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Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering ECE Laboratory Safety By Francis Cheng Safety Officer/Consultant.

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1 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering ECE Laboratory Safety By Francis Cheng Safety Officer/Consultant

2 Training Objectives 1.Understand the importance of Safety 2.Know your department OSH Policy & elements found inside OSH Management System 3.Know the applicable legislations & licensing requirements 4.Understanding safety in Lab including safe use of equipment, chemicals, gas cylinders and other general lab safety.

3 Content 1.Importance of Safety 2.Overview of OSH Management System  Department OSH Policy  Elements of OSH Management System 3.Applicable Legal Requirements in Lab 4.Lab Safety  Common Lab Safety Issues  Important Factors to Note In Lab  Common Equipment in labs  Safety Provisions in Lab  Emergency Response 5.Gas Cylinder Safety  Sharing of good safety & health practices in lab 6.Chemical Safety  Sharing of good safety & health practices in lab 7.Non-ionising Radiation  Sharing of good safety & health practices in Lab


5 Importance of Safety  Freedom from harm  Somebody is waiting for me at home  To protect our freedom & livelihood  To safeguard our career & future Safety does not come naturally, it takes effort, time & determination but it is worth all the while when our life and future depends on it. Outcome from accident is never pleasant & it is unfortunate & painful to learn safety from an accident.

6 Expect graphic and unpleasant picture in the following slides Accidents in Workplace

7 In March 2006, an explosion at National Institution of Higher Learning in Chemistry (ENSCMu) in France killed a Professor, injured a 19 year old student and caused damages amounting to US$130 M! Consequence of safety lapses – Fatalities & injuries!

8 A fatal accident happened in an organic chemistry laboratory at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in late December, 2008. A research assistant was using a syringe to transfer about 50 mL of a pyrophoric chemical (a substance that catches fire spontaneously once exposed to air), tert-butyl lithium, dissolved in pentane, a flammable solvent. The plunger suddenly came apart from the syringe barrel, causing the pyrophoric chemical to spew onto the hands and body of the researcher and catch fire. Even though the fire was finally put out by other laboratory workers, the researcher suffered second to third-degree burns to over 43% of her body. She died in January 2009 due to the burns and the resulting complications, after 18 days in the hospital Fire and Explosion in University

9 Although the fumehood sash was partially down (about half way), the researcher received injuries mostly to the right side of his face (see photo below) and to his left hand and arm. No injuries were associated with the eyes since the researcher was wearing safety glasses with side shields. A Ph.D. research student, performing an experiment inside a fumehood, was injured by flying glass shards, which were generated from an explosion that occurred in a reaction flask (see photos below). Accidents in Universities - Explosion

10 An investigator was blinded in one eye when a cryotube exploded while being thawed. The probable cause was the rapid expansion of liquid nitrogen that had entered the tube through a small crack during storage. Accidents in Universities – Eye Injury

11 Chemical Burns Not wearing covered shoe Burn by Hydrofluoric Acid

12 Explosion from Incompatible Wastes (Nitric acid/Ethanol) A researcher was performing a palladium/silver dealloying operation using nitric acid in the fumehood and pour the nitric waste inside the amber waste glass bottle after the operation. About 20ml ethanol which was used to rinse the slides was later added into the waste bottle and lid was closed. It is estimated that the container exploded in less than thirty seconds of mixing the wastes.

13 Explosion of Ultra Centrifuge

14 “… no one like to see their colleagues or workers being carried away in a body-bag” Dr Ng Eng Hen former Minister for Manpower

15 Reasons for Accident Occurrence -Complacency -Lack of knowledge or understanding in work process -Unsafe behaviour or poor attitude -Taking short-cuts -Rushing for deadlines -By-passing safety requirement

16 Accident Can Be Prevented -Safety Ownership -Adhering to safety polices, rules & regulations -Acquire safety knowledge and skills -Know where & what are the safety provisions -Be vigilant, know the work hazards and manage them -Correct any non-conformance resulting in near misses or first aid injury.



19 Safety Ownership -Be committed to safety -Responsible and have a safe attitude -Take safety seriously

20 2. Overview of Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) Management System


22 Overview of OSH MS Elements SNNew OSHMS ElementRef. No. 1.OSH Policy & ResponsibilitiesE1 2.Risk ManagementE2 3.Legal & Other RequirementsE3 4.Safety Promotion & ProgrammeE4 5.Awareness, Training & CompetencyE5 6.Communication & ConsultationE6 7.Safe Work Procedure/ProceduresE7 8.Contractor ManagementE8 9.Maintenance RegimeE9 10.Management of Hazardous SubstancesE10 11.Occupational Health ProgrammesE11 12.Emergency Preparedness & ResponseE12 13.Performance Measurements & MonitoringE13 14.OSH InspectionE14 15.Incident Reporting & InvestigationE15 16.Documentation and Management of Documents & RecordsE16 17.Internal Audit/ReviewE17


24 Applicable Legal Requirements Workplace Safety and Health Act Environmental Protection And Management Act Environmental Public Health Act Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations Poisons Act Chemical Weapons Convention Arms & Explosive Act Radiation Protection Act

25 Workplace Safety and Health Act

26 Workplace Safety & Health Act (WSHA) An Act relating to the safety, health and welfare of persons at work in workplaces Schedule of workplaces –Any laboratory or other premises where the testing, examination or analysis of any article is carried out.

27 WSHA Regulations applicable to ECE WSH (General Provisions) Regulations WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations WSH (First-Aid) Regulations WSH (Risk Management) Regulations WSH (Work at Height) Regulations (New)

28 Workplace Safety And Health (General Provisions) Regulations Autoclaves / Air receiver –Regulation 31 Pressure vessels which include steam boiler, steam receiver and air receiver (Test & Examination by authorised examiner) Lifting Devices –Regulation 21 Lifting appliances and lifting machines (Test & Examination by authorized examiner)

29 Workplace Safety And Health (General Provisions) Regulations Precautions with regards to explosive or flammable dust, gas, vapor or substance –Minimize release levels to prevent explosion, acute or chronic illness. Permissible exposure levels of toxic substances –Minimize exposure levels to toxic substances to prevent acute or chronic problems.

30 Workplace Safety And Health (Incident Reporting) Regulations Under the WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations: –Duty of employer to report work-related accidents involving employees –Duty of occupier to report work-related accidents involving person not at work, or any self-employed person In the case of accidents involving contractors engaged by the school, it will be the duty of the contractor as the employer to report the accident with details of the occupier i.e. the school where the accident occurred.

