Presentation on theme: "American Cultures I Honors Chapter One Collision of Cultures Chapter One Collision of Cultures."— Presentation transcript:
American Cultures I Honors Chapter One Collision of Cultures Chapter One Collision of Cultures
Overview By 1600 Europeans had created the world’s first truly global economy. Meanwhile, the "age of discovery" resulted in the greatest human catastrophe the world has ever known: 90% of Native Americans killed by 1600; slavery of 10s of millions of Africans. Cultural differences between the European and Americans was so immense that conflict was tragically inevitable in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Overview Summary of relations between the three major colonial powers in America and the Native Americans – Spain sought to Christianize and control the Indians (through the encomienda, hacienda and mission systems) – The French sought to establish strong trade relations with the Indians; Jesuits sought to convert them. – English settlers often sought to either move Indians westward or annihilate them
How Did Man First Arrive in America? Theory - a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world. Bering Strait Theory (Most Widely Excepted) – Mongolians that may have crossed a land bridge following their food to the Americas 40,000 years ago via Bering Strait (called Beringia when it was above land) and eventually spread to tip of S. America (by 8,000 B.C.) – Based upon archaeological evidence discovered in Clovis, New Mexico in 1930.
Another Theory “Pangaea” Theory – All of the continental formations were once joined together, so that man was already here. – Continental Drift as the result of Plate Tectonics
New Discoveries & Research suggests other Theories Folsom Spear point – discovered in 1925 in New Mexico; dated 8,000 years ago. Clovis Spear point – discovered in 1932 in New Mexico; dated 12,000 years ago. Caribou Bone – discovered in 1972 in Alaska; dated 25,000 to 32,000 years ago. Del Mar Skull – discovered in 1929 in California; dated 48,000 years ago. Kennewick Man – discovered in 1996 in Washington; dated 9,500 years ago.
Native’s Development Archaeologists and Population Diversity – More recent archaeological discoveries point to migration by sea & a more diverse population from Polynesia, Japan, and possibly Europe. The “Archaic” Period (5000 years, beginning 8000 B.C.) – Earliest humans used hunting & gathering through the use of stone weapons & tools, & eventually turned to farming
Native’s Development By 8,000 B.C., Native Americans had reached tip of South America. – Hundreds of tribes with different languages, religious & cultures inhabited America. – Between 4,000 and 1500 B.C. permanent farm villages came to dominate parts of Peru, south-central Mexico, northeastern Mexico, and southwestern U.S. – Grew maize, amaranth (a cereal), manioc (tapioca), chili peppers, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, & beans – Developed civilizations ("sedentary societies"—non migratory)— late-Stone Age
America Before Columbus The Growth of Civilizations: The South – Inca of Peru Led by Pachacuti (“world shaker) Created an empire by persuasion Known for its administrative systems & paved roads – Olmec of Central America Began in 1000 B.C. – Maya of Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico Began in 800 A.D. Developed a written language, a numerical system, a calendar, an agricultural system, & trade routes 10
America Before Columbus Aztec or Mexica of Mexico – Began in 1300 A.D. – Established a city called Tenochtitlan in present-day Mexico City – Developed aqueducts, public buildings, schools, an organized military, a medical system, & a slave workforce – Dominated all of Central Mexico through a system of tribute (a heavy tax paid in goods) – Believed that Gods could only by satisfied by human sacrifice 11
North American natives less developed : most "semi- sedentary" by Columbus’ time – Most people lived in small scattered nomadic settlements. 2. Some agriculture, probably developed by women. Men were the hunters; women the gatherers. Women did the farming (except tobacco); much "slash and burn" agriculture – Europeans sought to turn men into farmers; Indian men saw it as "women's work" – Europeans spoke of "reducing the Indian men to civility“. Indian males enjoyed much leisure time (like European aristocracy)
Civilizations of the North Most North American societies were matrilineal and matrilocal: women owned the property – Men taught their children by persuasion and example. – Few cared to acquire more property than could be carried from one site to another. – Antithesis to European capitalism; Europeans saw them as poor consumers – No individual land ownership (even in sedentary societies) – Clans or families guarded their "use rights" to land allocated by chiefs.
