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BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields

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Presentation on theme: "BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields"— Presentation transcript:

1 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Skip DESAULNIERS

2 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Operational flare reduction versus typical associated gas flaring BP’s efforts has mostly been focused on operational reductions The most recent major associated gas reduction was the Chirag, Azerbaijan platform tie-in to a new injection platform, 25 MMscfd flare reduction

3 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Two examples of flare reduction success using process control optimization Trinidad platform – slugging USA gas field – well deliquification venting Both examples were flaring or venting on a regular or routine basis but not considered continuous

4 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Trinidad – Samaan Platform National Gas Company connected. Lots of compression capacity but lots of flaring. Major work effort to investigate gathering system slugging A project was developed to install inlet control valves to stabilize the inlet slugging. but …

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6 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
An intervention was organized with a process control expert It was quickly established that the compression surge protection system was responsible for the slugging The control system was causing the pressure increase in the inlet separator but also extending the upset by not closing the surge valve quickly

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9 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
The keys to success were to engage management first The team interviewed the project staff, the local facility engineering staff, and the operating staff on the platform Testing with a high speed process analyzer proved what the interview process was suggesting

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11 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Additional project requirements added boosters to make surge and recycle valves respond faster activated available programming by burning a new eprom chip

12 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Flare reduction was immediate and sustainable Inlet slugging stabilized immediately The new compression control allowed for both compressors to run simultaneously 7.5 MMscfd flare reduction (145k tonne CO2e) The project and therefore a platform outage was avoided

13 VENT REDUCTION EXAMPLE

14 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Farmington, New Mexico, USA Dispersed tight gas field, 2300 wells (1000 plunger lift wells) Liquid loading occurs when well flow rate declines to below the critical velocity to lift liquids Plunger lift systems are a very inexpensive way to deal with liquid loading

15 Pressure Distance

16 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Plunger lift control can be as simple as a clock control for "On"” and "Off" cycles or sophisticated programming

