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Natural Resources OF OUR WORLD.

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Presentation on theme: "Natural Resources OF OUR WORLD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Natural Resources OF OUR WORLD

2 MAJOR CONCEPTS Natural Resources are materials found in the environment that are useful to humans. Some natural resources are renewable (can be replaced if managed properly). Living Resources (plants and animals) Some natural resources are nonrenewable (cannot be replaced). Fossil Fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum) Some natural resources are used to produce energy.

3 The World: Natural Resources


5 Mineral & Other Resources
Gold Silver Copper Lead Tin Nickel Tungsten Uranium Bauxite Phosphate Diamond Iron Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Cobalt Timber Graphite Clay Salt Zinc Hematite Water Soil Fish Manganese Stone, Sand, & Gravel Soda Ash Limestone Platinum Alternate Energy Resources Geo-thermal Biomass Tidal Hydro-electric Solar Wind Atomic

6 Gold Gold is used in dentistry and medicine; in jewelry and
arts; in coins and medals; for scientific and electronic instruments. South Africa has about half of the world’s resources. Significant quantities are also present in the U.S., Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, and Russia. Back to Resource Chart

7 Stone, Sand, & Gravel Stone, Sand, and Gravel are used to make roads; buildings; bridges; landscaping; and numerous chemical uses. A Quarry is an open pit mine from which the stone, gravel and sand are extracted. They exist around the world. Back to Resource Chart

8 Silver Silver is used in photography, chemistry, jewelry; in electronics; as currency; mirrors; batteries; silver plating; table cutlery; dental, medical, and scientific equipment. Silver is mined in 56 countries. The largest silver reserves are found in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Peru, and the former Soviet Union. Nevada produces over 30% of the U.S. silver. Back to Resource Chart

9 Copper Copper is used in electric cables and wires, switches, plumbing, heating; roofing and building construction; chemical and pharmaceutical machinery; alloy metals (brass, bronze, etc.). The leading producer is Chile, followed by the U.S., Russia, Canada, Zambia, and Democratic Republic of Congo. Back to Resource Chart

10 Lead Lead is used in batteries, gasoline additives and tanks, and solders, seals or bearings; in electrical and electronic applications; TV tubes, TV glass, construction, communications, and protective coatings; in ballast or weights; ceramics or crystal glass; tubes or containers, or wire; X-ray and gamma radiation shielding; soundproofing material in construction industry; and ammunition. The U.S. is the world’s largest producer and consumer of lead metal. Other major mine producers include Australia, Canada, and Russia Back to Resource Chart

11 Tin Tin is used by itself, or in combination with other elements for a wide variety of useful alloys (metals). Tin is most commonly alloyed with copper to make bronze. Tin-plated steel containers are widely used for food preservation (cans of food) China is the leading producer of tin. Other major producers are Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Australia, Malaysia and Russia. Back to Resource Chart

12 Nickel Nickel is used to make stainless steel; and plays key role in the chemical and aerospace industries. Leading producers include Australia, Canada, Norway and Russia. Largest reserves are found in Cuba, New Caledonia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Back to Resource Chart

13 Tungsten Tungsten is used in metalworking; construction and electrical machinery and equipment; in transportation equipment; as filament in light bulbs; as a carbide in drilling equipment; in heat and radiation shielding; textile dyes, enamels, paints, and for coloring glass. Major producers are China, Korea, and Russia. Large reserves are also found in the U.S., Bolivia, Canada, and Germany. Back to Resource Chart

14 Uranium Back to Resource Chart
Uranium is used as a fuel in the nuclear power industry. It generates the heat in nuclear power reactors. Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport radioactive materials; used as the fissile explosive material to produce nuclear weapons. Kazakhstan, Canada, and Australia are the top three producers and together account for 63% of world uranium production. Other important uranium producing countries are Namibia, Russia, Niger, Uzbekistan, and the United States. Back to Resource Chart

15 Bauxite Bauxite is the main source of aluminum. Aluminum is used in the United States in packaging (31%), transportation (22%), and building(19%). Guinea and Australia have 46 percent of the world’s reserves. Other countries with major reserves include Brazil, Jamaica, and India. Back to Resource Chart