Civilizations of the North Arctic – Example Inuit or Eskimo – Fished & hunted seals – Traveled by dogsled, lived in Igloos Sub-Arctic – Nomadic big-game hunters – Subsisted on moose & caribou Northwest Coast (wealthiest in natural resources) – Competing tribes for natural resources – Established permanent settlements – Main occupation was salmon fishing 15
Civilizations of the North Plateau – Occupations included fishing, hunting small game, & gathering Great Basin – Known for agriculture – Developed irrigation systems, housing known as Pueblos Great Plains – Known for farming corn & other grains – Some tribes subsisted on hunting buffalo – Lived in Tee-pees Eastern Woodland – Greatest food resources – Occupations included farming, hunting, gathering, & fishing – Southern tribes developed permanent settlements & large trading networks – Northeastern tribes planted crops including corn, beans, squash, & pumpkins. 16
Civilizations of the North Eastern Woodlands (cont.) – Tribes were linked loosely by language – Major tribes included Algonquin of the Atlantic seaboard & Iroquois of upstate New York including the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk. – Other tribes included Cherokees & Tuscaroras of the Carolinas & Georgia as well as the Muskogean including the Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, & Seminoles. 17
Civilizations of the North Atlantic seaboard tribes began growing maize, beans, & squash (c.1000 AD) – Creeks practiced democratic style government – Choctaw and Cherokee also prominent Iroquois in eastern woodlands built a strong military confederacy (led by Hiawatha, late 16th c.) – Located in Mohawk Valley of what is today New York State – Iroquois Confederacy consisted of Five Nations: Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and the Senecas. – The "longhouse" was the foundation of Iroquois culture: 8 to 200 ft in length.
Natives of North America Pre-Columbus – During the last centuries before European arrival an agricultural revolution took place led to mostly permanent settlements known for religious & societal roles – Tribal Cultures were so diverse that generalizations about their cultures is difficult Which leads us to a discussion about culture?
An Introduction to Culture What is Culture? What’s in a Culture?
Culture Learned vs. Innate? Culture is developed over time & taught by those that influence you.
What is Culture? Culture is..... Learned Historical Symbolic Shared Unique
What is Culture? Culture is influenced by.... Geography History & Heritage Exchange
What’s in a Culture? BeliefsValuesTraditions CustomsRitualsPractices LanguageClothingFood RolesReligionLeisure SportsEntertainmentMusic HousingArtGovernment And many more!!!
Culture is simply defined as an individual, group, or society’s total way of life. How would you describe your culture?
Exploration European Explorers – Non-Europeans came prior to Columbus but did not stay. Afro-Phoenicians c. 1000 B.C.-300 AD may have reached Central America West Africa (Mali) c. 1311-1460 sailed to Haiti, Panama, possibly Brazil – Vikings & Leif Erickson had temporary settlement at Newfoundland c. 1000 AD
Fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD) Began the Medieval Period What is an empire? Why did it fall? – The empire became to big to govern & protect How did it fall? – Barbarian tribes in Mongolia & Asia slowly chipped away at the empire over time. Natural Law of History – For every empire that rises it eventually falls – Signs of a declining empire War National Debt Declining Educational System
How did the Fall of the Roman Empire lead to the Age of Exploration? When the Barbarians attacked, people fled to the mountains for protection. They built forts called castles for protection (Rise of Kings & Kingdoms) Fuedalism – service in exchange for protection The Barbarian invasions blocked the trade route from Europe to China & the East Indies.
The Renaissance Took place between the 1300s & 1600s Means rebirth of civilization The Barbarian invasions did not last forever. People eventually returned to the valleys. This period gave rise to great art & architecture. Individuals like Michelangelo & Leonardo Da Vinci. People began to wonder about how things used to be. Through oral history they learned of the former trade route & the wonderful products of the Far East.
The Commercial Revolution Marco Polo traveled from Italy to China & brought back much information His journey created the want for products such as silk, sugar, porcelain, & steel, which contributed to the desire to open & maintain a trade route from Europe to the East Indies.
Fall of Constantinople (1453) Constantinople, the new capital of the Catholic Church established by Pope Constantine, was built along the trade route In 1453, a tribe known as the Turks captured Constantinople & blocked the trade route This led to the need to find an all-water route from Europe to Asia, which would give rise to the Age of Exploration
European Motives for Exploration Emerging nation-states sought power and hoped to out-compete rivals New military technology enabled Europeans to dominate from c. 1500 on. Economics – Need for new markets esp. from the East (e.g., spices) – Mercantilism required new sources of precious metals, and furs. Competition between Catholics and Protestants became conflict of national purposes
European Motives for Exploration Science and technology allowed for extended exploration: – Portuguese and Spanish mapped prevailing winds and currents in oceans over most of the globe. – Studied, copied and improved designs of Arab vessels. – Used compass and astrolabe (for latitude). – Mounted cannon on decks Renaissance (starting late 14th c. lasting well into 16th c.) – Atmosphere of rebirth, optimism, exploration -- "Man is the measure” – Secular Europe begins to break the shackles of religious domination
Portuguese Exploration Encouraged by Prince Henry the Navigator – Initially, sought coastal points below the Sahara Desert where Portugal could undercut Arab traders and bring in profits. – Find water route to Asia (late 14th c.)
