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Leadership Development Series

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1 Leadership Development Series
Training: Intermediate I – Leading People Module 2: Managing Culture Handout

2 Program Overview Advanced I Essential I II Inter- mediate I mediate II
14. Oktober 2017 14. Oktober 2017 Program Overview Advanced I Reflecting Leadership Reflection on Leadership Style Inspirational Leadership/ Empowerment/ Exemplary Behavior Essential I II Inter- mediate I mediate II Advanced II Building High Performance Teams Coaching & Mentoring Leading Change Leadership Vision Strategic Management Managing People Henkel Leadership Brand Leading People Leading Teams Leading Strategy Organizational Leadership Challenges Module 1 Welcome to your new Role and the Leadership Development Series Module 2 tbd Module 3 Your first 100 days as a leader Part I & II Module 1 Leadership Tools & Communication Module 2 Talent Management & Enhancing Performance Leadership Styles & Models Conflict Management Managing Culture Module 4 Foundations for Operational Henkel Impression Management/ Convincing & Influencing Work-Life-Balance/ Mental Health Leadership Development Series 2 2

3 Contents Introduction Intercultural Competence
Cultural Differences and Challenges Intercultural Communication – Verbal Intercultural Communication – Nonverbal Multicultural and Virtual Teams Leadership Development Series

4 Learning Objectives At the end of the course, the participants… understand cultural differences and reflect their own approach towards them are able to meet challenging leadership situations in intercultural contexts promote the effective functioning of multicultural and virtual teams through intercultural leadership Leadership Development Series

5 Contents Introduction Intercultural Competence
Cultural Differences and Challenges Intercultural Communication – Verbal Intercultural Communication – Nonverbal Multicultural and Virtual Teams Leadership Development Series

6 1. Introduction Definition of culture
14. Oktober 2017 1. Introduction Definition of culture Culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that a group learned, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel. Edgar Schein influential on behavior mutually perceived emotional dynamic hard to grasp historic Culture is… collectively shared symbolic Culture definition adapted from Edgar Schein, Professor emeritus for organisational psychology and management at Massachusets Institute of Technology (MIT) Leadership Development Series

7 1. Introduction Layers of culture – “onion model”
Surface culture: What can be seen from the outside? Behavior Language Traditions Customs Deep culture: What is hidden in the inside? Beliefs Values Assumptions Rules of conduct Communication style Attitudes Mindset Leadership Development Series

8 1. Introduction Contexts of cultural imprint – what forms us?
14. Oktober 2017 1. Introduction Contexts of cultural imprint – what forms us? Rules of conduct Family Peers Rituals Gender Language Religion, worldview Traditions, habits Nationality Individual culture Media Insight into other cultures Values Individual dispositions Region Leadership Development Series

9 1. Introduction Leading diversity
The overarching goal of leading diversity is to create a multicultural organization with the fundamental idea of equal opportunities for all people involved. Henkel‘s diversity & inclusion initiative Leadership Development Series

10 Contents Introduction Intercultural Competence
Cultural Differences and Challenges Intercultural Communication – Verbal Intercultural Communication – Nonverbal Multicultural and Virtual Teams Leadership Development Series

11 2. Intercultural Competence Ethnocentrism
Studies show that people from all cultures... think of what goes on in their own culture as natural and correct and what goes on in other cultures as not natural or not correct perceive their own customs as universally valid favour and co-operate with in-group members while feeling distant or even antagonistic with out-group members Leadership Development Series

