Presentation on theme: "Connie Hudgeons College Board Two Day AP/Pre-AP Social Studies Conference February , 2009 San Antonio, TX."— Presentation transcript:
Connie Hudgeons College Board Two Day AP/Pre-AP Social Studies Conference February 20 -21, 2009 San Antonio, TX
III.Cultural Patterns and Processes A.Concepts of Culture B.Cultural Differences C.Environmental Impact of cultural attitudes D.Cultural landscapes and cultural identity
Geography – the study of space and place, and of the movements between places Religion – a method of constructing coherence and meaning in the world; a way to tie things together. A religious culture is one that has a clearly structured world view and an understanding of one’s role in place, space and time.
As there thus seems to be no one elementary religious emotion, but only a common storehouse of emotions upon which religious objects may draw, so there might conceivably also prove to be not one specific and essential kind of religious object, and no one specific and essential kind of religious act. —William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience
consecrated: made or declared or believed to be holy; devoted to a deity or some religious ceremony or use; "a consecrated church"; "the sacred mosque"; "sacred elephants"; "sacred bread and wine"; "sanctified wine" concerned with religion or religious purposes; "sacred texts"; "sacred rites"; "sacred music" worthy of respect or dedication; "saw motherhood as woman's sacred calling" hallowed: worthy of religious veneration; "the sacred name of Jesus"; "Jerusalem's hallowed soil" (often followed by `to') devoted exclusively to a single use or purpose or person; "a fund sacred to charity"; "a morning hour sacred to study"; "a private office sacred to the President" *courtesy of Google
Space 1: a period of time ; also : its duration 2 a: a limited extent in one, two, or three dimensions : distance, area, volume b: an extent set apart or available c: the distance from other people or things that a person needs in order to remain comfortable 3: one of the degrees between or above or below the lines of a musical staff — compare line 4 a: a boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction b: physical space independent of what occupies it —called also absolute space 5: the region beyond the earth's atmosphere or beyond the solar system 6 a: a blank area separating words or lines b: material used to produce such blank area ; especially : a piece of type less than one en in width 7: a set of mathematical elements and especially of abstractions of all the points on a line, in a plane, or in physical space ; especially : a set of mathematical entities with a set of axioms of geometric character
Place 1 a: physical environment : space b: a way for admission or transit c: physical surroundings : atmosphere 2 a: an indefinite region or expanse b: a building or locality used for a special purpose 3 a: a particular region, center of population, or location b: a building, part of a building, or area occupied as a home 4: a particular part of a surface or body : spot 5: relative position in a scale or series: as a: position in a social scale b: a step in a sequence c: a position at the conclusion of a competition 6 a: a proper or designated niche or setting b: an appropriate moment or point c: a distinct condition, position, or state of mind
1a: the measured or measurable period during which an action, process, or condition exists or continues : duration b: a nonspatial continuum that is measured in terms of events which succeed one another from past through present to future c: leisure 2: the point or period when something occurs : occasion 3a: an appointed, fixed, or customary moment or hour for something to happen, begin, or end b: an opportune or suitable moment —often used in the phrase about time 4 a: a historical period : age b: a division of geologic chronology c: conditions at present or at some specified period —usually used in plural d: the present time
Scaling is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits. For example, a scaling technique might involve estimating individuals' levels of extraversion, or the perceived quality of products. Certain methods of scaling permit estimation of magnitudes on a continuum, while other methods provide only for relative ordering of the entities. With comparative scaling, the items are directly compared with each other (example : Do you prefer Pepsi or Coke?). In noncomparative scaling each item is scaled independently of the others (example : How do you feel about Coke?).
The study of the physical universe considered as a totality of phenomena in time and space. The astrophysical study of the history, structure, and constituent dynamics of the universe. A specific theory or model of this structure and these dynamics.
I suggest we think about places in the context of two reciprocal movements which can be observed among most living forms: like breathing in and out, most life forms need a home and horizons of reach outward from that home. The lived reciprocity of rest and movement, territory and range, security and adventure, housekeeping and husbandry, community building and social organization – these experiences may be universal among the inhabitants of Planet Earth. -- Anne Buttimer On the surface, place seems straightforward. Place, however, means more than just a locality or physical location. Place is not just a spatial, or even spatial and temporal, concept. It is also a poetic, aesthetic and political idea.
In The Sacred and the Profane, Mircea Eliade postulated that “a sacred place is understood as space (place) that is different than the ordinary or the profane. He held that while sacred places are often venues reserved for ritual practice, they are also where the ordinary, the powerful, the profane and sacred meet. Eliade’s work is usually the starting place for study of the sacred in the physical world. Sacred spaces are often powerful elements within a culture’s cosmology, and are tied to the core identity of the people – such as the Ganges River in India and Ayers Rock in Australia.
1.What is the distribution of religion – from global to local? Why might this be so? 2.Why are some spaces or places regarded as sacred and special? How does the specialty of space or place impact movement? 3.What is the role of religion in defining regions? 4.What role has religion played in shaping political landscapes? 5.How has religion been imprinted on the physical landscape?