16 Phosphates Back to Resource Chart
Phosphate Rock is used to make fertilizers to grow food; animal feed supplements. Phosphates are found in the United States and Europe. The small island nation of Nauru and its neighbor Banaba Island, which used to have massive phosphate deposits of the best quality, have been mined excessively. Rock phosphate can also be found in Egypt, Israel, Morocco, Navassa Island, Tunisia, Togo and Jordan. Back to Resource Chart

17 Diamond Back to Resource Chart
Diamonds are used to make jewelry and cutting and grinding tools. Other specialized applications include use as semiconductors and electrical insulators. Roughly 49% of diamonds originate from central and southern Africa, although significant sources of the mineral have been discovered in Canada, India, Russia, Brazil, and Australia. Revolutionary groups have taken control of diamond mines, using proceeds from diamond sales to finance their operations. Diamonds sold through this process are known as conflict diamonds or blood diamonds. Back to Resource Chart

18 Iron Back to Resource Chart
Iron is used to manufacture steels of various types. Powdered iron: used in magnets and auto parts; Radioactive iron: used in medicine. Iron blue: used in paints, printing inks; plastics; cosmetics (eye shadow); artist colors; laundry blue; paper dyeing; fertilizer ingredient; baked enamel finishes for autos and appliances; industrial finishes. Black iron oxide: used as pigment; in polishing compounds; metallurgy; medicine; magnetic inks; in ferrites for electronics industry. Major producers of iron ore include Australia, Brazil, China, and Russia Back to Resource Chart

19 Coal Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide. China, India, and the United States are large producers of coal. Back to Resource Chart

20 Natural Gas Natural gas can be used as a fuel supplied to homes where it is used for such purposes as cooking in natural gas-powered ranges and ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating furnaces, and water heaters. The world's largest proven gas reserves are located in Russia, Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Back to Resource Chart

21 Petroleum Petroleum, or crude oil, is recovered mostly through oil drilling. It is made into consumer petrol (gasoline), kerosene, asphalt for our roads, plastics, and medicines. The top five producers of petroleum are Saudi Arabia (OPEC), Russia, United States, Iran (OPEC), and China. Back to Resource Chart

22 Cobalt Cobalt used in jet engines; chemicals (paint driers); permanent magnets; and for cutting tools. Cobalt producing countries include Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Canada, Cuba, and Russia. Back to Resource Chart

23 Timber Timber is used for construction of homes and furniture. Its wood pulp for paper production. The lumbering industry is worldwide and found where coniferous and deciduous forests are located. Back to Resource Chart

24 Graphite Graphite is used pencils, where it is commonly called lead. Graphite is an electrical conductor; therefore, it is useful in arc lamp electrodes. Major exporters are: China, India, Brazil, North Korea, and Canada. Back to Resource Chart

25 Clay Clay is used to make floor & wall tile; dinnerware; kitty litter; bricks & cement; and paper. Different types of clay are found all over the world Back to Resource Chart

26 Salt Back to Resource Chart
Salt, also known as Halite, is used in human and animal diet, food seasoning and food preservation; used to prepare sodium hydroxide, used in ceramic glazes; curing of hides; mineral waters; soap manufacture; home water softeners; highway de-icing; photography; herbicide; fire extinguishing; nuclear reactors; mouthwash; medicine; in scientific equipment for optical parts. It is mined primarily in Europe and Canada. Back to Resource Chart

27 Zinc Back to Resource Chart
Zinc is used as protective coating on steel; as an allying metal with copper to make brass, and as chemical compounds in rubber and paints; automotive parts; electrical fuses; dry cell batteries; chemicals; roof gutters; cable wrappings; organ pipes; in pennies; ship hulls. Zinc oxide: in medicine. Zinc is mined in over 50 countries with Canada the leading producer, followed by Russia, Australia, Peru, and China. In the U.S. mine production mostly comes from Tennessee, Missouri, New York and Alaska. Back to Resource Chart

28 Hematite Hematite is used in blush makeup and polish because of its red color. Also it is used for ore of iron for steel tools, vehicles, nails and bolts and bridges. Hematite is typically found in places where there has been standing water or mineral hot springs, such as those in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Back to Resource Chart

