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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Numerical Simulation of Earthworks and Retaining System for an Excavation F. Geiser and S. Commend GeoMod ing. conseils SA

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Introduction Offices and commercial building Lausanne region 120 x 35(max) x 9.3 m Numerical modelling: 3D numerical simulation (Z_Soil) continuum elements

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Slurry wall Geometry: structural elements

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Hydrogeotechnical conditions 9.3 m 8.0 m 3.5 m Remblai Glacio-sableux Glacio-argileux mou Fluvio-glaciaire Glacio-argileux Moraine msm = 0.0 Molasse imperméable Puits de décharge

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages Piles T = 0. Etat initial

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Piles realisation

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Slurry wall realisation

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages T = 1. Excavation globale jusquà -3.0 m

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages T = 2. Excavation zone A à -7.0 m, puis étayage à -2.5 m zone A

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages T = 3. Excavation du reste à -7.0 m

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages T = 3.2. Excavation zone A jusquà -9.3 m (f.f.)

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages T = 3.4. Excavation de la moitié du reste jusquà -9.3 m

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages T = 3.6. Sous-radier à -9.3 m sur la moitié de la surface

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Excavation stages T = 5 T = 4. Excavation du reste à -9.3 m, puis fin du sous-radier T = 5. Application des charges de service du bâtiment

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Results: final horizontal displacements uz A B

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Results: horizontal displacements evolution

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Results: final horizontal displacements

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Results: final vertical displacements

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Results: forces in the bracing

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Results: moments in the slurry wall

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Results: moments in the slurry wall

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : particular study 15 m 17.2 m

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : simplified 3D model 9.3 m 8.0 m 3.5 m Remblai K = m/s épaisseur = 3.5 à 7.5 m Glacio-sableux K = m/s épaisseur = 4 m Glacio-argileux mou K = m/s épaisseur = 7.6 m Fluvio-glaciaire K = m/s épaisseur = 3.7 m Glacio-argileux K = m/s épaisseur = 4 m Moraine K = m/s épaisseur = 6 m msm = 0.0 Molasse imperméableWell (model with/without) K = m/s e= 15 m

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : simplified 3D model with well A = 15 * 17.2 = 258 m 2 Coupe 2D avec tranchées drainantes Tranche 3D avec puits, esp. = 15 m

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : simplified 3D model e Clay – low permeability ModelThickness of the « impermeable » layer WellFlow in the excavated area ( 258 m 2 ) Flow for the entire excavation (3200 m 2 ) Simple mYes65.7 m 3 /d815 m 3 /d Simple mNo2.4e-3 m 3 /d30 litres/d Simple mNo9.7e-3 m 3 /d120 litres/d

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : 3D model Low permeability High permeability

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : 3D model

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : 3D model 1625 m 3 / jour

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Water : 3D model 0.04 m 3 / jour Impermeable wall

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Impermeable wall

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Temperature effect on bracing : 2D model general considerations for T = 30 ° Free truss:l = T L/2 = 5 mm Fixed conditionsF = 1000 kN Imposed displacementF = 165 kN ux imposé = - 5 mm ux = mm

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Temperature effect on bracing : 2D model imposing T on bracing (Q4) T : from 10 °C to 40 °C => T = 30 °C T = 10 °C = cte

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Temperature effect on bracing : 2D model imposing T on bracing ux = 0 (imposed) N=230 kN

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Commend, Mellal, Geiser – Z_Soil Day 2007 Lausanne, 27th August 2007 Conclusions Currently under construction Predictions in the range of deformations and forces Horizontal displacements slightly > measurements Linked mainly to: - « conservative » evaluation of and c - real water behaviour

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