12 14. Oktober 2017 2. Intercultural Competence Three areas of intercultural competence for leaders 2. Affective competence = AWARENESS & MOTIVATION Openness Empathy Ambiguity tolerance Respect and tolerance 1. Cognitive competence = KNOWLEDGE Cultural/country-specific knowledge Theoretical culture knowledge Self-reflection 3. Pragmatic-communicative competence = SKILLS Suitable communicative patterns Effective conflict solving strategies Action flexibility Meta-communicative competence Three components of cultural competence: the cognitive; the affective and the pragmatic-communicative. Although most managers are not equally strong in all three areas, each faculty is seriously hampered without the other two. Cognitive Competence. Rote learning about the beliefs, customs, and taboos of foreign cultures, the approach corporate training programs tend to favor, will never prepare a person for every situation that arises, nor will it prevent terrible gaffes. However, inquiring about the meaning of some custom will often prove unavailing because natives may be reticent about explaining themselves to strangers, or they may have little practice looking at their own culture analytically. Instead, a newcomer needs to devise what we call learning strategies. Although most people find it difficult to discover a point of entry into alien cultures, whose very coherence can make them seem like separate, parallel worlds, an individual with high cognitive competence notices clues to a culture's shared understandings. These can appear in any form and any context but somehow indicate a line of interpretation worth pursuing. Affective Competence. Adapting to a new culture involves overcoming obstacles and setbacks. People can do that only if they are open-minded, tolerant and believe in their own efficacy. A person who doesn't believe herself capable of understanding people from unfamiliar cultures will often give up after her efforts meet with hostility or incomprehension. By contrast, a person with high motivation will, upon confronting obstacles, setbacks, or even failure, reengage with greater vigor. Affective competence includes empathic skills and the ability to take over different perspective. basis for this area of competence is the will and interest to understand a different culture. Pragmatic-communicative Competence. You will not disarm your foreign hosts, guests, or colleagues simply by showing you understand their culture; your actions and demeanor must prove that you have already to some extent entered their world. Whether it's the way you shake hands or order a coffee, evidence of an ability to mirror the customs and gestures of the people around you will prove that you esteem them well enough to want to be like them. By adopting people's habits and mannerisms, you eventually come to understand in the most elemental way what it is like to be them. They, in turn, become more trusting and open. Leadership Development Series

13 14. Oktober 2017 2. Intercultural Competence Intercultural competence of leaders is critical for success in a globally interconnected world Connect effectively with people by building on commonalities while being sensitive to different perspectives Build and develop networks of mutually beneficial relationships for transformation and innovation  Create a more harmonious working and personal environment in which creativity thrives and innovation abounds Contribute to positive global transformation Leadership Development Series

14 2. Intercultural Competence Which profile describes me best?
The ambassador The provincial The analyst The chameleon The natural The mimic Leadership Development Series

15 intercultural meetings, negotiations and decisions
2. Intercultural Competence What are challenging intercultural work situations? Leading… intercultural meetings, negotiations and decisions understanding cultural differences Agenda part 3 intercultural and virtual teams diversity and virtuality Agenda part 6 intercultural communication verbal and nonverbal Agenda part 4 & 5 Leadership Development Series

16 Contents Introduction Intercultural Competence
Cultural Differences and Challenges Intercultural Communication – Verbal Intercultural Communication – Nonverbal Multicultural and Virtual Teams Leadership Development Series

17 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges GLOBE
3. Cultural Differences and Challenges GLOBE* - Cultural dimensions based on Hofstede Gender equality Long-term vs. short-term orientation Individualism vs. collectivism Performance orientation Humane orientation Assertiveness Uncertainty avoidance Power distance * GLOBE = Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project Leadership Development Series

18 Long-term vs. short-term orientation Individualism vs. collectivism
3. Cultural Differences and Challenges GLOBE* - Cultural dimensions based on Hofstede Gender equality Degree to which men and women are considered and treated equally Long-term vs. short-term orientation Degree to which individuals are focused on the future by delaying gratification or planning, for example Individualism vs. collectivism The extent to which an individual’s identity is connected to family or group membership Performance orientation Degree to which performance improvements and excellence is stressed Humane orientation Extent to which a society rewards individuals for being fair, kind, and altruistic to others Assertiveness Degree to which individuals are assertive and aggressive in their interactions with others Uncertainty avoidance Degree to which individuals rely upon social norms, rules, and procedures to reduce uncertainty Power distance Extent to which individuals expect equal or different power distributions in society * GLOBE = Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project Leadership Development Series

19 14. Oktober 2017 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Power distance (GLOBE dimension) Only small status differences Greater and natural status differences Low NED DEN ISR RUS J ES SA Power distance CHN RSA Extent to which individuals expect equal or different power distributions in society High RSA= Republic of South Africa ISR= Israel CSR= Costa Rica Leadership Development Series