31 ClassesNUS to report Employees (lecturers, admin staff) Fatal accident; Injured for more than 3 consecutive days of MC; Admitted to hospital for at least 24 hrs for observation or treatment; Suffer an occupational disease; StudentsFatality or Injured as a result of receiving training where the injured student is taken to hospital for treatment in respect of that injury PublicFatality or Injured as a result of work being carried out by some party (contractor or school personnel) where the injured public is taken to hospital for treatment in respect of that injury

32 These Regulations shall apply to every workplace, whether or not it is a workplace specified in the First Schedule to the Act Workplace Safety And Health (Incident Reporting) Regulations

33 All accidents and incidents to be reported centrally to OSHE at _airs.htm Workplace Safety And Health (Incident Reporting) Regulations

34 Employer’s duty to provide first aid facilities Employee’s duty not to misuse first aid facilities provision of first aid resources & the appointment of First Aiders Workplace Safety And Health (First-Aid) Regulations

35 First Aid Box:  Every workplace shall be provided with sufficient number of first aid box  Provided on per floor basis  Nothing except appliances or requisites for first-aid shall be kept in a first-aid box i.e., no oral medications Workplace Safety And Health (First-Aid) Regulations

36 Provision of First Aid Boxes Every first-aid box shall — properly maintained; checked frequently to ensure that it is fully equipped and that all the items in it are usable; clearly identified as a first-aid box; placed in a location that is well-lit and accessible; and under the charge of a person appointed by the occupier of the workplace. Workplace Safety And Health (First-Aid) Regulations

37 First Aiders  First Aiders to be appointed and readily available during each shift in sufficient numbers during working hours, when there are more than 25 persons are employed and ratio of one first aider per 100 employees  Must have successfully completed the First Aid training or re-training  Shall maintain treatment records  A notice shall be affixed in every workroom stating the names of the First Aiders Workplace Safety And Health (First-Aid) Regulations

38 First Aid for exposure to toxic or corrosive substances  Where any person may be exposed to toxic or corrosive substances, the occupier shall make provision for the emergency treatment of the person.  Where the eyes or body of any person may come into contact with toxic or corrosive substances, the occupier shall ensure that suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body are provided and properly maintained within the work area for emergency use. Workplace Safety And Health (First-Aid) Regulations

39 Workplace Safety And Health (Risk Management) Regulations The WSH (Risk Management) Regulations require employers, the self-employed and principal (including contractor and sub-contractor) to conduct risk assessments for the purpose of identifying workplace safety and health risks and implementing measures to control the hazards and reducing the risks

40 Workplace Safety And Health (Risk Management) Regulations Enforced from 1 st September 2006 Carry out activity based risk assessment for all work activities including office operations PI who does not pass PI Certification Audit will need to carry out Project Based RA Department can either use 3x3 risk matrix or 5x5 risk matrix

41 TermDefinition Competent person means a person who has sufficient experience and training to perform the work required to be carried out, and has passed such courses as the Commissioner may require for that work; Work at height means work –– (a) in or on an elevated workplace from which a person could fall; (b) in the vicinity of an opening through which a person could fall; (c) in the vicinity of an edge over which a person could fall; (d) on a surface through which a person could fall; or (e) in any other place (whether above or below ground) from which a person could fall, from one level to another and it is reasonably likely that the person or any other person would be injured due to the distance of the fall; Hazardous work at height means work –– (a) in or on an elevated workplace from which a person could fall; (b) in the vicinity of an opening through which a person could fall; (c) in the vicinity of an edge over which a person could fall; (d) on a surface through which a person could fall; or (e) in any other place (whether above or below ground) from which a person could fall, a distance of more than 3 metres; Key Definitions Workplace Safety And Health (Work at Height) Regulations

42 Requirements Workplace Safety And Health (Work at Height) Regulations It shall be the duty of the responsible person (Employer/Principal) of any person who carries out or is to carry out any work at height to ensure that the person shall work at height in a workplace under the immediate supervision of a competent person for that work.

43 Ladders Workplace Safety And Health (Work at Height) Regulations Picture taken from Code of Practice for Working Safely at Height

44 Ladders Workplace Safety And Health (Work at Height) Regulations Picture taken from Code of Practice for Working Safely at Height

45 Environmental Protection And Management Act

46 Environmental Pollution Management Act National Environment Agency - Regulates the storage and transportation of chemicals License is required for any person who wishes to import, sell, export, purchase, store and/or use any hazardous substance Permit is required for any person who wishes to purchase, store and/or use any hazardous substance Faculty Safety Manager HS License holder Compliance via department Acting License Holder

47 Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations

48 Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) - Import, transport and storage of petroleum and flammable materials are under the SCDF licencing control Anyone intends to import, transport or store petroleum or flammable materials beyond the stipulated exemption quantities is required to obtain a licence from SCDF

49 Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations Liquid in Laboratory Excluding Qty in CabinetIncluding Qty in Cabinet Lab Unit Hazard Class Liquid ClassMax Qty Liters per sq m Max Qty Liters per lab unit Max Qty Liters per sq m Max Qty Liters per lab unit Laboratory other than lab in hospital and health care occupancy I0.8250 (350) 1.6500 (750) I, II, III1.6350 (500) 3.2750 (1000) Laboratory in hospital and health care occupancy I0.4150 (250) 0.8250 (500) I, II, III0.4150 (250) 0.8250 (500) (*) = max quantity allowed for sprinkler protected lab Each safety cabinet is restricted to 250L

50 Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations Flammable Gases –170L for 50 sq meters and less –Y (L) = 3.4 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters Oxidising Gases –170L for 50 sq meters and less –Y (L) = 3.4 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters Liquefied Flammable Gases –30L for 50 sq meters and less –Y (L) = 0.6 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters Toxic Gases –8L for 50 sq meters and less –Y(L) = 0.16 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters

51 Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations Maximum of three compressed gas cylinders to be serving each instrument/machine This group of cylinders must be six meters away from the next group of cylinders For any gas manifold system or gas tubing connection of more than 2 m, there must be pressure relief valve along the tubing line.

52 Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations Secondary containment for all flammable liquids should be made of metal and not plastic. Minimal capture of these trays must be 20%. Flammable liquids containers for Class I and II cannot exceed four liters. Only two 4.5 kg LPG cylinders per laboratory unit Wherever possible activities involving flammable liquids should be performed in a fume cupboard, to prevent the build up of a flammable mixture in the room.

53 Inventory management Safety Data Sheets Keep within the maximum quantity of liquid chemicals and gases declared Limit the quantity of liquid chemicals on benches, store in flammable storage cabinets Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations Responsibilities of PIs

54 Ensure that personnel who are required to handle petroleum and flammable materials are conversant with the law Flammable chemical wastes are subjected to fire safety requirements Validity of the Petroleum & Flammable Materials Storage Licence is 12 months Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations Responsibilities of PIs

55 Notification to SCDF is required for: –Exceeding the declared quantity of flammable materials in the laboratory –Relocation of flammable cabinets, compressed gas cylinders etc. –Any changes to fire safety equipment and/or infrastructure –PI to report to the safety and health officer for their faculty/office on the above changes Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations

56 Poisons Act

57 Poison Act Health Sciences Authority - List of Scheduled Poisons found in OSHE website: Keep Poisons under lock and key Inventory Management License required for importing of poisons

58 Chemical Weapons Convention

59 Regulates chemicals classified under chemical weapons. All chemicals must be stored, used and disposed in accordance to the requirements of the regulations These chemicals must not be bought or used without approval and license applied for through OSHE

60 Arms & Explosive Act

61 Arms and Explosives Act -Regulate the use of 15 chemicals that are classified as Explosive precursors. -The applicant will be the one directly involved in the handling of the explosive precursors. -holder of the license has relevant experience and knowledge in handling the explosive precursors and a register book shall be kept and maintain on the datas of the explosive chemical. -Licensing_of_Explosive_Precursors.pdfLicensing_of_Explosive_Precursors.pdf

62 Radiation Protection Act

63 -Radiation Protection (Ionising Radiation) Regulations -Radiation Protection (Non-Ionising Radiations) Regulations