29 Water Back to Resource Chart
Water is used to help all the plants on earth live. It is used in chemical reactions and is used in many manufacturing processes. Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. Virtually all of these human uses require fresh water. 97% of water on the Earth is salt water, and only 3% is fresh water of which slightly over two thirds is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. The remaining unfrozen freshwater is mainly found as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air. Fresh water is a renewable resource, yet the world's supply of clean, fresh water is steadily decreasing. Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world and as the world population continues to rise, so too does the water demand. Back to Resource Chart

30 Soil Back to Resource Chart
Soil is made up of air, water, minerals and organic material and is one of the most important natural resources on earth. Most life on earth depends on soil as a direct or indirect source of food. Plants and animals get their nutrients from the soil and it is home to many different forms of life.  Soil comes in a variety of forms and takes many years to develop, however it can be destroyed very easily. LOAM contain more nutrients and humus. Loam is gritty, moist, and retain water easily. Light green areas show where the best soil is found: Back to Resource Chart

31 Fish Fish are natural resources because we humans use them for many things. Some of those things are fish oil, food, fish glue, and many other things. The fishing industry is worldwide and is depleting this natural resource. Back to Resource Chart

32 Manganese Manganese is used to make iron and steel.
South Africa and Russia have over 70% of the world’s reserves. Back to Resource Chart

33 Platinum It is used to make jewelry, wire, electrical contacts and laboratory equipment. Platinum can be found in deposits of gold-bearing sands, primarily those found in the Ural mountains, Columbia and the western United States. Back to Resource Chart

34 Soda Ash used in glass containers; in fiberglass and specialty glass; also used in production of flat glass; in liquid detergents; in medicine; as a food additive; photography; cleaning compounds; pH control Mined in Argentina, Australia, Austria, United States (Wyoming and California) Back to Resource Chart

35 Limestone Limestone the most versatile and widely used rock in the earth's crust. Most is crushed and used as concrete. It is a source of lime, the chief raw ingredient in cement; a fertilizer and soil conditioner; used in paints and plastics; toothpaste, medicines, and commonly used as a livestock feed as a source of calcium. It can also be used in construction. Lime stone is found in North America, Europe, and also in some parts of Canada. Back to Resource Chart

36 Geothermal Back to Resource Chart
Geothermal energy taps into the natural heat within the Earth. At certain points around the globe, the Earth's heat combines with water. Familiar examples of the Earth's heat combining with water are the geysers at Yellowstone. PROS: Once produced, geothermal energy is nearly completely non-polluting. Geothermal power plants are relatively inexpensive to operate. The energy is technically renewable and can be used as direct power source. These power plants are environmentally-friendly and leave few carbon footprints. Fossil fuels are not needed to bring geothermal power plants online CONS: Technology only makes geothermal energy available from certain regions on the planet. Initial drilling costs are expensive and the process is complex. Although the Earth's heat is ever-present, current or future geothermal sites may not be continuous sources of heat. Hot rocks must be managed well or the water can cool the rocks. While some consider geothermal energy the most cost-efficient and non-polluting, there is as yet no guarantee that possible sites will provide desired quantities Back to Resource Chart

37 Biomass Back to Resource Chart
Biomass refers to any live or recently dead organic material that can be converted into a fuel. Biomass includes a range of organic products, including ethanol, but it is more broad and has more options than ethanol alone. The organic matter used as biomass can come from a variety of sources such as sugar cane, eucalyptus, palm oil and even algae. PROS: They are renewable and easily attainable, and the process to make them into usable fuel is not a complex one. Cons: As with all fuels, they do give off pollution when used, but typically not as much as gasoline. A severe drawback of biomass use is the devastation of forested areas associated with improperly managed biomass production. If legislation is not in place to protect natural areas, endangered habitats, such as the Amazon Rainforest, would be at risk of being exploited for their biomass capabilities and they could be destroyed. Back to Resource Chart

38 Tidal Back to Resource Chart
Tidal energy is generated by undersea turbines placed across estuary mouths where tidal motion is at its strongest. As the oceans tides move in and out, the turbines are moved creating energy. PROS: Tidal energy is a clean, non-polluting, renewable and relatively simple energy source making it a valuable technology when compared with fossil fuels. However, it is expensive to produce. CONS: Tidal energy production is limited because of the small number of environmentally viable sites and the relatively high associated costs. Tidal motion is caused by the moon's gravitational pull and is therefore reliable, occurring twice every day. However, this limits its energy-generating potential to these two daily periods and makes it useable only as secondary energy source. Back to Resource Chart

