Presentation on theme: "RADIO MUHABURA: A COVER-UP HATE RADIO? PUTS J-P, MD, Brussels,"— Presentation transcript:
1 RADIO MUHABURA: A COVER-UP HATE RADIO? PUTS J-P, MD, Brussels, 20100521 , ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
2 GEOGRAPHY AND MUHABURA The Muhabura is an extinct volcano situated on the border of Rwanda and Uganda, at an altitude of 4,127 meters, latitude of 1°22’55.81’’ South and longitude of 29°40’41.52’’ East. It is the most Northern Rwandan volcano with at its South-West six other extinct volcanos: Gahinga, Mukurumubi, Nyamuragira, Sabyinyo, Bisoke and Karisimbi., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
3 DEFINITION OF MUHABURA Muhabura – Muhavura – Umuhabuura (guhabuura) : « celui qui est visible de loin », « celui qui sert de point de repère », « le phare », « who is leading the way ».Ikiruunga (kuruunga) : volcano, huge person, swarm of flies or bees.Ikiruumba (kjuruumba) : volcano, sterile plant, unproductive field, plante ou champ stérile, bon à rien, good-for-nothing., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
4 SYMBOLISM AND MUHABURA Les anciens Rwandais affirmaient : « Muri Muhabuura hajya abazimu b ababaandwa baapfuuye ari aabeere », « Dans le Muhabura, sont installés les esprits des adeptes du culte de Ryaangoombe, lesquels sont sans souillure ».Ryaangoombe était une sorte de magicien ambulant originaire du Kitara cya Muliro, dans l’ouest de l’Ouganda, actuellement le Toro, au nord du Lac Edouard, Rwicanzige, « Celui qui tue les sauterelles ». C’est aussi au Toro que bon nombre de réfugiés Tutsi rwandais se sont réfugiés dès l’année 1959, en attendant de revenir vers la mère patrie, sur les pas de… Ryaangoombe., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
5 CHOICE OF THE NAME MUHABURA FOR A RADIO According to Anicet KAREGE, Radio Muhabura took the name of a RPF newspaper working in Bujumbura for the mobilisation of young diaspora Tutsi recruits and RPF propaganda., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
6 MARKET ANALYSIS FOR A RADIO : 85 newspapers, radios and propaganda organs, 51 (63%) of which were pro-RPF.33 à 44% illettrés (illiterates), presse écrite peu développée, caricatures (cartoons)+1991 : 29% of the families had a radio receiver (27% in countryside, 59% in towns)THE RADIO IS THE BEST TOOL FOR HITTING THE PROPAGANDA’S TARGET., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
7 THREE RWANDAN RADIOS RADIO RWANDA (State radio: ORINFOR) : 5 KW (1960), 50 KW (1963 : Deutsche Welle, Kinyinya), new building in Kigali (1968, German funds) ;In 1992 : Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro (MDR) is appointed director as a democratic step.RADIO MUHABURA (rebel clandestine RPF radio):First transmission in March 1991, 28 months before RTLM.RTLM SA (Radio Télévision Libre des Mille collines) :Private radio : first idea in 1992, expérimental transmissions in July 1993, operational in August 1993.Created in reaction to the propaganda of Radio Muhabura and to the control of Radio Rwanda by the opposition party MDR in 1992, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
8 FINANCING OF RADIO MUHABURA The Tutsi businessman Valens Kajeguhakwa, alias « VEKA » (V. K.), alias « Avenue Château Wales », belongs to the « chers compagnons, amis et frères » of RPF.« VK » used 50 million BEF from his account at the « Banque du Luxembourg » for financing RPF in , including the purchase of a radio transmitter.VK took refuge in the USA in 2001., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
9 MONITORING OF RADIO MUHABURA On the 2nd of July 1992, BBC-Monitoring (BBC-M) service in Karen-Nairobi-KENYA monitored Radio Muhabura on Khz (near the 49 meters short wave « tropical band »).ALL THE DATA (AUDIO RECORDINGS AND TRANSCRITS) OF THE BBC-M ARE AUTOMATICALLY COPIED FOR THE US FBIS (CIA) BECAUSE OF THE UKUSA AGREEMENT (1943)., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
10 FREQUENCIES OF RADIO MUHABURA Short waves, modulated amplitude (AM), no SSB/BLU.Initialy on Khz (tropical band).Then in the range to Khz (ideally with a 12 meters vertical antenna at 12 meters from the ground!)Interférences on the radio frequencies of the BBC giving a bad S.I.N.P.O., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
