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A participatory integrated assessment of seagrass meadows ecosystem services in the Gulf of Morbihan Denis Bailly UMR-AMURE, European Institute for Marine.

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Presentation on theme: "A participatory integrated assessment of seagrass meadows ecosystem services in the Gulf of Morbihan Denis Bailly UMR-AMURE, European Institute for Marine."— Presentation transcript:

1 A participatory integrated assessment of seagrass meadows ecosystem services in the Gulf of Morbihan Denis Bailly UMR-AMURE, European Institute for Marine Studies University of Brest

2 VALMER project Apply the ecosystem services framework (MEA) to assess ecological, economic and social values of ecosystems services to support the development of public policies (nature conservation, resources exploitation management, planning of offshore or impacting on-shore activities development) With an integrative and participatory approach engaging regulators, managers, stakeholders, the public and scientists from social and natural sciences Partnership between research, management and regulatory bodies (6 in South West England and 5 in France) 6 study sites (coastal areas of Western Channel and South Brittany) Funding : France-England transboundary inter-regional fund (Interreg IVA)

3 The ecosystem services cascade Adapted from Haines-Young, R. and Potschin M., in Raffaelli, D. and Frid C. (Eds.): Ecosystem Ecology: a new synthesis, Cambridge U. Press, 2010

4 Valmer perspective on assessment of ecosystem services values Ecosystem services translate into : easy to identify wellbeing benefits derived from natural capital (commercial or not, reflecting market structures and cultural preferences) known benefits that are difficult to quantify, others that are highly hypothetical and claims based on moral values Such different values cannot be resumed and aggregated as monetary equivalents, they rather call for extensive documentation and multidimensional metrics They are useful only if communicable in policy-making arenas and for awareness raising, including uncertainties

5 VALMER study sites South West England Brittany - France The Gulf of Morbihan is part of a Regional Natural Park project covering an area of 500 km², 35 communes, 170 km² of coastal waters, 500 km of coastline Gulf of Morbihan study site

6 Zostera meadows : key habitats for the ecosystem of the Gulf ? Two species in the Gulf of Morbihan : Zostera marina and Zostera noltei Zostera beds are remarkable habitats protected under the OSPAR convention and the Habitat Directive of the EU. A global degradation trend is observed but locally high temporal variability in coverage, density and plant condition leading to contradictory conclusions. Pressures and impacts that influence the ecological status of zostera beds are not all clearly understood. So the policy commitment to protect seagrass beds is not straightforward Seagrass beds are not emblematic habitats but they have their natural defenders like bird conservation NGOs Seagrass beds functional roles are rather well recognized but not much quantified (they support productivity and biological diversity of coastal seas, they contribute to water quality, they stabilize the sediment,...)

7 To be cared about The Good Ecological Status of a seagrass bed is difficult to attest as there is much spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and density of seagrass beds. Monitoring observation vs modelling can help to determine the potential for seagrass develop in a given place, but such information not available There are many direct extractive and non extractive uses of seagrass beds and associated resources (commercial and recreational wild shellfish gathering, bird watching, shellfish farming, boat mooring,...) Contradictory observations about interactions between seagrass and oyster culture (bags on trestles) are not known : negative, positive, neutral ? But regulations says that aquaculture permit should not be renewed when they end to protect seagras Mooring on seagrass bed has clear impacts, but temporary mooring by recreational boats is very difficult to control Bird (bernacles feeding on seagrass beds) is the main argument calling for seagrass bed protection, sea horse is an emblematic species of the area, mainly seen in seagrass but almost extincted Other functional roles in depuration processes, trophic chain, biodiversity, recruitment for main fishing stocks (commercial and recreational use), water depuration as the ecosystem is under strong pressure from land (nutriment, microbiology, chemicals,...) are for most of them recognized. But none is quantified So need to develop a coherent management and monitoring strategy under any kind of applicable planning or regulatory instrument (SMVM, WFD, MSFD, Natura 2000)