64 Radiation Protection (Ionising Radiation) Regulations L1manufacture, possess for sale or deal in irradiating apparatus L2manufacture, possess for sale or deal in radioactive materials L3keep or possess an irradiating apparatus for use other than sale L4keep or possess radioactive materials for use other than sale L5use irradiating apparatus (other than sale) L6use, handle and transport radioactive materials (other than sale) L6Ahandle and transport radioactive materials L7import/export a consignment of irradiating apparatus L8import/export a consignment of radioactive materials R1registration as a radiation worker

65 Radiation Protection (Ionising Radiation) Regulations Even number for radioactive material Odd number for irradiating apparatus L5, L6 and R1 are to be certified fit R1 to work under supervision from L5 or L6

66 Radiation Protection (Non-Ionising Radiations) Regulations N1manufacture or deal in the apparatus N2keep or possess for use the irradiating apparatus N3use the irradiating apparatus (Class 3B and 4 laser) N4Aimport the irradiating apparatus (e.g. Class 3B and 4 laser, and ultrasound) N4Bexport the irradiating apparatus (e.g. Class 3B and 4 laser, and ultrasound)

67 Where to access to useful OSH information 1.OSHE Webpage 2.Ministry of Manpower Website 3.Workplace Safety & Health Council Website 4.Statute on-line (Legal Requirements)


69 Key Safety & Health Issues in Lab

70 Key Safety Issues for Labs  Hazardous energy sources (Electrical, mechanical, others)  Large number of chemicals  Widely differing quantities and hazards  Chemical used in multiple procedures  Handling-open operations  Contamination and misuse of equipment  Frequent introduction of new chemicals and methods  Ad-hoc experiments  Lab personnel competency  Waste disposal (chemical, biological, radiological, general)  Unattended operations  Housekeeping

71 Important Factors to Note In Labs

72 What are the Common Lab Hazards or potential dangers in Lab?

73 Carry out risk assessment and assist PI to review risk assessments conducted by students. - What is risk assessment? - How to do risk assessment? - What to look out for in RA:

74 Manage Risk 7. Hazard Control 8. Additional control measures (Responsible person, timeline) Review, Approval, Communicate Record Keeping and Document Control Assess 5. Existing Control Measures 6. Evaluate Risk (Severity, Probability) Identify 1. Selecting Experiments 2. Break Down into Successive Tasks 3. Potential Hazards4. Potential Harm (Ill health condition) Activity Based RA Flowchart

75 Know your Risk Matrix

76 Assessing potential severity of identified hazards LevelHuman (Impact to Physical Being) Minor (1) First Aid or No Injury (No Medical Leave) No injury, injury or ill-health requiring first aid treatment only - includes minor cuts and bruises, irritation, ill-health with temporary discomfort Moderate (2) Temporary Disability (1 day or more MC/Hospitalisation) Injury requiring medical treatment or ill-health leading to disability, includes lacerations, burns, sprains, minor fractures, dermatitis, deafness, work-related upper limb disorders Major (3) Permanent Disability or Fatality Fatal, serious injury or life-threatening, occupational disease, includes amputations, major fractures, multiple injuries, occupational cancer, acute poisoning and fatal diseases

77 Determining likelihood of occurrence LevelEvents Frequency Remote (1) Not likely to occur Has not occurred in the PI’s Lab or similar Lab setup Occasional (2) Possible or known to occur Can or has occurred in the PI’s Lab or similar Lab setup Frequent (3) Common or repeating occurrence Has occurred repetitively in the PI’s Lab or similar Lab setup

78 Assessing risk levels Likelihood Severity Remote (1) Occasional (2) Frequent (3) Minor (1) 1 (Low Risk)2 (Low Risk)3 (Medium Risk) Moderate (2) 2 (Low Risk)4 (Medium Risk)6 (High Risk) Major (3) 3 (Medium Risk)6 (High Risk)9 (Risk Risk)

79 Acceptability of Risk Risk Score Risk Level Acceptabilit y of Risk Recommended Actions <3 Low Risk Acceptable  No additional risk control measures required.  To continue to monitor to ensure risk do not escalate to higher level. 3 – 4 Medium Risk Moderately Acceptable  Acceptable to carry out the work activity; however, task need to be reviewed to bring risk level to As Low As Reasonably Practicable  Interim control measures such as administrative controls can be implemented.  Supervisory oversight required. >4 High Risk Not Acceptable  Experiment must not be carried out until risk level is brought to at least medium risk level.  Risk controls should not be overly dependant on personal protective equipment. Controls measures should focus on Elimination, substitution and engineering controls.  Immediate Management intervention required to ensure risk being brought down to at least medium level before work can be commenced.

80 Overview of Risk Assessment Step 1 – Hazard Identification Step 2 – Risk Evaluation Step 3 – Risk Control  List out work step/sequence  Identify hazards for each step  List human outcome for each hazard  List out existing control for each hazard  Determine Severity & Likelihood based on 3x3 matrix  Determine risk level  Controls for medium or high risk based on ALARP  Mitigate any residual risk  Re-evaluate risk  Indicate action party & follow up date

81 Preparation for Lab 1.New lab needs to be commissioned 2.Know your hazard and risk in the lab 3.Know the kind of materials and equipment 4.Familiar with the relevant SOPs, safety & procedures and relevant SDS 5.Know what are the relevant legal compliance in the lab 6.Familiar with the laboratory safety rules & regulations 7.Know where are the safety & health equipment and measures (emergency button, fire extinguisher, eyewash & showers, spill kit, others) 8.Know the evacuation procedure 9.Know the types of controls in preventing accident and maintaining a safe & healthy work environment 10.Know your roles & responsibilities

82 Your Responsibilities 1.Assisting in the investigation of all accidents, incidents and near misses and submitting reports as required under the incident/accident reporting procedure; 2.Ensuring that all incidents or injuries, regardless of severity are promptly treated and reported; 3.Ensuring that all safety & health appliances such as fume cabinet, emergency eyewash & shower, first aid box, fire extinguisher, spill kits & other safety devices in their area of control are available, regularly inspected and functioning; 4.Checking regularly to ensure that all safety guards for machineries are in position and functioning; 5.Maintaining safe working conditions and correcting unsafe working practices and conditions in the workplace;.

83 Your Responsibilities 6.Ensuring that all statutory equipment such as lifting equipment/machine, pressure vessels, irradiating equipment have been registered with relevant authorities and inspected periodically as per requirement under the law; 7.Maintaining & updating the chemical inventory in the workplace, ensuring that quantities of chemicals are kept within the statutory or in-house requirement and chemicals are stored in appropriate cabinets or locations; 8.Assisting in the follow up of any OSH non-conformances or deviations in their respective workplaces; 9.Maintaining proper housekeeping in their respective area of control; and 10.Reviewing of risk assessments conducted by their respective students and recommending the necessary controls to mitigate the risk in their work areas.

