap parody (1) is an infringement per Sony and Nation in that commercial uses are presumptively unfair; and (2) effect on market is most important fair use factor.
CORRECTION AND CLARIFICATION I.Congress: Amendment to §107 re unpublished nature of work (1992). II.Supreme Court: Campbell vs. Acuff-Rose (Pretty Woman) (1994) (Reversing Sixth Circuit and remanding for further proceedings.) A.Character and Purpose of Use: 1. Commercial use not presumptively unfair; only a factor to be considered with others. 2. Is it transformative or non-transformative? B.Market harm does not give rise to presumption of unfair use. 1. If market is harmed by non-transformative use, this factor weighed in favor of unfair use. 2. The more tranformative the use, the less likely use is unfair. C.Restoration of the Transformative/Superseding Analysis