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Chapter Six The Sexual Self: Close Relationships in Adolescence.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Six The Sexual Self: Close Relationships in Adolescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Six The Sexual Self: Close Relationships in Adolescence

2 Chapter Objectives To look at the ways in which adolescents construct a sexual identity by examining sexuality with the more general context of identity formation To examine the ways in which gender roles and sexual scripts contribute to adolescents’ sexual identity To look at factors contributing to the ways adolescents make sexual decisions, and at the sexual behaviors in which they engage

3 Chapter Objectives continued To explore the nature of sexual orientation and the contribution of biological and psychosocial factors To examine the risks and responsibilities that contribute to adolescents’ sexual health, paying particular attention to contraception for sexually active adolescents, the prevalence of STDs, and what information is most helpful in sex education classes.

4 Sexual Identity What it means to be masculine or feminine Gender stereotypes: the cultural expectations concerning which behaviors are appropriate for each sex Stereotypes play a role in self-definition as adolescents question their sexuality and develop a sense of self

5 Creating a Sexual Self Sexual self-esteem: perception of their worth as sexual beings Sexual self-efficacy: perception of control over sexual experiences Sexual self-image: beliefs about sexual needs

6 Five Sexual Styles Sexually naïve: have little confidence in sexual attractiveness, feel no control over sexual situations Sexually unassured: low self-esteem and little sense of control in sexual encounters, but interested in exploring their sexuality Sexually competent: confident of sex appeal and ability to control sexual situations, interested in exploring sexuality and were sexually experienced Sexually driven: similar to above style, unable to say no to sex, mostly boys

7 Sexual Scripts Are a set of guidelines concerning expected patterns of behavior in a sexual situation Inform adolescents of what they should do, feel, and what the person they are with is likely to do and feel Reflect masculine and feminine gender stereotypes

8 Making Sexual Decisions Avoidance and denial of sexual perceptions may cause engagement in sex without planning and no responsibility Attitudes surrounding sexuality usually are not discussed with parents Adolescents who talk with their parents tend to become sexually active later and responsibility

9 Stages of Sexual Activity Kissing Petting Intercourse and oral-genital sex Boys begin sexual experiences earlier and are more positive about their first experiences than girls

10 Protective Factors Associated with Delay of Sexual Activity Biological: late maturation, being female, intelligence Psychological: strong religious beliefs, involvement in school Social: parental monitoring, family religious beliefs, not dating steadily, not using alcohol or drugs

11 Sexual Orientation Homosexual orientation: attracted to member of the same sex over an extended period of time in their lives. Referred to as gay or lesbian Bisexual orientation: attracted to individual of both sexes. An isolated same-sex sexual experience does not mean a person is homosexual Twin/Adoptive studies suggest a genetic component to sexual orientation

12 Sexual Response Cycle Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution Similarities in the sexual response for each gender exist for all phases Adolescents have misconceptions about sexual functioning

13 Sexual Health: Risks and Responsibilities Majority of adolescents do not use contraceptives due to the lack of adequate information Many do not practice responsible sex because they are unable to accept their own sexuality Teens engage in unprotected sex due to their cognitive and emotional immaturity

14 Teen Pregnancy Pregnancy and child rearing present challenges for adolescent parent Adolescents are less likely to receive regular prenatal care and experience more medical complications during pregnancy such as: –Prematurely –Low-birth weight –Neurological behavioral problems

15 Teen Parenting 30% of teenage pregnancies end in abortion Decision to abort or carry to term are related to: –Socioeconomic status –Race –Personal attitudes –Parents’ and friends’ attitudes

16 Teen Parenting Programs that target teenage mothers for prenatal care can be successful in reducing many prenatal risks Most teenage fathers remain psychologically involved with the mother through pregnancy and for some time following birth Teen parents have less education and lower income that those who postpone parenting and find it difficult to provide support for the mother and infant

17 Sexually Transmitted Diseases STD’s Approximately 9 million adolescents and young adults become infected with an STD each year If not treated promptly, STD’s can have serious health consequences Chlamydia is the most common STD among adolescents –Can cause pelvic inflammatory disease a –Can affect the reproductive system

18 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection –Many experience no symptoms Gonorrhea can cause: – Infertility –Joint problems –Heart problems –Cervical cancer

19 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Genital warts are caused by human papilloma virus and can lead to cervical cancer Genital herpes is called by a herpes virus and no cure exists Syphilis is a bacterial infection that progresses through three stage

20 HIV Attacks the immune system Disease progresses to AIDS There is no cure for this disease, individuals die when the immune system fails Prevention includes: –Avoiding exchange of body fluids –Using condoms –Being discriminating in sexual relationships

21 Sex Education Effective programs delay the onset of sexual activity among adolescents who are not yet sexually active and lead to safer sexual practices Types of programs: –Sex education –Service learning –Abstinence-only –Example: the Children’s Aid Society Carrera- Model Program

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