84 Do’s & Don’ts in Lab for Users -Aware of the hazards and ensure adequate control is in place to mitigate any risk -Read, understand & follow closely with relevant safety documents such as Safety Data Sheets and Safe Work Procedures -Adhere to safety rules & regulations, signs & instructions -Be responsible, do not endanger yourself or others -Do not take unsafe short cut or by-pass any safety provision -Report any unsafe condition or accident to supervisor immediately

85 Do’s & Don’ts in Lab for Users -Chemicals to be stored in appropriate cabinet -No pouring of chemicals into the sink -Do not mix incompatible waste -all industrial waste must be collected by license waste collector -Adequately label all chemical bottles or containers -Do not leave experiment unattended -Do not use defective tools or apparatus -Dispose all sharps or broken glass apparatus in proper sharp bins -Do not block or obstruct any exits, passage way or emergency/safety equipment/provisions -Maintain workplace clean and tidy

86 Do’s & Don’ts in Lab for Users -Do not involve in hazardous work/materials if under influence of medicine or physically not fit for job. Inform supervisor if not feeling well -Do not remove or tamper with equipment safety device or any safety equipment in the lab -Do not overload any electrical socket -Do not use unsafe/defective or non- approved equipment -Do not run cable across pathment /walkway -Ensure all gas cylinders are secured -All incompatible activities & materials are to be avoided

87 Do’s & Don’ts in Lab for users - Wear appropriate protective gear and properly maintain them -Proper attire and covered shoe must be worn in the workshop -No food & drinks in lab/workshop -Wash hands before leaving the workshop -Keep lab supervisor or PI informed for any overtime work in the workplace -Clean up any spills immediately -Know who to contact during emergency -Do not be distracted in your work experiment -No loose clothing & accessories while working with machinery -Cleanup work area after each experiment -No running in lab -When in doubt, ask, do not assume

88 Common Equipment used in Lab

89 Laboratory Oven 1.Keep exhaust vent of oven a safe distant from wall (about 10cm) 2.Do not heat up combustible, flammable or reactive substances inside oven 3.Maintain equipment according to equipment manual recommendation 4.Do not use if oven thermostat or temperature controller is faulty 5.Avoid heating toxic substance unless exhaust vent is safely ventilated

90 Hot Plate 1.Do not let container run dry 2.Do not heat up reactive or flammable substance, use a hot bath instead 3.Caution of hot surface, a warning sign to be posted

91 Refrigerator/Fridge 1.Only refrigerators and freezers specified for laboratory use should be utilized for the storage of chemicals. 2.Standard refrigerators have electrical fans and motors that make them potential ignition sources for flammable vapors 3.Do not store flammable, reactive or explosive material inside fridge unless it is spark free and explosion proof type 4.Fridge in lab is not allow to store edible food or drinks 5.All items store in fridge has to be labelled and any liquid substances will need to be sealed and placed inside secondary containment.

92 Fume Hoods 1.Laboratory fume hoods serve to control exposure to toxic, offensive or flammable vapors, gases and aerosols. 2.Fume hoods are the primary method of exposure control in the laboratory.

93 Use the right hood for the job 1.General Purpose Hoods Constant Volume hood Bypass Hood Auxiliary Hood Variable Air Volume (VAV) Hood 2.Walk in fumehood 3.Canopy Hood 4.Slotted Hood 5.Self Contained fumehood (Ductless-via HEPA filter: for low hazard substance) 6.i

94 Use the right hood for the job 1.Constant Volume Fumehood

95 Use the right hood for the job 2.By-pass Fumehood

96 Use the right hood for the job 3.Auxillary Fumehood

97 Use the right hood for the job 1.Biosafety Cabinet – Specialized hoods to prevent or minimize the exposure of humans or the environment to biohazardous agents or materials. 2.Perchloric Acid Hoods – must be used when working with PCA (e.g., acid digestion procedures). Perchlorates can lead to explosions. PCA hoods are constructed with special materials to contain explosion and have water-wash capability to reduce risk of explosion.

98 Fumehood – Safety Pointers 1.Place apparatus and equipment at least 16cm inside hood away from sash. Keep electrical connections outside of hood. 2.Sash has to be pulled down 3.Do not block the baffle vents in the back of the hood. 4.When using a large apparatus inside the hood, place the equipment on blocks, when safe and practical, to allow air flow beneath it. 5.Do not place electrical apparatus or other ignition sources inside the hood when flammable liquids or gases are present. 6.Regularly calibrate and maintain the fumehood 7.Fumehood cannot be shared for non-compatible substances (Acids cannot share with solvents) 8.Ensure right scrubber is used for the right chemicals 9.When in use, ensure damper is not closed

99 Safety Provisions in Lab

100 -Labels & safety signage -Hazard warning label

101 Special Procedures or Precautions for Entry: 9694176068745961Peck TGIn Emergency 9694176068745961Peck TGFor Entry or Advice Contact after Office Hour Office TelCall or SeeNotice 67795555NUHx2880 Unversity Health and Wellness Centre 995Ambulance / Fire999Police Mr/Ms Jesslyn Soh - 68745966 Faculty Safety Officer x1616 Campus Security Date Posted: 1/31/2005Department: OSHE Room No: 68745961Name of Lab: OSHE Hazards in the Lab Personal Protection Required

102 Enclosure and signages

103 -Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) -Demarcation lines or barrier

104 -Emergency eyewash & showers -First aid kit -Spill containment kit -Biosafety Cabinet -Fume cabinet -Local exhaust ventilators

105 Safety Provisions in Lab -Emergency ventilation/electrical buttons -Fire safety equipment such as fire extinguisher & Hosereel -Glove box/isolation box -Detectors and alarms

106 Safety Provisions in Lab Personal protective Equipment

107 Emergency Response

108  Gas Leakage  Chemical Spill  Medical Emergency  Structure Collapse  Explosion  Fire Emergency Possible Emergencies in Lab

109 Emergency Response What & how will you response in an emergency?

110 Emergency Response Raise Alert – Know where are the nearest emergency call point Activate any emergency buttons Call for help – Know your emergency contact person/number Activate first aider for any injury; call ambulance for serious injury & unconscious casualty Inform Lab Supervisor & Safety Committee Chairman Mitigate Situation without taking personal risk Evacuate and assemble at designated location – Follow warden advice and direction Mark attendance Only return when lab is safe for re-entry, for toxic gas leakage, competence person must monitor the gas in the lab. Response Guideline


112 Sharing of Good Lab Practice

113 Gas Cylinder There are almost 200 different types of materials in gas cylinders and compressed gases usually are classified in six category: Flammable Gases Oxygen and Oxidizing Gases Acid and Alkaline Gases Highly Toxic Gases Cryogenic Liquefied Gases Inert Gases General Classification

114 Gas Cylinder Oxygen displacement leading asphyxiation Fire & explosion Toxic effects Rupture of cylinders Sudden gas release leading to missile like projectile that can penetrate Common Risks

115 Maximum Allowable Quantity in Lab 1.Flammable Gases –170L for 50 sq meters and less –Y (L) = 3.4 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters 2.Oxidising Gases –170L for 50 sq meters and less –Y (L) = 3.4 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters 3.Liquefied Flammable Gases –30L for 50 sq meters and less –Y (L) = 0.6 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters 4.Toxic Gases –8L for 50 sq meters and less –Y (L) = 0.16 x Lab work area for > 50 sq meters 5.Liquefied Petroleum Gas –2 nos of 4.5kg per lab (1) For 1 to 3, the MAQ shall be halved if the lab is without any sprinkler system (2) Spacing of 3m (6m for lab w/o sprinkler system) apart for each group