20 14. Oktober 2017 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Individualism vs. collectivism (GLOBE dimension) Extent to which an individual’s identity is connected to family or group membership Individualism vs. collectivism Individualism GRE HUN GER ARG Collectivism SWE JAP CHN SIN Accentuation of individualism Strong orientation on social group one belongs to RSA= Republic of South Africa ISR= Israel CSR= Costa Rica Leadership Development Series

21 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Assertiveness (GLOBE dimension)
14. Oktober 2017 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Assertiveness (GLOBE dimension) The degree to which individuals are assertive and aggressive in their interactions with others Assertiveness Low SIN GRE High CHN JAP SWE ARG GER HUN Emphasis on modesty and tenderness, relations are warm, cooperative and harmonious Emphasis on toughness, assertiveness and competition RSA= Republic of South Africa ISR= Israel CSR= Costa Rica Leadership Development Series

22 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Linear-active, multi-active and reactive cultures (Lewis)
Many things done at once Communicative, information flow People-time rather than clock-time Time commitments considered as objective to be achieved if possible, flexible changes of plan e.g. Latin-American, Mediterranean, Arabic cultures Linear-active Reactive One thing at a time Task orientation, planning Time plans are taken seriously Facts before sentiment, logic before emotion e.g. US-American, Germanic, Nordic cultures People-orientated with patience and quiet control Modesty and courtesy Subtle body language replaces excessive words Listening carefully, reacting considerately e.g. Asian, some Nordic cultures Leadership Development Series

23 Opening phase: Beginning a meeting
14. Oktober 2017 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Challenging situations: Meetings-negotiations-decisions For global leadership, it is crucial to consider intercultural differences in meetings, negotiations and decision situations. Some (exaggerated) examples for consideration Phases of a meeting Opening phase Argumentation phase Approaching phase Decision phase Implementation phase Opening phase: Beginning a meeting Germany Finland U.S. U.K. France Japan Spain / Italy Formal introduction – maybe too formal. Sit down. Begin. Strong focus on agenda. Formal introduction. Cup of coffee. Sit down. Begin. Little time for social talking. Formal introduction. Cup of coffee. Sometimes superficial wisecracking. Begin. Formal introduction. Cup of tea and biscuits. 10 mins. small talk (weather, comfort, sport). Casual beginning. Formal introduction. Cup of tea and biscuits. 15 mins. small talk (politics, scandal, etc.). Begin. Cultural categories have a meaningful impact on the rules considered adequate for international meetings and negotiations, including formal aspects, aims and commitment to decisions . Please present the graph not as hard facts, but convey it with a bit of humor – it is slightly exaggerated to underline differences Formal introduction. Protocol seating. Green tea mins. small talk. Sudden signal from senior Japanese. Begin. Sometimes limited time due to personal conversations (soccer, family matters) and late-arrivers. Leadership Development Series

24 14. Oktober 2017 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Challenging situations: Meetings-negotiations-decisions Different priorities in goals Linear-active cultures Good deals Short-term profit and growth Sustained profit Good relations to business partner Multi-active cultures: National pride Personal prestige of negotiation leader Long-term relation to business partner Good deals Reactive cultures: Slide goal / message: The three culture types differ in terms of what they find the most important outcome in a meeting or negotiation. Their priorities in goals are different. While short term gain is important for linear-actives, a negotiation or meeting is especially important for creating and sustaining harmonious relations with the counterpart in reactive cultures. From this, misunderstandings and challenges can arise. More Information (from book “When cultures collide”): Even before the meeting begins, the divergence of outlooks is exerting decisive influence on the negotiation to come. Linear-active cultures are deal-oriented; they see it as a present opportunity that must be seized. Today, shareholders’ expectation of dividends creates rolling forecasts that put pressure on western executives to make the deal now in order to meet their quarterly figures. The multi-active cultures, are anxious to establish notions of equality of standing and respect for their team’s national characteristics before getting down to the business of making money. Like the reactive cultures, they seek a long-term relationship, although they will inject into this a greater personal input than their group-thinking reactive counterparts. For the reactive cultures, the current project or proposal is a trivial item in comparison with the momentous decision they have to make about whether or not to enter into a lasting business relationship with the foreigners. This master programming supplied by our culture not only prioritizes our concerns in different ways, but makes it difficult for us to “see” the priorities or intention pattern of others. Stereotyping is one of the flaws in our master program, often leading us to false assumptions. Here are three examples: ✦ French refusal to compromise indicates obstinacy. (Reality: The French see no reason to compromise if their logic stands undefeated.) ✦ Japanese negotiators cannot make decisions. (Reality: The decision was already made before the meeting, by consensus. The Japanese see meetings as an occasion for presenting decisions, not changing them.) ✦ Mexican senior negotiators are too “personal” in conducting negotiations. (Reality: Their personal position reflects their level of authority within the power structure back home.) Harmonic relation to business partner Securing market shares Long-term profit Good deals Leadership Development Series