Portuguese Exploration Bartholomeu Dias rounded southern tip of Africa in 1488 in search of route to Asia. 1498 -- Vasco da Gama reached India; brought back some treasures creating European thirst for eastern goods. Opened the door for Portugal’s empire in the East. Pedro Cabral – Discovered east coast of Brazil during 2nd failed voyage to India. – Brazil eventually became a colony
Portuguese Exploration Florentine Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) – In 1501-02, he detailed his exploration in Brazil – A German geographer honored Vespucci’s false claim to have been the first to travel to Brazil, and named the new area "America.“ Portugal eventually est. trade stations in India, Africa, China, E. Indies.
Spanish Exploration Christopher Columbus (Italian explorer) Spain was eager to compete with Portugal. Queen Isabella & King Ferdinand support Columbus. Columbus’ motives: – Religion: believed world would end in 1648 and God would make Gospel available to all mankind before last days. He could bring on the Millennium and become a saint. – Wealth Columbus landed on island in the Bahamas on Oct.12, 1492. Believed he had reached East Indies (east of India on the Indian Ocean).
Spanish Exploration Columbus moved on to Hispaniola where Arawak were friendly; had tobacco & gold. Arawak Indians were virtually exterminated by Columbus and his followers Until his death in 1506, Columbus maintained he had reached the "Indies."
Spanish Exploration Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) – Two Catholic Countries competing for land resulted in this treaty. – Spain secured its claim to Columbus's discoveries – New World divided: Portugal got Brazil + territory in Africa & Asia; Spanish dominated N. & S. America. – Spain thus never had access to West African slave trade. Motives for discovery – Lure of gold & silver as well as conversion of pagan natives to Christianity.
Spanish Exploration Spanish discoverers: – Vasco Nunez Balboa discovered Pacific Ocean off of Panama in 1513. – Ferdinand Magellan sailed around S. America but killed by natives in Philippines. Ship continued on: first circumnavigation of the globe in 1522. – Ponce de Leon discovered Florida (thought it was an island) in 1513 seeking the fountain of youth. Died by an Indian arrow. – Francisco Coronado in search of golden cities traveled through Arizona, N. Mexico, Colorado, Kansas and perhaps Nebraska. – Juan Cabrillo -- sailed as far north as Oregon, discovered San Diego Bay. -- Laid basis for Spain’s claims to northern Pacific Coast of North America. By 1519, Spain had gained little economically from exploration.
Spanish Exploration Conquerors -- conquistadores – Hernando de Soto in a gold seeking expedition in 1539-42 crossed the Mississippi River north of Arkansas; treated Indians badly. -- Explored much of the southwest, including Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, far west as Arkansas) – Hernando Cortes conquered the Aztecs in 1519-1521 -- Moctezuma’s envoys thought Cortes was god Quetzalcoatl – Francisco Pizarro defeated Incas in 1532; vast amounts of gold & silver – Spanish invaders enslaved Indians; forced labor digging for precious metals.
Long-term Impact of Spanish Conquest Intermarriage created distinctive Latin American culture of mestizos: Indian & Spanish Empire stretched from California and Florida to the tip of South America. – St. Augustine fortress erected (1565): oldest European settlement in U.S. -- Purpose: keep French out of Spanish southeast territory & protect sea lanes in the Caribbean. – Founded province of New Mexico in 1609 -- Santa Fe became capital. -- Mission system established in 17th century -- Dominican friars – 1716, mission system established in Texas (incl. San Antonio– later the Alamo) – California Spain concerned about Britain & Russia in N. America after 1763. Father Junipero Serra founded first mission in San Diego in 1769. -- 20 missions followed with 4 presidios -- Franciscan friars
Long-term Impact of Spanish Conquest Transplanted laws, religion and language in North America and laid foundations for a score of Spanish-speaking countries. "Black Legend": false view held by other Europeans that only Spain "killed for Christ," enslaved Indians, stole their gold, infected them with diseases, and left nothing but misery behind.
The French in North America French exploration – Giovanni da Verrazano, 1524: sailed American coast from Carolina to Maine. Probably the first European to see New York harbor. – Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River in 1530s. In response, Spain erected fort St. Augustine, Florida, (1565) to keep French out of interior & Caribbean. – Samuel de Champlain “father of New France” established Quebec in 1608 (a year after the English founded Jamestown in Virginia)
The French in North America Of the European powers, the French were the most successful in creating an effective trading relationship with the Indians. – British settlers sought to remove or exterminate Native Americans – Spanish sought to Christianize Indians and use them for forced labor. The French became great gift givers (the key to getting on with Indians who based inter-tribal relationships on gift giving) during late 17th century. – Trade not seen as a transaction or contract (like in Europe). – Trade seen by Indians as a continuing process. – When a group stopped trading w/ another, it was tantamount to declaring war.
