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23 oct. 06 - WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project1 Ontology or meta-model for retrieving reasoning in.

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Presentation on theme: "23 oct. 06 - WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project1 Ontology or meta-model for retrieving reasoning in."— Presentation transcript:

1 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project1 Ontology or meta-model for retrieving reasoning in documents: The Arkeotek project The logicist program Requirements for an ontology used for document annotation Possible reuse of CRM and contributions to CRM The Arkeotek project : The Arkeotek Journal : N. Aussenac-Gilles (IRIT – Toulouse, France) Valentine Roux and Blanche de Saizieu (Préhistoire et technique, MAE, Nanterre) Jean-Claude Gardin (CNRS) Philippe Blasco (Editions Epistèmes)

2 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 2 Context: The logicist program (by J.C.Gardin) Goal: improve the scientific written production Higher reading efficiency Improve communication Reduce the time and cost of diffusion Proposed solution: apply logicism to archaeology ( Grize : mathematical logic) Final Propositions (findings, conclusions) Intermediate Propositions (assertions) Initial propositions (data descriptions) Inference rule

3 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 3 Turns natural language writings into a set of short assertions in NL (propositions) and a diagram that makes explicit the rules connecting propositions Data may be obtained from observations, comparison or reference documents From natural language to logicist diagrams Data P0/1 P0/2 P0/3 P0/4 P0/5 P1/1 P1/2 P3/1 P2/1 Initial propositions Interpretative propositions Data Antecedent Has-Antecedent Assertion (block) findings

4 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 4 P0/ - A la Motte-aux-Magnins ABC, seules 8 pièces ayant fonctionné par raclage et rainurage ou sciage ont été identifiées La fonction des outillages en matières dures animales et en silex au Néolithique final, V. Beugnier et Y. Maigrot, 2005, BSPF, n°2, « Le silex joue par contre un rôle réduit dans le travail du bois. A la Motte-aux-Magnins ABC, seules 8 pièces ayant fonctionné par raclage et rainurage ou sciage ont été identifiées. Une fois de plus, il sagit déclats présentant des bords plutôt fins, uniquement destinés aux opérations délicates daménagement de décors et de finition dobjets tels que les peignes en buis quon retrouve dans les sites. » SOURCE TEXT LOGICIST RE-WRITING P0/ - Il sagit déclats présentant des bords plutôt fins, uniquement destinés aux opérations délicates daménagement de décors et de finition dobjets tels que les peignes en buis quon retrouve dans les sites. P1/ - Le silex joue un rôle réduit dans le travail du bois

5 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 5 A system to retrieve information in the Arkeotek collection Is knapping stone used for wooden object manufacturing ? Localize answers in different pieces of documents over the collection Take into account the role of each paragraph in argumentation to show first either interpretative or initial propositions -> add Semantic annotations

6 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 6 How indexing may benefit from the ontology and the SCD text structure ? corpus Ontology + Term occurrences Semantic indexing Heuristic propagation through SCD links New Indexing Validation Manual annotation Tagged documents

7 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 7 Annotating propositions with concepts P0/ - A la Motte-aux-Magnins ABC, seules 8 pièces ayant fonctionné par raclage et rainurage ou sciage ont été identifiées. P0/ - Il sagit déclats présentant des bords plutôt fins, uniquement destinés aux opérations délicates daménagement de décors et de finition dobjets tels que les peignes en buis quon retrouve dans les sites. P1/ - Le silex joue un rôle réduit dans le travail du bois. Location Archaeological object Knapping stone or slim shape stone Archaeological object Manufacturing operations using knapping stone Manufacturing wooden objects Knapping stone (as type-of Archaeological object) wooden objects Manufacturing operations using knapping stone

8 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 8 Examples of requests to be answered Questions about scientific data and results in the field What are the steps of the processing chain for beads? Which techniques have been used in India for manufacturing beads? How have pottery production techniques been transmitted over the Senegal Valley? Questions about scientific methods or techniques Which [investigation] technique can be used to identify the manufacturing period of potteries? Which are the possible [investigation] methods to study human skills?