25 3. Cultural Differences and Challenges Challenging situations: Meetings-negotiations-decisions
Cultural differences in the commitment to decisions Linear-active cultures: consider decisions as binding, comparable to a verbal contract Multi-active cultures: are not reluctant to revise verbal contracts and do not consider them as binding Reactive cultures: do not like to make decisions based on unclear information or circumstances and even regard this as against their ethics Leadership Development Series

26 Contents Introduction Intercultural Competence
Cultural Differences and Challenges Intercultural Communication – Verbal Intercultural Communication – Nonverbal Multicultural and Virtual Teams Leadership Development Series

27 Substantial differences between the cultures and languages
4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Relationship of linguistic and cultural differences Individual perception Categorization e.g. “yes” means agreement in Western countries but ‘only’ understanding in Asian countries e.g. snow Inuit have 90 different words for snow Cognitive concept Meaning e.g. family depending on cultural background only close family or all relatives are associated e.g. habla In Spanish it means 'to say'; in Filipino it means 'to sue' Message: Language and words are interpreted very differently between the cultures. Just because a word might be the same in two cultures, the cognitive concepts, individual perceptions., categorizations and/or meanings might be substantially different to each other. It is important to be aware of this and always keep in mind that what one means might not be understood in this way by the counterpart from a different culture (see next slide). Substantial differences between the cultures and languages Leadership Development Series

28 4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Sender-receiver-interaction
14. Oktober 2017 4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Sender-receiver-interaction cultural values stereotypes selective perception language & meaning cultural values stereotypes selective perception language & meaning Message Sender Receiver within verbal intercultural communication, irritations and misunderstandings are likely to occur talking in a foreign language limits the own repertoire of expressing fine nuances as well as understanding subtle meanings (e.g. irony) on the counterpart’s side sender and receiver both posses individual cultural backgrounds and specific perception patterns that lead to different interpretations of the spoken word although the sender might be sure to express his intentions clearly, the receiver might not understand them in the same way Link to Ess II Module 1 „Leadership Tools and Communication“! Leadership Development Series

29 4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Direct and indirect communication styles
Interaction partner expresses his intentions forthrightly, e.g. through critique formulation of contrary opinion or assumption Conflicts are addressed explicitly Characteristic for western (especially Germanic and Nordic) cultures Indirect forms of articulation, e.g. no open contradiction relativization use of conjunctive Explicit addressing of conflicts is avoided, implicit forms of conflict solving are appropriate Characteristic for Asian, arabic and Latin-American cultures Leadership Development Series

30 Expected form of giving feedback
4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Leadership responsibility - giving feedback As a leader, carefully consider the direct vs. indirect communication styles and expectations when giving feedback. Expected form of giving feedback „open“ „direct“ „clear“ „factual-neutral“ (Germany) „open“ „indirect“ „positive“ (USA, UK) „indirect“ „unclear“ „shrouded “ „respectful“ (Japan, China, India) Leadership Development Series

31 This can be considered as direct & impolite
4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Handling intercultural communication challenges (1/3) Tips for facillitating communication as an intercultural leader Engage in active listening Repeat the facts you have understood and paraphrase (“I understand that …“) Articulate feelings (“I have the feeling that this is something you enjoy doing?“) Ask for better understanding (“What did you mean by saying …?“) Use meta-communicative strategies: communicating about communication Be sensitive! This can be considered as direct & impolite Communicate your intentions and the meaning of what you are saying Talk about the patterns and rules of communication: e.g. “It is my intention to find out …“, “In your culture, how would one proceed, if his intention was to …?“ Re-formulate Highlight and repeat the relevant elements Reformulate what you wanted to say in different words Leadership Development Series

