2 Pronunciation revision Pronunciation rulesThese are some easy rules that will help you with the pronunciation of any Spanish word:There are five vowels in the Spanish alphabet, the same as in English: a, e, i, o and u. However, they have only one possible pronunciation each. To remember their sound, try this: “part, pet, pit, port, put”. Or also: “bath, bet, bit, bought, boot”. Note: in Spanish there is no distinction between short and long vowels as there is in English (e.g., as in “bit”/”beat”).The letter z may sound like s in “see” (Hispanic American accents) or like th in “thin” (standard Spaniard accent).The letter c sounds like the Spanish z (i.e, like s or th, depending on the country) when it comes before e or i, and like c in “cat” in any other case. Therefore, ca, ce, ci, ic, co, cu sounds exactly like ka, ze, zi, ik, ko, ku.The letter q always sounds like c in “cat”. Almost always, it is followed by a silent u, and is used with i or e only. Exceptions are some Latin or foreign words such as quórum, quid pro quo, Iraq (Irak) or quark (quark), in which the u is either not silent or not written at all. Rare exceptions apart, ca, que, qui, co, cu and ka, ke, ki, ko, ku sound exactly the same.The letter j may sound like h in “hot” (Hispanic America) or like ch in the Scottish word “loch” (Spain).The letter g sounds like the Spanish j when it comes before e/i, and like g in “got” in any other case. So, ga, ge, gi, ig, go, gu and ga, je, ji, ig, go, gu sound exactly the same. Also:For g to sound like g in “got” before e/i, it must be followed by a silent u, as in guitarra (guitar).But… what if we want to force the pronunciation of the u in gue/gui? Then, you must put a diaeresis (¨) over it, as in pingüino (penguin).The letter h is always silent. So, Hola (hello) and ola (wave) have exactly the same pronunciation.The letter y sounds like j in “jet” when it is placed at the beginning of a syllable: yo (I), mayo (May), and like y in “very” in any other case: y (and), muy (very).The letter ll also sounds like j in “jet”, although in some regions may have a sound similar to y in “yet”.The letter r sounds like tt in “matter” (with USA accent) when:it is not at the beginning of a syllable, e.g., brazo (arm), tren (train), or whenit is placed between two vowels: pero (but), Corea (Korea).In any other case it sounds as a strongly trilled r (again, Scottish style), i.e., at the beginning of a word, and after n, l, s, or some prefix: rápido (fast), honrado (honest), alrededor (around), Israel (Israel), subrayado (underlined).The digraph rr is used to force a strongly trilled r between two vowels, e.g., perro (dog), correa (leash).The letter w is only used in foreign words, and its sound resemble the original foreign sound. Basically, it may sound like a Spanish B (Wagner) or like an English W (Washington).The letter ñ represents a nasal palatal phoneme, which is a sound that does not exist in English. It is commonly said that ñ is pronounced like n in “canyon” or in “onion”. Unfortunately, that is just a useful approximation, at best. Actually, you could think of the ñ as a new variety of n. It is not like n in “son”, because you don’t use the tip of your tongue. It is not like n in “song” either, because you also do not use the back of your tongue. Ñ is a sort of middle term between those, that is, you should press the roof of your mouth with the middle of your tongue (the tip of it could simply rest behind your lower teeth). Only then, in this position, you could try a short /ny/ sound that sort of blends with the next vowel.
3 A Spanish phonemic pangram But it can be even easier: What if I tell you that in a single sentence you can find every possible pronunciation of each letter of the alphabet?La cigüeña gigante bebió ocho copas de whisky, más quince jarras llenas de fría cerveza rubia, y enseguida huyó en un taxi.The giant stork drank eight glasses of whisky, plus fifteen full mugs of cold pale ale, and escaped in a taxi right away.Were you right?
4 Websites to helpPronunciation with audioSpanish syllabificationLearning Spanish generally
5 Exploiting VideosBBC video clips - lots of video choice with authentic Spanish speakersAll learning zone clips have ideas for use in class and background details.Videos for one word only‘Chocolate’ (playground clapping game)Videos with minimal language‘Abuelito ¿Que hora es?’ (another playground game – counting)‘Papo en escuela’ (an English parrot learning school vocabulary)Videos with short phrases‘Soy una taza’ (a song with actions)‘En el pueblo’ (Spanish children introducing their town)
6 Soy una tazaTaza Tetera Cuchara Cucharón Plato hondo Plato llano Cuchillito Tenedor Salero Azucarero Batidora Olla exprés Soy una taza, una tetera, una cuchara, un cucharón, un plato hondo, un plato llano, un cuchillito, un tenedor. Soy un salero, azucarero, batidora, olla exprés ¡chu chu!