11 HOURS OF TRANSMISSION OF RADIO MUHABURA GMT0400 – 05301000 – 11351715 – 2005, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
12 ANNOUNCING MESSAGE OF RADIO MUHABURA « This is Radio Muhabuura. Radio Muhabuura, the voice that repatriates the voice of the RPF Inkootanyi »., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
13 LOCALISATION OF THE RADIO TRANSMITTER Mid-1991: Southern Uganda.Moved to Bujumbura-Burundi in , under the protection and financial aid of Tutsi dictator Pierre Buyoya. Presence of 400 Inkotanyi in Bujumbura.Closed begin October 1993 on order of newly elected Hutu President Melchior Ndadaye, who has been murdered a little bit later, on 21 October 1993.Reappeared on the hights of Mulindi RPF HQ in November 1993., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
14 LOCALISATION OF THE RADIO TRANSMITTER After the « Coup d’Etat » of 4 April 1994, Radio Muhabura regularly changed its position for security reasons.In April-May 1994, mainly in Byumba.End June 1994, probably in the Centre Christus in Kigali, according to testimonies.9 July 1994: closure of Radio Muhabura.15 July 1994: reopening of Radio Rwanda with the same Radio Muhabura team, on 6,055 Khz., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
15 TERRITORY COVERED BY RADIO MUHABURA Till mid-1992, Radio was heared everywhere in Rwanda, excepted in the South (Nduga).After moving to Buja, all the Rwandan territory was covered.Easily recorded in Nairobi, even by the radio opera tors in Canada (Club Ondes Courtes du Québec)., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
16 LANGUAGES USED ON RADIO MUHABURA ENGLISHKINYARWANDAFRENCHSWAHILI, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
19 SOURCES OF INFORMATION OF RADIO MUHABURA Foreign radios news.Spy network of RPF-Inkotanyi (internal RPF cells).After end December 1993: the 3rd Bn RPA/RPF at the CND in Kigali, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
23 THE GREAT LINES OF RADIO MUHABURA 1/ CONTRA-PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE « HABYARIMANA REGIME » OR « CLIQUE » AND AGAINST THE AD INTERIM RWANDAN GOVERNMENT (ABATABAZI).2/ INCITATION TO VIOLENCE, WAR, RETALIATION.3/ CAMOUFLAGE OF BOTH RPF’S STRATEGY AND WAR CRIMES.4/ COMPLICITY OF MURDER BY NON ASSISTANCE TO CITIZENS IN DANGER.5/ SYSTEMATIC CRITIC OF BOTH INTERVENTION OR INACTIVITY OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
24 « MIRROR KILLINGS »"(…) Last night, Radio Rwanda aired a very worrying communiqué. The communiqué points out that both the prefects of Kigali and Kigali town were going to go ahead with the publication [of names] of young people who are said to have joined the armed wing of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. The reason put forward was that the population must be given the list of names of the families of RPA soldiers. We do not understand why. In the recent past, such pretexts have launched large-scale programmed massacres. Clearly, once more, the regime is again looking for scapegoats (...)". "It can not be denied that not only young people but also men, women, the aged and children have regularly left the country, fleeing massacres orchestrated by the administration" (...). "Citizens are massacred, then it is alleged that they had joined the RPA. This was the case in Muhigira, Murambi and elsewhere. And now they want to turn on the families of the dead so as to inflict death. What a misery! Moreover, the young men who have joined the ranks of the RPA are adults, of sound mind, and in a state of law. If there is a case for legal proceedings against them, it should be conducted against them individually and not against their relatives (...). A word to the wise is enough".Radio Muhabura, , 1715 GMT, French., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