116 Gas Cylinder To obtain Safety Data Sheet from Supplier Ensure cylinders are adequately labelled and identified. Status tag should be attached Cylinder cap should be always on No cylinder to be left unattended Cylinders cannot be used as door block or left free standing Always transport with cylinder trolley Delivery has to be done by 2 persons Receiving & Transportation

117 Gas Cylinder Keep within MAQ limits Separate the different types of cylinders Cylinders must be capped and adequately secured with cylinder chain or inside cylinder rack Indicate the status on the tag, whether empty, half full or full Detectors to be installed to detect any leakage Signage on no open flame has to be posted when flammable gas is in used or stored Storage

118 Handling of Gas Cylinder Before attaching pressure regulator on cylinder, ensure pressure control valve is relieved (i.e. closed) Do note stand in-line with the regulator & valve outlet when attaching regulator to cylinder Close valves on cylinders when system not in use Remove all pressure from regulator when cylinder not in use Use designated wretch for gas valve, adjustable spanner, pliers or other non- designated opener can result in damaging the nut or accident. Regulators that have been used for oxygen or oxidizing gas must not be used for a different gas, avoid contamination, regulator should dedicated to one gas Safe use of Valve & Regulators

119 Handling of Gas Cylinder Do not install shut off valve in between pressure relief valve and equipment they protect Vent relief valves to a fumehood or ventilated exhaust when using flammable or toxic gases Pressurise regulators slowly and ensure valve outlets & regulators are pointed away from any personnel and do not look at the pressure gauze. Fully open valves during cylinder usage as a fully open valve improves internal seal and helps prevent packing leaks Use correct outlet connection and all connections must able to withstand max delivery pressure from regulator No lubricants or grease to be used on connectors/thread Avoid use of teflon seal or other sealing materials on cylinder connectors/threading as it can cause leakage. Do a regular bubble check on any leak from any connection. Safe use of Valve & Regulators

120 Handling of Gas Cylinder Ensure all gas cylinders are adequately secured Do not use excessive force when opening valve Keep away open flame or concentrated heat source from cylinders Never allow cylinders to be part of an electrical circuit Safe use of Gas Cylinders Do not attempt to remove cylinder valve Ensure gas detectors are installed for toxic and asphyxiating gases All gas sensors have to be timely replaced and detector regularly calibrated Suitable PPE to be used when handling specific gases (e.g. Cryogenic gloves, apron & face shield for cryogenic gases)


122 Chemicals Our responsibilities From Cradle to Grave  Procurement  Usage  Storage  Disposal

123 Chemicals About 1000 new chemicals every year 100,000 chemical substances are used in global scale These substances are found in mixtures in commercial products One to two million such products or trade name exist in industrialized country

124 Chemicals Chemical may exhibit any of the following properties: 1.Corrosive, e.g. acids 2.Irritating, e.g. ammonia 3.Toxic/poisonous such as dioxin 4.Neurotoxic/narcotic such as chlorofoam 5.Asphyxiating (physical/chemical) [causes oxygen deficiency] e.g. CO, liquid N2 6.Allergenic 7.Carcinogenic [causes cancer], e.g. Benzene, Lead 8.Mutagenic [interferes with the genetic code], lead acetate 9.Teratogenic [inteferes with the reproductive process], CdCl 2 10.Radioactive, Ra-222 11.Flammable/explosive, e.g. methane, hydrogen

125 “All substances are poisons; there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy”. – Paracelsus (1493-1541) “Something is safe when the risks are judged to be acceptable”. – William Lowrance “Of Acceptable Risk” Chemicals

126 Effects of Chemical Exposure

127 Factors affecting Toxic Effects 1.Route of Entry 2.Chemical Concentration Absorption Solubility Size Shape 3.Duration of exposure 4.Health Condition TOXICITY is the ability of a substance to produce an unwanted effect when the chemical has reached a sufficient concentration at a certain site in the body

128 Exposure routes 1.Inhalation Most common route 2.Ingestion 3.Injection 4.Skin absorption Lipids (fats) are readily absorbed through the skin Outer layer (epidermis), inner layer (dermis), blood vessel Palm is stronger barrier than back skin

129 How our body handles chemicals


131 Toxic Effects of Chemicals Acute effect – Short term exposure to high concentration Chronic effect – Prolonged or repeated exposures. Reversible (temporary) – An effect that disappears if exposure to the chemical ceases. Irreversible (permanent) – lasting damaging effect

132 Toxic Effects of Chemicals Local effect – The chemical causes harm at the point of contact or entry Specific effect – Chemical effects on specific organ or tissue where it refers to as target organ/tissue Systemic effect - The chemical enters the body & transported throughout the body and affects the entire body or many organs rather than a specific site. E.g.: potassium cyanide is a systemic toxicant in that it affects virtually every cell and organ in the body by interfering with cells' ability to utilize oxygen Lethal Dosage (LD50) – The ingested dosage required to kill 50% of the sample population Lethal Concentration (LC50) – The inhaled dosage required to kill 50% of the sample population

133 Toxic Effects of Chemicals Asphyxiant Interferes with the ability to absorb oxygen e.g. Nitrogen, acetylene, CO2, Methane Carcinogen A chemical that causes cancer e.g. vinyl chloride Corrosive A chemical that destroys or damages living tissue on contact e.g. acids, alkalis

134 Toxic Effects of Chemicals Hepatoxic Chemical that causes damage to the liver Irritant A chemical that produces irritation or inflammation to the skin, eyes, nose or tissue of the respiratory system

135 Toxic Effects of Chemicals Nephrotoxic A chemical that causes damage to the kidneys e.g. chloroform Neurotoxic A chemical that produces toxic effects on the nervous system e.g. mercury, carbon disulphide Sensitizer A chemical that causes or induces an allergic reaction e.g. nickel or chromium compounds. Teratogen A chemical that will result in structural abnormalities in the child e.g. lead, methyl mercury

136 Toxic Effects of Chemicals Mutagen A chemical that causes permanent damage to DNA in a cell e.g. chloroprene Narcotic Depress the central nervous system e.g. acetone, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl ether.

137 Occupational Exposure Level PEL for various chemicals can be found inside First Schedule of WSH (General Provisions) Regulations. If PEL of any chemical not stipulated inside the regulations, the TLV stated inside SDS have to be adopted. Definition ‘‘permissible exposure level’’ means the maximum time weighted average concentration of a toxic substance to which any person may be exposed; ‘‘PEL (Long Term)’’ means the permissible exposure level over an 8-hour working day and a 40-hour work week; ‘‘PEL (Short Term)’’ means the permissible exposure level over a 15-minute period during any working day; TLV is defined as the maximum concentration of a chemical recommended by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists for repeated exposure without adverse health effects on workers

138 Sharing of Good Lab Practice

139 Classification and Labelling of Chemicals – Globally Harmonised System

140 GHS Overview The Globally Harmonised System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals is developed by the United Nations. It is a hazard communication system through standardised chemical hazard classification, container labelling and SDS. The aim of the GHS is to have, worldwide, the same:  criteria for classifying chemicals according to their health, environmental and physical hazards; and  hazard communication requirements for labelling and safety data sheets. Identification through Classification and Communication through labelling and SDS.