32 4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Handling intercultural communication challenges (2/3)
Be aware of perception biases Encourage yourself to rethink ideas that seem incongruent or inappropriate in the first place Get to know the unknown Try experiencing the foreign culture with all senses (food, music, traditions, theatre, holiday, language course, art exhibitions, …) Challenge prejudices Make yourself aware of the stereotypes you (might) have and conquer them – be self-reflective Be patient and open-minded Be proud of (even small) success moments and try to transfer them to different other situations Mimic experts Look for people in your surrounding with high intercultural communication competence and use them as role models Leadership Development Series

33 14. Oktober 2017 4. Intercultural Communication – Verbal Handling intercultural communication challenges (3/3) “May I find the bravery to address obstacles that lie between us, the tactfulness to override delicate situations and the wisdom to differentiate, whether the one or the other is appropriate.” Source: Adapted from Kumbier/Schulz von Thun (2006): German psychologists, communication experts and trainers. Goal: Creating a sense of awareness for the sensitivity in intercultural communication Leadership Development Series

34 Contents Introduction Intercultural Competence
Cultural Differences and Challenges Intercultural Communication – Verbal Intercultural Communication – Nonverbal Multicultural and Virtual Teams Leadership Development Series

35 14. Oktober 2017 5. Intercultural Communication - Nonverbal Importance of non-verbal communication The bigger part of communication is non-verbal Essential to pay attention to non-verbal communication Intercultural communication: non-verbal codes often used to compensate deficits of understanding verbal communication Non-verbal codes: source of misunderstandings and misinterpretations Gesture and mimic are not necessarily natural and universal – many components of non-verbal communication are culture specific and socialized Leadership Development Series

36 5. Intercultural Communication - Nonverbal Gesture
One Germany Austria Switzerland All right! Great Britain Korea South Africa Vulgar meaning Afghanistan Iraq Iran Hi! Texas (USA) That’s rock ’n’ roll! Germany Russia USA Italy Your wife has affairs. Italy Shelter of mischief Argentina Small, few Congo-Kinshasa Good, beautiful Turkey One moment! Egypt Patience! What do you want?! Italy Leadership Development Series

37 Contents Introduction Intercultural Competence
Cultural Differences and Challenges Intercultural Communication – Verbal Intercultural Communication – Nonverbal Multicultural and Virtual Teams Leadership Development Series

38 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams Video
Leadership Development Series

39 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams Intercultural leadership concepts
Which leadership concepts are effective and appropriate? Leadership concepts are shaped by culture The fit between a perceived manager and the leadership concept held by the employee determines leadership influence and effectiveness Some leadership concepts differ substantially between cultures, e.g. participative, humane, directive, autonomous, face-saving leadership Some leadership concepts seem to be universal, e.g. charismatic (transformational)/ value-based leadership, team-oriented leadership Leadership Development Series

40 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams Intercultural leadership concepts
Recommended leadership styles for different cultural contexts Cultural context Recommended leadership style Example country Low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance Low power distance and high uncertainty avoidance High power distance and low uncertainty avoidance High power distance and high uncertainty avoidance Supportive, participative/ egalitarian and achievement-orientated Directive, supportive and participative Directive/ hierarchical and supportive Directive/hierarchical Great Britain Germany China France Leadership Development Series

41 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams How to become an intercultural leader?
Be aware: leadership concepts are embedded in societal cultures; in each country they “make full sense” because they match the whole value system Become clear about the influence of your own cultural background Don’t “twist” yourself and your counterpart in intercultural encounters Find out which divergences can improve intercultural performance (synergetic effects) Focus on negotiating a common understanding of goals, plans and actions Adjust your leadership style gradually: Understand what local managers do to lead successfully in their own country Use this knowledge to modify own leadership style Leadership Development Series

