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Pauline Gagnon Physicist and communicator at CERN The dark side of the Universe
Shrimp Nebula© VLT, European Space Observatory Convince you all of the existence of dark matter Review how one can catch dark matter Plan
©2000, 2001 B Katzung, Andromeda galaxy
4 Universe content
© NASA, Orion nebula Dark energy: Discovered in 1998 while studying the relative speeds of galaxies The Universe expansion is accelerating A completely unknown type of energy must be causing this expansion Physics Nobel Prize in 2011 went to Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess
8 Universe content
What is generating the gravitational pull needed to maintain these galaxies together?
12 Dark matter provides the gravitational force needed to maintain these galaxies together
Mais comment mesure-t-on la composition de lUnivers?
1 second Protons and neutrons form years Atoms form 1 billion years Stars and galaxies form 13.7 billion years 2.7 degrees degrees The Big Bang
Stars and Dust Across Corona Australis © Ignacio Diaz Bobillo Rayonnement fossile The Universe became transparent years after the Big Bang The photons present then are still moving around freely But the Universe expanded and they cooled down We still observe them today in the form of microwave background at degrees Kelvin
Cosmological microwave background
Width and temperature of each lump ( or angular spectrum measured by Planck) Angular width of all structures observed in the Universe Temparature fluctuations in (μ K)
Big Bang Standard Model Λ-CDM model: a model with 6 free parameters including Ω d : dark matter density Ω Λ : dark energy density
How did the Universe evolve from an immense fog of free particles… …to an Universe filled with stars and galaxies?
Milky Way Galaxy. Galaxy A group of stars, dust and gases held together by gravity. 170 billion galaxies in the universe 200 billion stars in a galaxy.
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) By Susan Creager April 20, 2006.
Background radiation (light) from Big Bang (visible) freely streaming from universe since atoms formed at temperature ~ 3,000 K (cf. sun = 6000 K)
Cosmology -- the Origin and Structure of the Universe Cosmological Principle – the Universe appears the same from all directions. There is no preferred.
Cosmology (Chapter 14) NASA. Student Learning Objectives Describe the Big Bang theory Analyze possible fates of our universe.
The Life of the Universe From Beginning to End.
UNIVERSE CHAPTER BIG BANG The big bang theory is the main cosmological model for the earliest known time of the Universe. It shows us how the universe.
Cosmology The Origin and Future of the Universe Part 2 From the Big Bang to Today.
Cosmology Dr Katy Lancaster. Overview The Big Bang –Formation of the Universe –The Cosmic Microwave Background –The COBE experiment The Expanding Universe.
Homework for today was WORKBOOK EXERCISE: “Expansion of the Universe” (pg in workbook)
Chapter 17 The Beginning of Time. Running the Expansion Backward Temperature of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present (10 10 years ~ 3 x
Life in a Four percent Universe Dr. C.P. Girijavallabhan Professor Emeritus International School of Photonics CUSAT.
Lecture 41 Evolution of the Universe (continued) Extrasolar Planets The Beginning and Fate of the Universe Observations of Extrasolar Planets Chapter 18.9.
Universe in a box: simulating formation of cosmic structures Andrey Kravtsov Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics Center for Cosmological Physics (CfCP)
The Big Bang Theory Astronomers theorize that the universe came into being at a single moment in an event called the big bang. All matter and energy were.
The Evolution of the Universe Nicola Loaring. The Big Bang According to scientists the Universe began ~15 billion years ago in a hot Big Bang. At creation.
Chapter 16-17: Cosmology Hubble’s law Expansion of Universe 1 Galaxy spectra Optical spectra of remote galaxies show redshift (galaxies appear to move.
COSMOLOGY The study of the origin, structure, and future of the universe.
2011 Nobel Prize in Physics Awarded to Saul Permutter Brian Schmidt Adam Riess "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through.
The Beginning of Time: Evidence for the Big Bang & the Theory of Inflation.
Lecture 25 The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Astronomy 1143 Spring 2014.
Big Bang …..was actually very small and quiet. Atoms are mostly empty space.
The Evidence for the Big Bang Student Resource Sheet 5 Science and Religion in Schools: Unit 4a.
A Scientific History of the Universe. How do we predict the conditions of the early universe? What are the different eras in the early universe? What.
Chapter 30 Section 4 Handout The Big Bang Theory.
ORIGINS …. LEARNING GOALS I WILL BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE THEORY FOR THE FORMATION OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. I WILL BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE BIG BANG THEORY.
Chapter 18: Chapter 18: Cosmology. WHAT DO YOU THINK? What does the Universe include? Did the Universe have a beginning? Is the Universe expanding, fixed.
Astrophysics – final topics Cosmology Universe. Jeans Criterion Coldest spots in the galaxy: T ~ 10 K Composition: Mainly molecular hydrogen 1% dust EGGs.
How did the universe begin?. The most popular theory is the Big Bang Matter, energy, space and time all started 13.7 billion years ago Nobody knows what.
Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background 1. Penzias and Wilson with their Horn Antenna. Penzias and Wilson were astronomers, from Bell Labs, who built.
ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE P In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth; and the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face.
Objectives Distinguish the different models of the universe. Compare and contrast how expansion is relative to each of the models. Explain the importance.
Cosmology I & II Fall 2012 Cosmology Cosmology I & II Cosmology I: Cosmology II:
Our Universe. The universe is everything that exists including all matter and energy The universe is 13.7 billion years old. No one knows if the universe.
21.5 The expanding universe Key concepts: What is the big bang theory? How did the solar system form? What do astronomers predict about the future of the.
Announcements Final exam is Monday, May 9, at 7:30 am. –Students with last names A-K go to 225 CB. –Students with last names L-Z go to 300 CB. –All students.
COSMOLOGY SL - summary. STRUCTURES Structure Solar system Galaxy Local group Cluster Super-cluster Cosmological principle Homogeneity – no.
The Birth of the Universe. Hubble Expansion and the Big Bang The fact that more distant galaxies are moving away from us more rapidly indicates that the.
Big Bang timeline. Big Bang Timeline 13.7 billion years ago – Before the Big Bang, the universe was a hot point ( ) of pure energy : Tremendous levels.
The “Big Bang” Theory Birth of the Universe. The Big Bang Theory First and foremost – THIS IS A THEORY! – It is up to you whether you want to believe.
EXTREME ENERGY COSMIC RAYS AND THE UNIVERSE General scope: a new universe Cosmic rays: facts and puzzles.
Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 Saul Perlmutter Supernova Cosmology Project Berkeley, USA Brian P. Schmidt High-z Supernova Search Team Weston Creek, Australia.
The Big Bang Theory Not this one…. The Theory The Big Bang describes how: – a massive explosion created the universe – the cooling and expansion of.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time.
Big Bang Theory An effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. An effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our.
Objectives: 1. relate the cosmological principle to isotropy and homgeneity of the universe. 2. understand how Hubble’s law is used to map the universe,
The Hot Big Bang Monday, November 17 Pick up corrected Problem Set 6 (average score = 84); Recitation 4:30 pm today, McPherson 4054.
Dark Energy. Conclusions from Hubble’s Law The universe is expanding Space itself is expanding Galaxies are held together by gravity on “small” distance.
Announcements Homework 13 due Wednesday Projects due Friday No office hour tomorrow (Tuesday) at 10 am; I will be available after 1 pm.
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