25 PARANOID SUPERIORITY"The RPF believes that it has been clearly understood as to why it resumed fighting two days ago. Therefore, in the interest of the two parties in the conflict, the RPF declares an immediate cease-fire, which the Rwandese government forces must also respect immediately" (...) "The RPF wishes to remind that it resumed fighting due to the following reasons. One, the continuous display of lack of respect for the peace process by President Habyarimana and his likes in Kigali government. Two, the continuous attacks on RPA positions by the Rwandese government forces, as attested to by the NMOG (...). Three, continuous intimidation, violence and massacres instigated by President Habyarimana himself and his clique in power, using all the state institutions at their disposal. Four, the presence of foreign troops, contrary to the cease-fire agreement, and continuous involvement of these foreign troops in direct support of the dictatorial and sectarian regime".Radio Muhabura, , 1715 GMT, English., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
26 PARANOID SUPERIORITY"We hereby deny what has been broadcast. As you heard, yesterday, Wednesday 10th February 1993, the RPF announced it had stopped fighting. It also called on the Rwandan government to stop fighting. Sadly, however, government troops continue to attack the RPF's newly-acquired positions with the intention of reoccupying them. This proves that the Rwandan government does not intend to stop fighting, and clearly shows that the fighting cannot cease because RPF troops cannot fail to respond while they are being attacked" (...) "Why should the government worry about the RPF remaining in the positions it currently holds if the government genuinely wants talks leading to peace, instead of its usual practice of saying one thing and doing another?" (...) "The Defense Ministry, in conjunction with Rwandan radio, is claiming that the RPF kills citizens wherever it goes. We tell you again that this is a lie fabricated by the government to distort the RPF's image. The lie is baseless. To kill innocent citizens is a shameful crime the RPF could not dare to commit. It would also be contrary to its aims. Ever since taking up arms, the RPF has wanted to protect citizens who were being killed by the MRND regime. How can it now start killing those it is supposed to protect? Instead, it needs to join them in fighting the bad government of the MRND" (...) "But if the government troops continue to fight in the hope of recovering the positions recently occupied by the RPF, it is clear that the war will never end".Radio Muhabura, , 1715 GMT, Kinyarwanda., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
27 CEASE-FIRE BUT FIRING ON HABYARIMANA’S HELICOPTER "We wish to deny the report that President Habyarimana has visited his soldiers in Ruhengeri. President Habyarimana is a good liar. Yesterday, 12th February 1993 [WRONG,Radio Rwanda, the 13th, 1115 GMT], you heard yet another of his ploys to the effect that he visited his troops in the town of Ruhengeri. You also heard a speech he is reported to have made there. Actually, he never set foot there. The ploy is another in the series of lies the Defense Ministry has been broadcasting, according to which their troops are in control of the town of Ruhengeri. In fact, even since the war resumed, the Inkotanyi have been in control of the town by continuing to surround it. It is true that President Habyarimana tried to visit his troops yesterday in Ruhengeri, but he failed. His helicopter tried to land in the town three times, but each attempt was failed by the fire of RPF troops. He was lucky that his helicopter was not hit".Radio Muhabura, , 1735 GMT, French., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
28 NGARAMA’S MASSACRES"Three delegates of the UN commission for the defense of human rights" have visited the area controlled by the Rwandan Patriotic Front. The objective of the visit was to verify the Kigali government's statements claiming that the RPF had massacred civilians in the areas it vacated on 17th march, notably in Ngarama. During their visit, [names indistinct] met some Rwandan Patriotic Army officers, including the RPA C-in-C, Paul Kagame, who told tem the accusations by Kigali were baseless. The dictatorial regime, he added, habitually massacred innocents, even in the regions far away from the combat zones. The RPA C-in-C recalled the cases of Kibilira, Kanzenze and Bugesera and Bigogwe. On the claim that the RPF illegally confined Rwandan citizens on Ugandan territory, Paul Kagame said the RPF did not practise [words indistinct] and had no reason to deport people. Referring to the Ngarama affairs, the RPA C-in-C [Paul Kagame] termed it a scandalous lie meant to tarnish the RPF after the publication on 8th March of an overwhelming report on the Kigali human rights performance in Rwanda (...)".Radio Muhabura, , 1815 GMT, French., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