The French in North America Th e beaver trade led to exploration of much of North America; (heavy demand for fur in European fashion) – Coureurs de bois (“runners of the woods”) – Rough frontiersmen who sought to tap the lucrative fur trade. – French seamen - voyageurs -- recruited Indians into the fur trade Jesuits: Catholic Missionaries who sought to convert Indians and save them from the fur trappers. – Some were brutally killed by Indians (although in the eyes of Indians, Jesuits held up best to torture and were thus more respected). – Played a vital role as explorers and geographers.
The French in North America Other explorers – Antoine Cadillac -- founded Detroit in 1701 -- Aimed to keep English settlers out of the Ohio Valley – Robert de La Salle -- Sailed from Quebec, down through the Great Lakes, and down the Mississippi River in 1682 with the help of Indian guides. Sought to prevent Spanish expansion into Gulf of Mexico region Coined the name "Louisiana" in honor of Louis XIV – French establish posts in the Mississippi region (New Orleans most important—1718) Attempt to block Spanish expansion into the Gulf of Mexico Forts and trading posts in Illinois country: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, & Vincennes -- Large amounts of grain sent down the Mississippi River for shipment to the West Indies and Europe.
The French in North America Impact of French (and British) on eastern woodlands Indians: decimation by disease, gun warfare & alcoholism. Many Indians saw any contact with Europeans as dangerous and catastrophic. European weapons deeply intensified Indian warfare in the eastern woodlands during last three decades of the 17th century. – Resulted in the depopulation of the Ohio Valley in a matter of decades. – Iroquois waged war on the Huron and Algonquin tribes. Later, French armed Hurons & Algonquins; Iroquois forced to neutrality. – Iroquois turned to diplomacy with Europeans after 1700. By the 1760s, Indians in the region had agreed not to kill each other. -- Revitalization: hoped that banding together and eliminating alcohol could revitalize Native American life and protect them against European invaders.
England in North America Major causes leading to British colonial impulse – Eventual peace with Spain provided opportunities overseas without harassment – Population growth provided workers/ potential colonists – Unemployment (economic opportunity), farm land, adventure, markets, political freedom, religious freedom, social change. – Joint-stock companies provided financial means: investors pooled resources for sea expeditions.
England in North America Competition with Spain and later France – Protestant England vs. Catholic Spain during late 16th century. John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) in 1497-98 explored coast of Newfoundland to Virginia for the English crown. Found no passage to India; no settlement; much fishing Frobisher, 1576: Explored coast of Labrador Sir Francis Drake ("sea dogs") pirated Spanish ships around the globe; netted heavy profits to his financial backers including Queen Elizabeth.
England in North America Attempts to colonize in the face of Spanish glory – 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert attempted to colonize Newfoundland but died while at sea. – 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh (Gilbert's half-brother) led 115 men, women & children to Roanoke Island off coast of VA; mysteriously vanished. 1588 -- British defeated the Spanish Armada (Elizabeth vs. Phillip II) – Spain attempted to invade England with a massive fleet of 130 ships. – Helped ensure England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic and later the Atlantic sea routes to North America. – Seen by some historians as beginning of the fall of the Spanish Empire. An English national spirit emerged
England in North America 1604 -- Peace treaty signed between England and Spain providing control of more land in North America Jamestown, VA (1607) – first permanent English settlement – preceeded by many failed efforts 17th C – a group of London merchants who owned Raleigh's charter rights renewed attempt at colonizing Virginia – rival group from Plymouth also wanted to – James issued new charter dividing rights to East coast (London merchants got south, Plymouth merchants got north) Led to enduring English colonies
Results of Contact between Natives & Europeans For Native Americans – Genocide: By 1600, nearly 90% of Native American population perished. European diseases, e.g., smallpox, yellow fever, malaria, most destructive. Central Am. & Caribbean pop. in 1519 = perhaps 25 mil; 1 mil in 1605. – European impact on culture -- cattle, swine and horses, firearms. Great Plains tribes--Apache, Blackfoot, and Sioux--transformed via horses
Results of Contact between Natives & Europeans For Europeans – Global empires for 1st time in human history. – Explosion of capitalism – Revolution in diet Corn, beans, tomatoes & esp. potato lead to improved diet = higher mortality = higher population = bigger push for emigration. Revolutionized international economy. Stimulants: coffee, cocoa, and tobacco
Contributions of Mother Countries to North America England -- Democratic forms of local gov’t; tradition of hard- working, zealous individuals, English language France -- Language, culture, and religion introduced to Canada and Louisiana and to many Indians west of Appalachians; large-scale trade with Indians Spain -- Schools, hospitals, and printing presses established by missionaries; Spanish language in the Southwest; teaching of Christianity and handicrafts to Native Americans.
Test Format 20 Multiple Choice 10 True & False 5 Matching 2 Open-Ended Questions – Topics Positive & negative cultural exchanges between Europeans & the Native Americans Reasons Europeans chose to colonize the “new world”