141 Introduction GHS is the result from years of work by many countries and international organisations. Objectives of GHS is protect the environment and safeguard the health & safety of person against hazardous chemicals and to facilitate international trade of chemicals, so that chemicals are packed, classified and labelled in accordance to GHS. The GHS was endorsed by the UN World Summit for Sustainable Development in 2002. At the 14th APEC Ministerial Meeting in Oct 2002, APEC Trade Ministers also set its stamp of approval on the GHS for APEC-wide implementation by 2006. This target date was rescheduled to 2008 at the APEC Chemical Dialogue meeting in 2006 Presently, 67 countries worldwide have adopted GHS.

142 Introduction What is GHS Two main elements of GHS  Classification  Hazard Communication

143 Introduction What is GHS Classification of hazards:  Physical Hazards – 16 hazard classes  Health Hazards – 10 hazard classes  Environment Hazards – 2 hazard classes

144 Introduction What is GHS Hazard Communication:  Labels  Safety Data Sheets (SDS)  Training – to communicate the specific hazards & precautions of chemicals to employees

145 Introduction Reasons for GHS  Comply with standards and regulatory requirements  Avoid confusion and have consistency in classification & communication of hazards of chemicals globally  To facilitate international trade in chemicals  To enhance protection of human health and the environment

146 146 Introduction – Reasons for GHS Confusion - Different system use different symbols

147 Introduction – Reasons for GHS Acute Oral Toxicity LD 50 = 257mg/kg/day Australia – Not Toxic Japan – Toxic China – Not Dangerous EU – Harmful US – Toxic Thailand – Harmful New Zealand – Hazardous Malaysia – Harmful GHS – Danger (Skull & Cross Bone)

148 (Class 4 not adopted by Singapore except for Diesel)

149 Introduction GHS Document  Technical work completed in 2001  First revision on the GHS was adopted in December 2004 and published in 2005  Singapore is adopting the second revised edition published in 2007  Third revised edition in 2009  Available in Hard copy, CD ROM & Via Internet (Purple book more than 500 pages)

150 Introduction Information  Country can choose not to fully adopt GHS Document  GHS Document is not a regulation  GHS provides criteria and provisions for classifying chemicals and preparing labels and Safety Data Sheets

151 Scope of GHS Classification of Criteria Hazard Communication

152 Scope of GHS GHS include all hazardous substances and mixtures

153 Scope of GHS GHS does not cover the followings: 1.Articles – Defined as a manufactured item other than fluid or particles (OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200) example: batteries 2.Consumer Products  Pharmaceuticals  Food additives  Cosmetics  Pesticide residues in food  Radioactive substances

154 Scope of GHS Labels & Safety Data Sheets 1.GHS Labels & SDS vary by product categories and stages in chemical’s lifecycle. 2.Consumer Products are not covered at point of consumption but cover workers exposed in workplaces and in transport dealing with hazardous chemicals.

155 Scope of GHS GHS Elements 1.Classification Criteria  Physical Hazards  Health Hazards  Environmental Hazards  Substances & Mixtures ClassificationLabelling HazardHazard Class Hazard Category PictogramSignal Word Hazard Statement Physical Hazard Flammable Liquids Cat 2DangerHighly Flammable Liquid and Vapor 2.Hazard Communication  Labels  Safety Data Sheets (SDS)

156 Scope of GHS GHS Elements – Definitions 1.Hazard Class The nature of the physical, health or environmental hazard (Flammable liquids comes under physical hazard) 2.Hazard Category The division of criteria within each hazard class which specify the hazard severity or impact. (Category 1 of flammable liquids)

157 GHS Hazard Classification Physical Hazards (16) 1.Explosives 2.Flammable Gases 3.Flammable Aerosols 4.Oxidizing Gases 5.Gases Under Pressure 6.Flammable Liquids 7.Flammable Solids 8.Self-Reactive Substances 9.Pyrophoric Liquids 10.Pyrophoric Solids 11.Self-Heating Substances 12.Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases 13.Oxidizing Liquids 14.Oxidizing Solids 15.Organic Peroxides 16.Corrosive to Metals

158 GHS Hazard Classification SNPhysical Hazards Classification Effect Decreases 1 Explosives UEDiv 1.1Div 1.2Div 1.3Div 1.4Div 1.5Div 1.6 2 Flammable Gases Cat 1Cat 2 3 Flammable Aerosols Cat 1Cat 2 4 Oxidizing Gases Cat 1 5 Gases Under Pressure Comp GLiq GRef Liq GDisso G 6 Flammable Liquids Cat 1Cat 2Cat 3*Cat 4 7 Flammable Solids Cat 1Cat 2 8 Self-Reactive Substances Type AType BType C&DType E&FType G 9 Pyrophoric Liquids Cat 1 10 Pyrophoric Solids Cat 1 11 Self-Heating Substances Cat 1Cat 2 12 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases Cat 1Cat 2Cat 3 13 Oxidizing Liquids Cat 1Cat 2Cat 3 14 Oxidizing Solids Cat 1Cat 2Cat 3 15 Organic Peroxides Type AType BType C&DType E&FType G 16 Corrosive to Metals Cat 1 158

159 GHS Hazard Classification Physical Hazards – Flammable Liquids CategoryCriteria 1Flash point < 23°C and initial boiling point ≤ 35°C (95°F) 2Flash point 35°C (95°F) 3Flash point ≥ 23°C and ≤ 60°C (140°F) 4Flash point ≥ 60°C (140°F) and ≤ 93°C (200°F) *Flammable liquids Cat 4 is not required in Singapore except Diesel

160 Health Hazards (10) 1.Acute Toxicity 2.Skin Corrosion/Irritation 3.Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation 4.Respiratory or Skin Sensitization 5.Germ Cell Mutagenicity 6.Carcinogenicity 7.Reproductive Toxicology 8.Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Single Exposure 9.Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Repeated Exposure 10.Aspiration Toxicity GHS Hazard Classification

161 SNHealth Hazards Classification Effect Decreases 1Acute Toxicity Cat 1Cat 2Cat 3Cat 4Cat 5 2Skin Corrosion/Irritation Cat 1ACat 1BCat 1CCat 2Cat 3 3Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation Cat 1Cat 2 4Respiratory or Skin Sensitization Rp Cat 1Sk Cat 1 5Germ Cell Mutagenicity Cat 1ACat 1BCat 2 6Carcinogenicity Cat 1ACat 1BCat 2 7Reproductive Toxicology Cat 1ACat 1BCat 2Add Cat 8 Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Single Exposure Cat 1Cat 2Cat 3 9 Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Repeated Exposure Cat 1Cat 2 10Aspiration Toxicity Cat 1Cat 2 GHS Hazard Classification

162 Health Hazards – Acute Toxicity (LD 50 / LC 50 ) Acute toxicity Cat. 1Cat. 2Cat. 3Cat. 4Category 5 Oral (mg/kg) ≤ 5≤ 50≤ 300≤ 2000 Criteria:  Anticipated oral LD50 between 2000 and 5000 mg/kg;  Indication of significant effect in humans;*  Any mortality at class 4;*  Significant clinical signs at class 4;*  Indications from other studies.* *If assignment to more hazardous class is not warranted. Dermal (mg/kg) ≤ 50≤ 200≤ 1000≤ 2000 Gases (ppm) ≤ 100≤ 500≤ 2500≤ 5000 Vapors (mg/l) ≤ 0.5≤ 2.0≤ 10≤ 20 Dust & mists (mg/l) ≤ 0.05≤ 0.5≤ 1.0≤ 5 GHS Hazard Classification