29 DESIGNATING TARGETS FOR THE EXTREMISTS "Reports confirmed by concrete evidence say the army command and politicians are doing everything possible to kill or transfer soldiers who kept peace in their areas. We have examples. There is Major Michel Havugiyaremye in Rwamagana, whom they want to kill because he did not support the plan to cause chaos in this area. There are also Major Cyiza, Major Ngayaberura and Major Kambanda, also threatened because they refused to shed blood in their areas".Radio Muhabura, , 0415 GMT, Kinyarwanda., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
30 KAGAME’s « COMMON FODDER » "Les journalistes ont aussi demandé son opinion sur les accusations que le FPR tuait aussi des civils. Le général-major Paul Kagame a catégoriquement rejeté l'accusation. Il a indiqué que le FPR ne tuait pas de civils au cours de ses opérations. Il a aussi indiqué que les miliciens armés envoyés au combat pour appuyer les forces armées gouvernementales étaient, bien évidemment de la vulgaire chair à canon ["common fodder", sic; en réalité "common cannon fodder", en bon anglais].Radio Muhabura, , 1815 GMT, French., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
31 CONCLUSIONS (1)1/ Une banque de données est indispensable pour que tout un chacun puisse objectivement savoir ce qui s’est réellement dit sur Radio Muhabura.2/ La banque de donnée des transcrits de médias radios concernant le Rwanda contient actuellement 397 transcrits d’enregistrements de Radio Muhabura, soit 40% de l’ensemble des transcrits de diverses radios déjà analysés, et correspondant à un total estimé de 11 heures d’enregistrement.3/ Cette radio rebelle était un outil au service de la stratégie de prise exclusive du pouvoir par le mouvement politico-militaire RPF-Inkotanyi: « PARA TOMAR EL PODER » (Don Fernando Andreu Merelles, Juzgado 4, Audiencia Nacional, Madrid)., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
32 CONCLUSIONS (2)4/ Depuis la mise en place du TPIR, il y a un blocage systématique de l’accès aux enregistrements audio de Radio Muhabura, enregistrements faits à Nairobi – Kairen par le BBC-Monitoring et copié pour le FBIS (CIA) et le US State Department. C’est l’Administration américaine (USSD) qui a fourni les documents au Bureau du Procureur.5/ L’analyse des transcrits de Radio Muhabura, obtenus par examen des publications officielles de la BBC-Monitoring (SWL) et de la CIA (FBIS-IV) révèle que Radio Muhabura s’est fait le relai systématique de la position inflexible du FPR : diabolisation du régime du Président Juvénal Habyarimana, escamotage systématique de la vérité, diabolisation du gouvernement intérimaire, division des Rwandais entre eux, camouflage des crimes du FPR, refus de cessez-le-feu, manipulation des consciences., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
33 CONCLUSIONS (3)6/ If ICTR COVERS-UP THE TRUTH ABOUT WHAT HAS REALLY SAID ON RADIO MUHABURA ANTENNAS, THAT MEANS THAT ICTR HAS A POLICY OF LYING.7/ WE WANT TO KNOW THE TRUTH ABOUT THIS REBEL CLANDESTINE RADIO MUHABURA. IF NOT, THERE HAS BEEN AND THERE WILL BE NO FAIR TRIAL IN ARUSHA.8/ AFTER HAVING COPIED THE FBIS-IV (CIA) AND THE BBC-M TRANSCRIPTS, NEXT STEP WILL BE TO TAKE CONTACTS WITH BOTH BRITISH MI-5 AND US STATE DEPARTMENT., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
34 COMMON GOAL.ALL TOGETHER, LET US FURTHER FIGHT FOR TRUTH, JUSTICE, PEACE AND RECONCILIATION FOR ALL OUR RWANDAN BROTHERS AND SISTERS. WE WANT FAIR TRIALS FOR EVERYBODY: IT IS A QUESTION OF HUMANITY AND CHARITY.Thank You., ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.