8 Engaging scientists and stakeholder in the development of a Knowledge Sharing Platform Gathering of scientific knowledge (and knowledge gaps) Interviews with stakeholders (people knowledge) Sorting of socio-ecological system components (uses, pressures, ecosystem services) Mapping of interactions (impacting and benefiting uses) Mapping of interactions (ecosystem services cascade) Populating the knowledge base (narrative, drawings, resources)

9 Z OSTÈRES MARINE ET NAINE D ES ESPÈCES SENSIBLES Marine flowering plants in the world They are not algea About 60 species in the world including 10 Zostera UNEP-WCMC, 2004, document from Canadian Secrétariate for Scientific Consultation

10 Coastal Law N ATIONAL E UROP EA N I NTERNATIONAL Bern convention OSPAR Convention SCA Natura 2000 SMVM Land planning code Red List IUCN REBENT network Water Framework Directive R EGULATIONS S UIVI Habitat Directive

11 Existing maps of seagrass beds in the Gulf Source: R. Mahéo, daprès lobservatoire départemental de lenvironnement (56) « Sources diverses ; Produit numérique REBENT multi-source Bernard & Chauvaud, TBM et CEVA » Cette carte est une compilation de données ! Il existe des limites techniques dacquisition et de traitement des données Plus des coûts humains et financiers importants

12 Gathering people knowledge about Seagrass in the Gulf of Morbihan (representations from cognitive maps) Plant biology/ecology Plant biology/ecology Interactions with fishing (cuttlefish, eel, seabass,…) A system view of interactions Location of seagrass beds in the gulf

13 Gathering people knowledge about Seagrass Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Morbihan (representations from discourse analysis) bernacles eat seagrass from octobre to décembre We see juveniles in the seagrass… so zostera serves as nursery grounds (seabass, eel and cutlefish mentioned) Cuttlefish and other molluscs lay their eggs on seagrass Seagrass beds probably have different function : hatchery, nursery, water oxygenation, stability of sediment If seagrass disappear then well see less things in the water It is difficult to say how much seabass and cutlefish fisheries in the Gulf and outside depend on seagrass beds In the seagrass we find periwinkle, shrimps, eels, anemons, littorina snail, …

14 Mapping of the socio-ecological system (brown paper, Cmap)

15 Producing and organizing knowledge (narratives, drawings)

16 Z OSTERA IN THE GULF There are two types of zostera. They are flowering plants living in the marine environment and more specifically on soft grounds... [ know more …] S ENSITIVE SPECIES Zostera are vegetal species very sensitive to variations of their environment originating from human action or natural. [ know more …] Z OSTÈRES MARINE ET NAINE D ES ESPÈCES SENSIBLES

17 Sorting the components of the socio-ecosystem

18 18 Choix dune représentation détaillée des sous-systèmes par usages Difficulté de mettre en avant des services ecosystémiques assez indirects et de ne pas être toujours en représentation dimpacts des usages sur les zostères Les deux zostères, marine et naine, fonctionnent différemment (haut et bas de lestran, interactions différentes avec les usages) doù un dédoublement des représentations Mapping interactions in sub-systems

19 Next steps Stakeholder group discussions (focus group), introduction to ecosystem services and need for protection, scenario building Survey of public preferences for conservation (choice experiment) Synthesis of scenarios and multiple stakeholder group discussion, setting of the vision Feeding the policy processes (revision of planning document and regulation setting) with the outcomes

20 The VALMER team in the Gulf of Morbihan Monique Cassé, Ronan Pasco, Juliette Herry, Matthias Urien, David Lédan Intercommunal Syndicate for the Management of the Gulf of Morbihan (SIAGM) Denis Bailly, Manuelle Philippe, Johanna Ballé-Béganton, Bérengère Angst, Michel Lample, Louinord Voltaire, Julien Hay, Jean Boncoeur UMR-AMURE / University of Brest

21 Merci de votre attention

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