42 Potentials of multicultural teams Disadvantages of multicultural teams
6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams Potentials and disadvantages of multicultural teams Potentials of multicultural teams Disadvantages of multicultural teams Certain independence from culture-specific determining rules and standards Strengths can complement one another Broader scope of knowledge and experience Broader scope of perspectives leads to more creativity and innovative solutions Less narrow-minded “group-think” For new and unstructured tasks, multicultural teams outplay homogenous teams Less commonalities Misunderstanding can lead to mistrust and less cohesion Shared consensus in finding a solution more difficult Team building process more challenging Communication hurdles likely For routine tasks, homogenous teams outplay multicultural teams Leadership Development Series

43 Effective communication
6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams What makes multicultural and virtual teams effective? Shared team mission & mutual understanding of goals Clear coordination & mutually agreed upon norms Effective communication and constant information flow “Real team“: feeling of belonging together & mutual trust Continuous reflection on working styles and processes Leadership Development Series

44 Effective communication
6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams What makes multicultural and virtual teams effective? Be precise in clarifying routines, roles and responsibilities Make team members understand the mission and their part in it Shared team mission & mutual understanding of goals Clear coordination & mutually agreed upon norms Effective communication and constant information flow “Real team“: feeling of belonging together & mutual trust Continuous reflection on working styles and processes Reflect on differences in interculturality and possible improvements Set the stage for regular effective communication Establish a trustful basis and foster a shared team identity Leadership Development Series

45 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams
14. Oktober 2017 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams What makes multicultural and virtual teams effective? Shared team mission & mutual understanding of goals Communicate the big picture: make members understand why they're participating Create a compelling mission that causes all players to align their efforts with the team goals Take your time to ensure that the understanding of the goals is actually mutual and not only superficial This input is meant as additional input – show (only) to deepen the discussion on the topic 45 Leadership Development Series

46 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams
14. Oktober 2017 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams What makes multicultural and virtual teams effective? Clear coordination & mutually agreed upon norms Clarify and communicate the members’ individual roles and responsibilities - especially in virtual teams, it is hard to experience members’ interdependencies Point out important interfaces and encourage the interface partners to communicate regularly Establish team routines Re-engineer work processes to accommodate "different-time-different-place“ requirements Collectively agree upon rules for team work - using the multifaceted experiences of all members This input is meant as additional input – show (only) to deepen the discussion on the topic 46 Leadership Development Series

47 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams
14. Oktober 2017 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams What makes multicultural and virtual teams effective? Effective communication and constant information flow Implement regular (virtual) team meetings to exchange information and coordinate task steps Encourage & set the stage for members to communicate regularly apart from the meetings Establish clear communication channels through use of groupware Nevertheless, there is no replacement for face-to-face interaction to enhance communication Enhance individual awareness that other cultures do, say, and see things differently. These differences are exacerbated in a virtual environment where communication is limited by time and space Create effective protocols. s have to function as announcement, reminder, and call to action. Separate messages with individual subject headings. Make it crystal clear what actions are required of each recipient Make sure that no team member is isolated from the information flow, e.g. because of language barriers This input is meant as additional input – show (only) to deepen the discussion on the topic 47 Leadership Development Series

48 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams
14. Oktober 2017 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams What makes multicultural and virtual teams effective? “Real team“: feeling of belonging together & mutual trust Start teamwork collectively: begin the teamwork with a kick-off meeting Reserve time for getting to know one another and develop a shared team identity Establishing a trustful basis is important when distances are big; connect with individual members often to avoid the feeling of isolation Bringing the team together physically at appropriate times can pay large dividends in speed, collaboration and team identity Celebrate (even small) successes especially in the early phase of teambuilding This input is meant as additional input – show (only) to deepen the discussion on the topic 48 Leadership Development Series

49 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams
14. Oktober 2017 6. Multicultural and Virtual Teams What makes multicultural and virtual teams effective? Continuous reflection on working styles and processes Regularly reflect project advancements and quality of cooperation & communication in the team Reflect on the working climate and different working styles (e.g. “How well are we using our individual strengths?”) – external coaches or evaluation instruments may help Proactively bridge gaps by finding ways to respect the differences and build on the strengths of the group; create a cooperative space through video conferencing to engages the team in solving problems Actively pass on your experiences to other multicultural team settings This input is meant as additional input – show (only) to deepen the discussion on the topic 49 Leadership Development Series


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