A Hindu place of worship is called a mandir or temple. A temple is dedicated to a particular god or goddess (deity) and is the god's home on earth. It is also very common for Hindus to worship at a home shrine, often as a whole family. There might be a statue or just a picture of the god or goddess. The shrine also contains things which represent the five senses. The idea is to draw the whole person into worship through the image or statue and the senses. The goal is to get beyond self to Brahmin. A bell is also often rung to help focus the mind. The Ganges River is a very sacred place to Hindus. It is a pilgrimage destination to bathe in sacred waters.
A sacred space in Buddhism can be very small. Most Tibetan and Buddhist homes have household shrines. These are a shelf or a bench top which hosts some pictures and statues and usually water bowl offerings and incense. A Buddhist meditation center may feature a picture of the Dalai Lama. It is a simple task to erect a shrine. Instantly, a sacred space is established. Sacredness, at least in Buddhism, seems to be very accessible.
Judaism moved from Temple worship to the Rabbinical or Synagogue structure after the fall of Jerusalem to Rome in 79 CE. With the destruction of the Temple, the Jews maintain the “idea” of the Temple within their sacred mindset. The honoring of the Temple Mount with the Dome of the Rock Mosque, created a conflict centered on sacred space that continues today. The symbolic language used to discuss political issues - The Holy Land, The Holy City, The Promised Land - indicates a totally different context for “sacred space.”
Books Burton, Lloyd. Worship and Wilderness. Madison, WI: UWP. 2002. Douglas, David. The Atlas of Sacred and Spiritual Sites. London, UK: Octopus Books, 2007. Gray, Martin. Sacred Earth: Places of Peace and Power. New York: Sterling. 2007. Hitchcock, Susan Tyler with John L. Esposito. Geography of Religion: Where God Lives, Where Pilgrims Walk. Washington, D.C. : National Geographic, 2004. MacDonald, Mary, ed. Experience of Place. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP. 2003. Olson, Brad. Sacred Places Around the World: 108 Destinations. San Francisco, CA: CCC Publishing. 2004. Pascall, Jeremy. God: The Ultimate Biography. Topsfield, MA: Salem House P. 1987. Stump, Roger. Boundaries of Faith: Geographical Perspectives on Religious Fundamentalism. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. 2000.
Hindu India map – Four Points Temples http://www.worldreligions.psu.edu/images/artimages/maps/hinduism%20sacred%20places.jpg Temple of Jagannath, Puri, India http://img2.travelblog.org/Photos/6222/39122/f/209641-Jagannath-temple-complex -1.jpg Temple of Rameshvaram http://www.sacredsites.com/asia/india/images/great-shiva-temple-500.jpg Temple of Badrinat http://www.sacred-destinations.com/india/images/badrinath/badrinath-temple-cc-Arpana-400.jpg Temple of Dwarka http://www.access-india.com/guj-dwarka.jpg
Buddhism Ajanta Caves, India - http://tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:P5c- FpYMamL87M:http://www.januindus.com/microconf07/ajanta-caves-05.jpg Bamiyan Buddhas, Afghanistan - http://www.google.com/images?q=tbn:vSSG- m3P6p69jM::www.laputanlogic.com/images/2003/09/24-0018 Shwezigon Pagoda, Myanmar http://tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:rUhmE_KSlTyt5M:http://www.istockph oto.com/file_thumbview_approve/2207413/2/istockphoto_2207413_shwezig on_pagodain_in_bagan_myanmar.jpg Tai Shan, China “Stairway to Heaven” http://www.sacredsites.com/asia/china/images/stairway-heaven-500.jpg
Judaism Map of the “holy land” http://lefteyeonthemedia.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/holy-land-map- physical.jpg Diaspora Map http://www.livius.org/a/1/maps/diaspora_map.gif Herod’s Temple http://homepages.luc.edu/~avande1/jerusalem/views/templeMountThird.gif Western Wall http://www.benjohnsonartist.com/images/2000/The-Western-Wall.jpg Mount Moriah (Dome of the Rock) http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/israel/images/dome-rock-interior- 500.jpg
Christianity Map of Spread of Christianity http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268312/art/figures/KISH_0 6_134.gif Map of the Modern Christian World http://www.clashofthegods.com/images/religion_map.gif St. Peter’s Square, Vatican City, Rome, Italy http://frjessie.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/022_st-peters-square-vatican-city.jpg Church of the Nativity http://blog.camera.org/archives/church_nativity.jpe Rosary Beads/praying hands http://www.lifeinfozone.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/rosary-beads.jpg Bible Reading http://gracewalk.files.wordpress.com/2007/07/biblereading2.jpg
Islam Dar al Islam World map http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/Oic_countries_map.png/800p x-Oic_countries_map.png Mecca Map http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/meast/9804/03/hajj.pilgrims/saudi.arabia.mecca.jpg Spread of Islam, 6 th – 8 th Century map http://rolfgross.dreamhosters.com/Islam-GE/Spread%20of%20Islam%206-8th%20cent.jpg The Hajj http://www.arabia.it/english/islam/mecca2.jpg Dome of the Rock http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/72/8472-004-0B12EA97.jpg Muslim prayer http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/galleries/salah/images/5.jpg Women with prayer beads http://www.gannett.com/news/awards/photowinners/2003/quarter4/division2/images/phot o3.jpg