39 Atomic Back to Resource Chart
Atoms make up every object in the universe. Energy is stored inside each atom. Atomic Energy, sometimes called Nuclear Energy, is releasing the atoms energy so we can use it. This is done by splitting or combining atoms. PROS: One of the biggest benefits of nuclear energy is that it can produce electricity when the Earth's supply of coal and oil runs out. Also, nuclear power plants require less energy to operate than fossil fuel plants and do not produce air pollution. That is steam coming out of the stacks. CONS: There are disadvantages to the production of nuclear energy. For instance, the U.S. and other countries have nuclear weapons (bombs), which are capable of killing every person on Earth. In addition, nuclear power plants run the risk of a meltdown, which is when fission gets out of control and radioactive materials leech out into the atmosphere causing death and disfigurement in plant and animal life, including humans. Back to Resource Chart

40 Hydroelectric Back to Resource Chart
Hydro power has been used since the earliest of times, with waterwheels being used to grind wheat since the time of the ancient Greeks. Hydroelectric power is the use of water to create energy. The water from large rivers or waterfalls is used, but large man-made dams can produce the water flow necessary for power. The flow of the water moves the turbines and generates electricity. The more water flow and volume, the more electricity produced. PRO: With a steady source of flowing water, such as the Niagara Falls, hydroelectric power is a renewable source of energy, meaning its source of power will never run out. This is because water systems are naturally replenished by rainfall, which in turn comes from sea and fresh water evaporated by the sun. Because hydroelectric power does not need fuel, it is unaffected by global factors such as oil costs, and causes little to no pollution. Also, since the river is flowing, Hydroelectricity can be constantly generated, and plants can reach full output quickly. Also, because the flow of water is generally predictable, hydroelectric power plants are often highly automated, with low labor demands. Hydroelectric plants are more durable than most other power plants, and some have lasted up to 50 or 100 years. CONS: Power plants must be built next to a source of water, and finding a suitable site is often difficult. Even if a suitable site is found, hydroelectric projects can adversely affect neighboring ecosystems. Power plants can often change the environments of rivers downstream, and man-made dams can reduce fish populations. Also, building a dam has a high initial cost, though some of this cost can be shared by other industries since dams have uses outside of hydroelectricity, such as irrigation and flood control. Back to Resource Chart

41 Wind Back to Resource Chart
The main form of wind-generated power is by wind turbines, once called "windmills." Wind turbines convert kinetic energy into mechanical power that can drive generators, water pumps or other devices that require electrical power. PROS: Wind-generated energy is renewable and non-polluting. Wind turbines do not produce radioactive waste as do most ways of generating electricity. When the wind blows, wind power is a possible and proven technology. Access to wind is free. CONS: Wind energy has some disadvantages. Energy can be generated only when the wind blows. Backup power is expensive and must be replaced every few years. Wind turbines can be damaged in thunderstorms. There is a noise factor that increases when winds are low. Birds fly into wind turbines. Studies often are required about bird migration paths before new wind turbines can be installed. Back to Resource Chart

42 Solar Back to Resource Chart
Solar thermal energy is energy collected from the sun and used to generate heat. This heat is usually concentrated using mirrors, then used in heating water. The water is heated until it turns into steam used to turn turbines, generating electricity. Pros: Since solar energy is completely renewable, there is no strain on the Earth's resources and fossil fuels to power and heat your home. Solar energy doesn't give off any air pollution or harmful by-products after the manufacturing process of the solar panels. Solar energy is quiet and unobtrusive as it powers your home. It is easily maintained and monitored. Since there are no moving parts to worry about, the system can last a long time. CONS: Solar energy has a high cost of installation. Depending on the size of your system, your cost can run into the tens of thousands of dollars. Next up, solar panels can take up a lot of space and may always be in view depending upon where they need to placed in order to collect the greatest amount of sunshine. Solar energy can only be collected during the daylight hours, and pollution or an overcast day can reduce that by even more. Back to Resource Chart

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