163 Health Hazards – Carcinogens Category 1 Known or Presumed Carcinogen Category 2 Suspected Carcinogen Subcategory 1A Known Human Carcinogen Based on human evidence Subcategory 1B Presumed Human Carcinogen Based on demonstrated animal carcinogenicity Limited evidence of human or animal carcinogenicity GHS Hazard Classification

164 Environmental Hazards (2) Hazardous to the aquatic environment 1.Acute aquatic toxicity 2.Chronic aquatic toxicity 3.Hazardous to the Ozone Layer (New additional class added to purple book revision 3, Singapore still adopts revision 2) SNEnvironment Hazards Classification Impact Decreases 1Acute Aquatic ToxicityAcute Cat 1Acute Cat 2Acute Cat 3 2Chronic Aquatic ToxicityChronic Cat 1Chronic Cat 2Chronic Cat 3Chronic Cat 4 GHS Hazard Classification

165 Hazard Communication 1.Labels 2.Safety Data Sheets 3.Training

166 Hazard Communication Labels GHS Compliant Label – In accordance to SS 586 Part 2-2008. 1.Signal Words 2.Hazard Statements 3.Precautionary Statements  General  Prevention  Response  Storage  Disposal 4.Product Pictograms 5.Product Identifier 6.Supplier Identification 7.Supplemental Information

167 Hazard Communication 167 1.Signal Words 2.Hazard Statements 3.Precautionary Statements 4.Product Pictograms 5.Product Identifier 6.Supplier Identification 7.Supplemental information 12 3 4 5 6 7

168 168

169 Labels 1.Signal Words  The words are either “Danger” or “Warning” with reference to hazard category eg. Flammable liquid signal word for cat 1 & cat 2 is Danger and cat 3 is warning  Distinguish level of hazard, “Danger” for more severe hazard and “Warning” for less severe hazard  If word “Danger” applies, then “Warning” should not be used. Hazard Communication

170 Labels 2.Hazard Statement  Code as Hxxx  A single statement for each level of hazard category within each hazard class  E.g. Toxic if Swallowed Hazard Communication

171 Labels 3.Precautionary Statement  Code as Pxxx  Describe the precautions or recommended measures to prevent or minimise adverse effects resulting from exposure.  5 Types of precautionary statements  General  Prevention  Response  Storage  Disposal Example: Do not allow contact with air (P201)

172 Hazard Communication Labels 3.Precautionary Statement  Code as Pxxx  Describe the precautions or recommended measures to prevent or minimise adverse effects resulting from exposure.  5 Types of precautionary statements  General  Prevention  Response  Storage  Disposal Example: Do not allow contact with air (P201)

173 Hazard Communication Labels 4. Hazard Pictogram (Symbol) Hazard Pictograms (Symbol) comes with red border  Examples:


175 Labels – 4. Hazard Pictogram (Hazard Pictogram) Hazard Communication

176 Labels 5.Product Identifier Describe the substance or mixture, such as chemical or trade name. 6.Supplier Information Name, address, website and telephone of manufacturer or supplier 7.Supplemental Information Useful additional information on the chemical Hazard Communication

177 Labels – Sample GHS Label Hazard Communication


179 Safety Data Sheets (SDS)  SDS has to be developed for all substances & mixtures which meet the harmonised criteria under the GHS.  SDS has to provide comprehensive information about the substance or mixture  Workplace need to receive updated SDSs and both employer & workers need to know the hazards specific to the chemicals used and/or handled in the workplace, as well as the information provided to avoid adverse effects from exposure.  SDS is not intended for consumer market. Hazard Communication

180 Safety Data Sheets (SDS) – 16 Headings Format 1.Product and company information 2.Composition information on ingredients 3.Hazards identification 4.First aid measures 5.Fire fighting measures 6.Accidental release 7.Handling & storage 8.Exposure controls, personal protection 9.Physical, chemical properties 10.Stability and reactivity 11.Toxicological information 12.Ecological information 13.Disposal considerations 14.Transport information 15.Regulatory information 16.Other information Format & content based on ISO 11014 / SS586 Part 3-2008 Hazard Communication

181 181 Safety Data Sheets (SDS) – 16 Headings Format



184 Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Proprietary or Confidential Business Information  Country competent authorities to establish mechanism for CBI protection.  CBI will not harmonised with GHS  Provision of CBI protection should not compromise the health & safety of users  Mechanism to be in place to disclose information during emergency situation Hazard Communication

185 Implementation of GHS

186 GHS Implementation Implementation Time line

187 GHS Implementation Requirement in Singapore 1.WSH (General Provisions) Regulations, Reg 42 on requirement for label 2.Singapore Standard and Other Guidelines 3.GHS Labelling Requirements 4.Action Required from YOU

188 GHS Implementation Requirement in Singapore 1.WSH (General Provisions) Regulations, Reg 42 on requirement for label It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which there is any container of hazardous substances to ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, every such container is affixed with one or more warning labels that conform with — (a)any Singapore Standard relating to the classification and labelling of hazardous substances; or (b) such other standards, codes of practice or guidance relating to the classification and labelling of hazardous substances as is issued or approved by the Council.

189 GHS Implementation Requirement in Singapore 2.Singapore Standard, SS 586  Companies with the existing hazard communication systems based on SS 286 Caution Labelling for Hazardous Substances and CP 98 Preparation and Use of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) will need to prepare phase-in strategies for transition from their current systems to the new GHS requirements based on the new SS 586  SS586 : 2008 Singapore Standard on the Hazard Communication for Hazardous Chemicals and Dangerous Goods (3 parts)  Guidebook on the GHS of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

190 GHS Implementation Requirement in Singapore 3.GHS Labelling Requirements  Hazardous substance or mixture contained in a packaging/container shall be labelled  A maximum of 6 precautionary statement, unless necessary as a consequence of the severity of the hazard  Within 6 months, once new information is available, the SDS and / or label shall be updated.

191 GHS Implementation Requirement in Singapore 4.Action Required by YOU  Understand the regulatory requirement and timeline of implementation  Ask for information from Chemical Suppliers and Manufacturers and ensure labels & SDS comply according to GHS requirements  Recognise that other countries are going through this transition to GHS and how they may differ from Singapore if importing or exporting chemicals from overseas

192 Sharing of Good Lab Practice


194 What is radiation? 1.Radiation is energy that radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles. 2.Radiation is the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic waves in nuclear decay 3.Radiation has a wide range of energies that forms the electromagnetic spectrum. 4.The spectrum has two major divisions: non- ionizing and ionizing radiation.