9 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 9 What should the meta-model / ontology contain for such annotations? Concepts for describing archeological objects, locations, periods, manufacturing processes Concepts for describing investigation techniques, methods, scope, goal and results in the archeology of techniques Terms to reflect lexical variability and diversity Harappan hard stone beads can be classified according to three size categories: Small length less than 3 cm, medium between 3 and 2,76 in, large between 7 and 12 cm. The three dimension categories distinguished correspond to other significant categories, ranging from techno-economic aspects (process and duration of fabrication) to relative skill levels). The course of action is structured by a method. A method is defined as an ordered set of knapping gestures. At Cambay, the knapping method allowing to create a pre-form from a rough-out includes 6 stages. result

10 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 10 Not in CRM Organized according to the ROLES in an investigation, TO BE IMPROVED with CRM Not in CRM Not very well organized either Current meta-model Method and technique Investigation parameters ResultsGoalsScope Beads Pearls Cornalines Conical … Processing chain for containers Processing chain for beads Beads MaterialMorphometry Processing chain Chrono-cultural period Qualitative Caract. Nature of the corpus objects Data corpus characteristics Quantitative caracteristics hard stoneglass Is not an ontology !!

11 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 11 Issues with annotating investigation methods An interpretative proposition Analysis of the course of action The course of knapping sequences was noted in terms of the succession of operations and their temporal distribution. It was described and coded with video films and then treated with the program Kronos. This program, developed by A. Kergelen, permits a temporal analysis of the succession of actions which are retranscribed into sequences in the form of a diagram. Titles of the antecedent propositions: The course of action is structured by a method. The course of action is analyzed according to knapping strategies. The course of action is analyzed according to the knapping sequences. The course of action is analyzed according to the temporal structures. Manufacturing chain properties Investigation techniques (to study a processing chain) Investigation technique (to study a processing chain)

12 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 12 Issues with annotating periods and chronological results An interpretative proposition P1_1 – Chronology: The time when building 14 has been used in state 1 at the end of the 7th century is estimated to one or two generations. Antecedent propositions: P0_1 – Chronology: Building 14 has been built soon after 668. P0_2 – Chronology: Building 14, that has had three successive states, has been used for a short time extent: less than a century. Sepulture S589 is contemporary to the destruction and not of the use of building 14 (motivated by the stratigraphic analysis). This tomb dated by radiocarbon, is prior to 776 ( , Ly-9326). From the results of the ceramic study, the two first states of the building have not been occupied after the end of the 7th century. Investigation techniques (for dating an object) Date or time extent Use and building of an archaeological object

13 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 13 Status of chrono-cultural periods Issues Confusion between period identification (dating) as one of the sub-goals of an investigation, and the period itself as a characterization of the corpus of objects, and period chronology as a result of an investigation about a particular culture. What should the model say about chrono-cultural periods ? A period contributes to characterize the archaeological context of an investigation. Periods are defined by a set cultural and temporal data, not only by dates or events. But date and events may help establish its frontiers. Periods are connected to locations, peoples and archaeological or historical hypotheses such peoples skills and know-how for some techniques. Periods are identified thanks to a dating process, either absolute or relative. Periods may provide information in order to establish a chronology in a culture. The main result of an investigation can be to characterize a material culture or a large period through its chronological evolution (and more precise periods that it includes).

14 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 14 Laspect temporel Reusing CIDOC-CRM (CRM 3.4) representation of Time and Period

15 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 15 Reshaping period definition with CRM:temporal-entity and CRM:Chronological-period Distinguish period from temporal extent Defining criteria for period types of phenomena or interrelated phenomena that determine the unity and identify the cultural continuity of a period. Define relations between period and Location, people, cultural features (social and political organization, religion, skills and technical know about some materials, economical organization, …), temporal extents, events (all these features together define it) Period than may be part of a larger period, occur before or after another pariod Results of a dating process Period characterization may be the goal of an investigation

16 23 oct WS on limits of global modelsMeta-model for retrieving knowledge: The Arkeotek project 16 Conclusion CRM and ontological guidelines will help us make our a model look more like an ontology Define concepts like archaeological object and period Import results from other ontologies about detailed descriptions of object types, materials, forms, periods … Arkeotek underlines two limitations (lacks) of CRM for the archaeology of techniques Concepts to explain how objects were manufactured (processing chains, materials, gestures, skills, …) Concepts to describe investigation methods and techniques used in archaeology (liking C14 dating, craft-man observation to identify the gestures, their duration, and required skills, …) Concepts to describe what an investigation is (its scope, goals, methods …)


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