17 Catcher Configuration
Clock Arrive / Waitin WELL1.PLNGR.ARR2 Plunger Arrive Flag 0 Minutes WELL1.PLNGR.T005 Previous Time in plunger cycle WELL1.PLNGR.T004 WELL1.PLNGR.T003 WELL1.PLNGR.T002 WELL1.PLNGR.T001 WELL1.PLNGR.T000 WELL1.PLNGR.TIME Time in current plunger cycle WELL1.PLNGR.STRT Time in the on cycle when plunger was released. CATCHER1.DLAYOF.TIME Time flow rate has been below catcher flow rate Default Valve Signal Name Parameter Catcher Results OUTPUTs Daily Minutes RECYCLE1.TIME.D02 Time Recycle Valve was Open 21 Count RECYCLE1.COUNT.D02 Number of Time Recycle Valve went open 20 VENT1.COUNT.D02 Number of Times Vent Valve went open 19 VALVE1.COUNT.D02 Number of Times Choke went open 18 WELL1.DWNTIM.D02 Time Condition Code is >9 17 WELL1.OPENTM.D02 Time Valve is not Closed 16 METER1.EXT.D02 Extension 15 METER1.CPRIME.D02 C Prime 14 VENT1.TIME.D02 Vent Time 13 PSIG VENT1.LPRES.D02 Vent Pressure 12 WELL1.LPRES.D02 Line Pressure 11 WELL1.TPRES.D02 Tubing Pressure 10 WELL1.CPRES.D02 Casing Pressure 9 METER1.TIME.D02 Flow Time 8 MMBTU METER1.ENERGY.D02 Energy 7 Degrees F METER1.TEMP.D02 Temperature 6 PSIA METER1.PRESS.D02 Pressure 5 “H20 METER1.DP.D02 Differential Pressure 4 MCFD METER1.FLOW.D02 Flow Rate 3 MCF METER1.VOLUME.D02 Volume 2 Calendar Date and Time METER1.TIME Date/Time Stamp 1 Engineering Units Field ARRAY #41 WELL1.DWNTIM.H02 Time the Condition Code is > 9 WELL1.OPENTM.H02 Time the Choke is Open METER1.EXT.H02 METER1.CPRIME.H02 VENT1.TIME.H02 VENT1.LPRES.H02 WELL1.LPRES.H02 WELL1.TPRES.H02 WELL1.CPRES.H02 Seconds METER1.TIME.H02 METER1.ENERGY.H02 METER1.TEMP.H02 METER1.PRESS.H02 METER1.DP.H02 MCFH METER1.FLOW.H02 METER1.VOLUME.H02 ARRAY #46 0 Mins VENT1.MANUAL.STPT The well will vent for time set. AUTO WELL1.CRATIO.AUTO Automatically set Tubing/Casing Set Point .5 WELL1.CRATIO.STPT Tubing/Casing Ratio Set Point 90 psig WELL1.TPRES.STPT Minimum Tubing Pressure Setpoint to close Vent VENT1.TIME.SPMN Maximum Time to Vent in a Month Setpoint 120 Minutes VENT1.TIME.SPDY Maximum Time to Vent in a Day Setpoint WELL1.CYCLE.STPT Number of Well Open/Close Cycles to Vent Setpoint Disable WELL1.CYCLE.NBLE Enable Well Open/Close Cycle to Vent 3 WELL1.PLNGRF.SPCN Plunger Consecutive No Arrival Setpoint VENT1.MANUAL.AUTO Vent is Manual / Automatic VENT1.NOVENT.SPMN Minute where well can vent VENT1.NOVENT.SPHN Hour where well can vent VENT1.NOVENT.SPMF Minute where well cannot vent VENT1.NOVENT.SPHF Hour where well cannot vent Default Value Signal Name Parameter Vent Control Enable/Dsable METER1.RANGE.CNTL Allows the valve to control if the flow rate causes the meter to be out of range. Cyclic/Remain VALVE1.CYCLIC. Do Not Shut Valve when well Closes 0 MCF/D VALVE1.FLOW.STPT Flow Rate Set point VALVE1.LOCKED.STPT Setpoint to set Valve Locked Alarm .1 secs VALVE1.OUTPUT.MIN Minimum Bump Size for the Valve movement 2% VALVE1.FLOW.GAIN Gain 15 secs VALVE1.TRAVEL.TIME Choke Close to Open Travel Time OPEN VALVE1.OPEN. Open or Close Choke when in Manual VALVE1.MANUAL.AUTO Choke in Automatic or Manual OFF VALVE1.SUSPND.CNTL Suspend Valve Control VALVE CONTROL 0.0 RECYCLE1.LRATIO.STPT Low Set Point to Open Valve 5.0 RECYCLE1.HRATIO.STPT High Set Point to Open Valve RECYCLE1.PRATIO.CUR Ratio Suction / Discharge Pressure Casing/Tubing RECYCLE1.PRESS.SRCE Source for Ratio Calculation Manual/Auto RECYCLE1.MANUAL.AUTO Recycle Valve’s Mode Minutes WELL1.TIMEON.STPT Amount of Time Well Should Be On (Time Clock) WELL1.TIMEOF.STPT Amount of Time Well Should Be Off (Time Clock) WELL1.FLOWON.STPT Minimum Time Well is ON WELL1.TIMEOF.SPMN Well Shut-in Minimum Time 0 MCFD RECYCLE1.FLOPEN.STPT Open Recycle Valve when Flow Rate < Set point 0 PSIG RECYCLE1.PROPEN.STPT Open Recycle Valve when Line Pressure > Set point RECYCLE1.PRCLOS.STPT Close Recycle Valve when Line Pressure < Set point RECYCLE1.VALVE.NSTL Recycle Valve Installed RECYCLE VALVE CONTROL 1 Minute CATCHER1.DLAYOF.STPT Delay Set Point for flow rate below catcher flow rate WELL1.PLNGR.SPDL Set Point Plunger Drop Delay 125 % CATCHER1.FLOWTN.PCNT % change of Turner Rate WELL1.CATCH.NSTL Plunger Catcher Installed Default Valve Catcher Configuration NSTAL/OFF XMITTER1.BBTI.NSTL 3508 Transmitter Installed 18 % METER1.ALMHI.PCNT % of Range for High Alarm 17 METER1.ALMLO.PCNT % of Range for Low Alarm 16 METER1.DPOFF.PCNT % of Range for Cutoff 15 Degrees F METER1.TEMP.SPAN Temperature Span 14 METER1.TEMP.ZERO Temperature Zero 13 PSIG METER1.PRESS.SPAN Pressure Span 12 METER1.PRESS.ZERO Pressure Zero 11 “H20 METER1.DP.SPAN DP Span 10 “H2O METER1.DP.ZERO DP Zero 9 Up/Down Stream METER1.TAP.LOC Tap Location 8 METER1.TEMP.BASE Temperature Base 7 PSIA METER1.PRESS.ATM Atmospheric Pressure 6 METER1PRESS.BASE Pressure Base 5 Carbon/Stainless METER1.ORIF.MAT Orifice Material 4 Inches METER1.ORIF.SIZE Orifice Size 3 METER1.PIPE.MAT Pipe Material 2 METER1.PIPE.SIZE Pipe Size 1 Engineering Units Signal Name Parameter Index LIST #2 BTU METER1.GAS.BTU Energy 23 METER1.GAS.SG Specific Gravity 22 Mole % METER1.GAS.AR Argon 21 METER1.GAS.HE Helium 20 METER1.GAS.NC10 n-Decane 19 METER1.GAS.NC9 n-Nonane METER1.GAS.NC8 n-Octane METER1.GAS.NC7 n-Heptane METER1.GAS.NC6 n-Hexane METER1.GAS.NC5 n-Pentane METER1.GAS.IC5 i-Pentane METER1.GAS.NC4 n-Butane METER1.GAS.IC4 i-Butane METER1.GAS.O2 Oxygen METER1.GAS.CO Carbon Monoxide METER1.GAS.H2 Hydrogen METER1.GAS.H2S Hydrogen Sulfide METER1.GAS.H20 Water METER1.GAS.C3 Propane METER1.GAS.C2 Ethane METER1.GAS.CO2 Carbon Dioxide METER1.GAS.N2 Nitrogen METER1.GAS.C1 Methane LIST #3 WELL1.PLNGRF.CNR1 Actual consecutive no arrivals for Code 32 3 WELL1.PLNGRF.STPT Consecutive No Arrival Set Point to Code 32 well. WELL1.PLNGRF.CNR Actual consecutive no arrivals for vent 2 WELL1.PLNGRF.SPCN Consecutive No Arrival Set Point to vent well. ON PLUNGER1.TIMEON.ARRV Start Control after plunger arrives over ride OFF WELL1.FLOWTN.ARRV Flow Rate is above Turner rate after plunger delay expired; Assume plunger arrived RATIO WELL1.CRATIO.OPEN Tubing/Casing Pressure Ratio when well opens Consecutive no arrivals, Code 32 well Consecutive no arrival set point, Code 32 well Consecutive no arrivals, vent well Consecutive no arrival set point, vent well WELL1.PLNGRF.NBLE Enable / Disable Vent from plunger failure mode 100 % WELL1.LFACT.PCNT Load Factor Correction Percentage AUTO WELL1.LFACT.AUTO Calculate the Load Factor Set point Automatically or by Percentage WELL1.FLOWON.AUTO Calculate the Plunger Delay Automatically WELL1.TIMEON.DLY1 Plunger Delay Time Exceeded WELL1.CRATIO.FLAG Well vented because of CRATIO WELL1.CRATIO.AUTO replaces CRATIO.MANUAL.AUTO 1500 ft/min WELL1.VELOC.STPT Set point to control the flow rate when the plunger is surfacing. Quits controlling after the plunger delay time is exceeded. 0 Counts WELL1.SWAB.STPT When set, the well will close when the plunger arrives or the plunger delay time is exceeded. 5 Minutes WELL1.KDLAY.STPT Delay set point during well open cycle before watching for a tubing pressure kick or a DP kick WELL1.TRATIO.PCNT User Percentage to Shrink Tubing Ratio Auto/Manual WELL1.TRATIO.AUTO Apply Shrink Factor WELL1.CRATIO.PCNT User Percentage to Shrink Load Factor 30 Minutes WELL1.TIMEON.SPMX Well Maximum Open Time AUTO/MANUAL WELL1.TIMEON.AUTO Calculate Maximum Open Time 300 Minutes WELL1.TIMEOF.SPMX Well Maximum Close Time WELL1.CRATIO.AUTO Allow RTU to calculate “Shrink” Factor or apply user factor Manual/Auto WELL1.MANUAL.AUTO RTU is to calculate Load Factor, 0.1 Minute WELL1.DLAYOF.BUMP Amount of Delay Off Adjust when plunger velocity is outside of Dead band 168 WELL1.OPTIME.HRS Number of Hours to Optimize the Well 15 mins WELL1.TIMEON.STPT Time On Setpoint WELL1.TIMEON.NBLE Close Well on Time Clock 3 mins WELL1.VTDLAY.STPT Additional delay off time when a well vents 0.1 mins WELL1.DLAYOF.STPT Time to Delay off after flow rate is below Turner Rate 875 ft/min WELL1.PLNGR.STPT Plunger Velocity Setpoint 10 mins WELL1.FLOWON.STPT Minimum Time Well will flow at maximum rate 0.1 min Delay Off Time Correction when plunger is outside of Dead Band +/- 10 % WELL1.PLNGR.PCNT Velocity Error Dead Band WELL1.PLNGR.NSTL Plunger is Installed 60 mins WELL1.TIMEOF.STPT Time Off Setpoint WELL1.TIMEOF.NBLE Open Well on Time Clock 30 mins WELL1.TIMEOF.SPMN Minimum Time Well must be shut in WELL1.CASING.PRES Use Load Factor or Line/Tubing Pressure Ratio to Open well WELL1.SURFAC.COM Comingled at the Surface WATER WELL1.TURNER.H20 Turner Water or Condensate Velocity 5000 ft WELL1.TUBING.LGTH Tubing Length 6.276 WELL1.CASING.ID Casing ID 2.375 WELL1.TUBING.OD Tubing OD 1.995 WELL1.TUBING.ID Tubing ID Default Valve Signal Name Parameter Well Configuration