195 Non-Ionizing Radiation  Radiation with energy that is not capable of causing ionization but is still capable of injuring human bodies  This includes electromagnetic radiation & fields with wavelengths greater than 100nm and acoustic radiation & fields with frequencies above 16 kHz

196 Types of Non-Ionizing Radiation Ultraviolet Radiation (180 nm – 400 nm) Visible Radiation (400 nm – 700 nm) Infrared Radiation (700 nm – 1 mm) Microwave / RF Radiation (> 1 mm) Laser Radiation (UV/VR/IR) Ultrasound Radiation (f > 16 kHz)

197 Non-Ionizing Radiation

198 Radiation Dose Due To Non- Ionizing Radiation The dose is expressed as W/m 2 or mW/cm 2 Radiation dose due to Non-Ionizing Radiation is NOT cumulative

199 Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation  It is mainly a thermal effect  It has non cumulative effect  Lasers can cause skin burns and eye injury  Ultraviolet light can cause skin cancer  Ultrasound can elevate tissue temperature and cause a cavitation effect (vibration energy leading to tissue damage)

200 Control of Non-Ionizing Radiation  Minimise the Exposure Time  Maximise the Distance  Utilise Shielding Material

201 Hazards from Infrared Radiation (IR) Ocular exposure Near IR is capable of causing eye injuries Excessive IR exposure to eyes can cause heat cataracts of glass blower cataracts It can cause opacity on the rear surface of the lens of the eyes Skin exposure Exposure to IR between 700 nm to 1,500 nm can cause skin burns and increase skin pigmentation

202 Hazards from Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Ocular exposure Long term exposure to UVB can cause eye discomfort & sensation of sand in the eyes, photokeratitis & corneal inflammation Exposure to UVA can cause retinal burns and gradual yellowing of the eyes Skin exposure Pigmentation and skin burns Decrease in skin elasticity Skin cancer from long term exposure

203 Microwave Radiation

204 An electromagnetic radiation Part of RF Radiation Wavelength from 1m to 1mm Frequency from 300 MHz to 300 GHz Highest RF radio frequency band Pulse or Continuous Wave

205 Microwave Application RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) Handphones ERP Micro-wave oven Industrial & Medical applications

206 RADAR Transmitter & Receiver Frequency of 100 MHz to 100 GHz Beams from transmitter travel in straight line Beam reflects when strikes an object Reflected beam travels to Receiver Use in monitoring aircraft, guiding missiles, military tracking, portable traffic radar.

207 Handphones Use in Singapore since 1988 Potential of emitting microwave radiation Operating frequency of 824 – 849 MHz Power output of 6.3mW to 600mW TLV for the frequency range is 4-6 W/m2 No conclusive evidence for adverse effects such as headache, sleep disorder, fatigue, depression, etc

208 Microwave Oven Microwave oven means a device designed to heat, cook or dry food or material within a cavity through the application of microwave energy with the frequency ranges from 890 MHz to 6 GHz Power output of 800W to 1100W Microwave transmitted and reflected in oven Cause moisture molecules to agitate & create frictional heat to raise temperature Metallic materials reflects microwave Microwave can pass through most glasses, papers, crockery & plastics that contain no moisture molecules For shielding of microwave, wire mesh is best to shield microwave

209 Effects on the exposure to electromagnetic radiation are not adequately understood, therefore, exposure to electromagnetic radiation should be kept to as low as reasonably achievable.


211 LASER Radiation Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Travels in one direction, and in a straight line Has a specific wavelength Pulsed of Continuous Wave Laser Ultraviolet Laser, Infrared Laser or Visible Laser Power output of mW to kW for continuous lasers, or to as high as MW and GW for pulsed lasers

212 Classes of Lasers Class 1 Lasers Class 2 Lasers Class 3a Lasers Class 3b Lasers Class 4 Lasers

213 Class 1 Lasers Safe by virtue of power output or by engineering design Non-risk or exempt lasers, cannot cause injury even for prolonged exposure to eyes or skin For visible and continuous wave Class 1 lasers, power output does not exceed 0.39 mW

214 Class 2 Lasers Visible radiation of 400 – 700 nm only Low power & low-risk lasers Safe by virtue of normal aversion responses or by engineering design Not capable of causing eye injury within the duration of a blink of 0.25 seconds Visible and Continuous Wave Class 2 lasers does not exceed 1 mW E.g. Laser pointers, barcode scanners

215 Class 3 Lasers Medium power and moderate risk lasers Does not present a skin hazard & diffuse reflection hazard for unintentional exposure Does not represent fire hazard Intra-beam viewing of direct laser beam and specular reflections could cause potential serious eye injury Can be further sub-divided into Class 3a and Class 3b

216 Class 3a Lasers Visible lasers (400 – 700 nm) only Not capable of damaging eyes because of person’s normal aversion response to bright light Staring for long periods of if binoculars or optical instruments can lead to eye damage Maximum power output for Class 3a should not be more than 5 mW Examples: Alignment lasers, laser pointers, laser level gauge etc.

217 Class 3b Lasers Medium power and moderate risk Emits UV, IR and visible wavelengths Both continuous wave and pulse modes Less than 500 mW for Continuous Wave lasers Less than 100 kJ/m 2 for pulsed lasers Can cause accidental injuries by direct or reflective exposure Not hazardous for reflection from diffuse 3b laser beam unless it is focused Examples: range finders, cosmetic lasers, bio- stimulation lasers, scientific instruments

218 Class 4 Lasers High power and high risk lasers Emit UV, IR and visible wavelengths Both continuous wave and pulse modes Exceeds 500 mW for CW lasers Exceeds 100 kJ/m 2 for pulsed lasers Can cause accidental injuries by direct or reflective exposure Potential fire & skin burn hazard Example: Industrial & medical high powered lasers

219 Laser Operations Class 3B & Class 4 require License for both user (N3) and equipment (N2). For embedded class 3B/4 laser where user is not exposed, only equipment license is required. Operator must be at least 18 years old Adequately trained and knowledgeable

220 Laser Hazards Ocular Exposure Brightness of laser bean can cause blindness Eyes has focusing power and capable of increasing intensity of laser light Parallel laser rays may be focused to a point image at retina Laser light entering the eye is concentrated 100,000 times at retina Skin Exposure No concern for low power laser at class 1/2/3 Skin damage is a concern for high power class 4 laser Prolonged exposure to UV laser light leads to sunburn or even cancer

221 Laser Protection Engineering, Administrative Warning signs, curtains, barriers to limit access Protective housing for beam Good SOP that details the Hazards, good practice, recommended PPE, response to injury PPE Appropriate eyewear

222 Laser Safety & Precautions Laser radiation should be discharged in a non- reflective & fire resistant background Personnel should be cleared from an area for a reasonable distance on all sides of laser beam Attach a warning sign to laser device in a conspicuous location to indicate potential eye hazard associated with laser. Avoid looking into primary laser beam and specular reflection of laser beam. Prevent looking along axis of laser beam and avoid aiming the laser with eye.

223 Laser Safety & Precautions Keep pupils constricted, laser work should be in areas of high general illuminations so as to limit the energy that inadvertently enter the eyes. Instruct laser workers on laser hazards and limit unnecessary exposure User need to have pre-employment eye examination and final eye examination Utilize correct safety eyeware to filter out specific laser wavelength Laser in Operation warning light to be posted for laser operation.

224 Ultrasound Radiation

225 Ultrasound is a mechanical vibration wave and not an electromagnetic wave Ultrasound travels at a speed of sound and vibrates at 16 KHz to 20 GHz Above the range of human hearing ability Usage of Ultrasound equipment >50W will require N2 equipment license but operator license is not required

226 Sound Waves Infrasound for frequency less than 16 Hz Audible sound for frequency between 16 Hz to 16 KHz Ultrasound for frequency at 16 KHz to 20 GHz

227 Conclusion 1.Think safety & Act Safely 2.Take safety ownership 3.Each one plays a part in Safety 4.The safest tool is a safe worker 5.Everyone deserve to go home safely at the end of the day

228 Thank you

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