8 Recognise and answer some questions. Yr.6 children should know these core elements well after 4 yrs of entitlement: Any additional language to be considered a bonus and non-essential.tick if taughtNounsAn awareness that nouns can be masculine or feminine, and how to recognise singular or plural.AlphabetAlso key phoneme/graphemes ll, ñ, au, ei, eu,AdjectivesColour, size and some simple adjectives. A simple basic awareness of position and agreement.Core structuresEs … It is…No es … It isn’t…Hay … There is / there are…No hay … There isn’t / aren’t..Tengo … I have..Tienes … You have..Tiene … He/she has..No tengo …… I haven’t got / don’t have …Soy … I am..Eres …… You are..Es He/she is…Me gusta …. / me gustan …I like (sing) / I like (plural) …...No me gusta / gustan …… I don’t like..Quiero …… I would like…NumbersUp to 31, then ideally up to 100 if possible.Days/Months/BirthdayTo answer the questions ¿Cuál es la fecha hoy ?¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?Telling the timeOn the hour – Es la una / Son las tres It is 1 / 3 o’clock.Recognise and answer some questions.¿ Qué es ? What is it?¿ Dónde esta …..? Where is..?¿ Cómo te llamas ? What is your name ?¿ Cuántos años tienes ? How old are you?¿ Te gusta …./ gustan……? Do you like …..?¿ Tienes ….. ? Do you have ….?Use simple connectivesy / pero and / but
9 KS2 Spanish Core Language VerbsPronounsyo – Itú – you él/ella – he/sheUsted – you (polite, sing.)nosotros – wevosotros – you (fam.pl.)ellos/ellas – theyUstedes – you (polite, pl.)Tener – to haveEstar – to be (stand, stay, state)Ser – to be (essence, identity, existence)tengoI havetienesyou havetienehe/she/you have (pol.sing)tenemoswe havetenéisyou have (fam.pl.)tienenthey/you have (pol.pl.)estoyI amestásyou areestáhe/she is/you are (pol.sing)estamoswe areyou are (fam.pl.)estánthey/you are (pol.pl.)soyI ameresyou areeshe/she is/you are (pol.sing)somoswe aresoisyou are (fam.pl.)sonthey/you are (pol.pl.)
10 KS2 Spanish Useful Vocabulary Referring to thingsuna cosa – a thing esto – this eso – that algo (más) – something (else) otro – (an)other mucho – a lot (un) poco – (a) littlemuy – very todo – all/everythinges – it/he/she isReferring to placesaquí – here allí – therehay – there isno hay – there isn’tAsking questions¿Por qué? – why?¿Qué? – what?¿Cuándo? – when?¿Dónde? – where?¿Quién? – who?¿Cuánto(s)? – how much/many?¿Cómo? – how?Time wordsahora – now antes – beforedespués – after hoy – today ayer – yesterday mañana – tomorrow otra vez - again siempre – always a menudo – often a veces – sometimes nunca – never la semana pasada – last week la semana que viene – next weekSaying what you didfui – I went hice – I did ví – I saw jugué – I played comí – I ate bebí – I drank
11 KS2 Spanish Describing Pictures Making linksy – and o – or también – also pero – but porque – because con – with sin – withoutOpinionsSentence buildingPienso que – I think thatCreo que – I believe that Me parece que – it seems that..puedo/puedeI can/he,she canquiero/quiereI want to/he,she wants to…tengo que/tiene queI have to/he has to…voy a/va a+ verbI’m going to/he is going to…(no) me (le) gustaI (don’t) like to/he doesn’t like tome (le) encantaI love to/he loves to…me (le) gustaríaI/he/she would like to…
12 ¿Cómo se llama?¿Cuántos años tiene?¿Cómo es (físicamente)?¿Cómo te parece su carácter?¿Qué tiene como familia?¿Tiene animales en casa?¿Dónde vive?¿Dónde trabaja?¿Qué le gusta?¿Qué no le gusta?