18 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
With sophisticated programming for optimizing production, small mechanical details can interfere with the program sequencing Even the smallest flaw may result in the plunger not successfully arriving at the surface with the liquids. Consequently, any additional wellflow will simply add more liquids to the fluid column

19 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Immediate solutions to deliquify liquids from a loaded well include swabbing and venting Venting is easy Swabbing requires effort, equipment and resources

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21 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Venting to deliquify has been a solution in this basin for a very long time Once the venting solution is used, it is very difficult to analyze well control problems because at any hint of trouble, the well vents and the liquid loading is eliminated

22 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
The project had to get back to basics on how plunger systems function A pilot project was organized with two sets of 20 wells The complex control system was adjusted to ensure the fundamentals were being followed

23 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
Findings Venting hid the well problems Minor leaks stole pressure energy from the well – even leaks through the choke to sales Extended venting to flush the wellbore of liquids was ineffective if the plunger surfaced properly The programming settings must follow the basics of plunger control

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26 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
The result was a 4 MMscf/day vent reduction (675k tonne CO2e) Tools were developed to help the staff quickly identify wells that might be in trouble Morning reports were also created

27 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
The large success could only be accomplished on the most recent versions of the software Further reductions will occur when the well software is upgraded and loaded Considering, the software has to be loaded at each well one at a time, there is an opportunity to ensure the software is optimized prior to the upgrades

28 BP – Smart Wells / Smart Fields
In Conclusion Operational flaring and venting is not difficult to recognize BP has found that process control tuning is an effective way to reduce routine or regular losses It may be easier to develop one or two large associated gas reduction projects but it is more realistic to reduce flaring and venting through small projects every day


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