2Today, we're going to talk about the tenses. Now, if I say "I am beautiful,“which tense is it? Obviously it is the past tense.
3+ - + - ? ? + Present simple present continuous Conson + y = – ies (study- studies)O = es (go – goes)S, x, ch, sh = es (watch- watches/ mix-mixes)Present simple+We study EnglishMy sister watches TVhe/ she / it : -s -es (plays, goes)-Don`tDoesn´tWe don´t studyShe doesn´t study+ verb?Do you study ?Does she study?A + S + V ?AmIsAre+present continuousV-ingI am studyingyou are studyinghe is studying+V monosilábicos q terminan en 1 vocal + 1 cons., doblan cons.Run—running swim—swimmingV de dos sílabas y acento en la 2ª, doblan consonanteBegin—beginningVerbos que acaban en l , doblan lTravel—travellingVerbos que acaban en -ie , cambia a y + ingDie—dying-I am not studyingYou aren´t studyingHe isn´t studyingStudy- studyingPlay-playingAm I studying?Are you studying?Is he studying??A + S + V ?
4Present simple actions which happen regularly Habits States The simple present is used for two main types of action:actions which happen regularlyon SundaysFrequency Adverbs : -always, usually, often –every day, every week, Once a month, etc.HabitsStatesThings which do not often change ( opinions, conditions, etc)present continuousThe present continuous tense is used for two main types of action:A temporary action happening now :Something which is going on right now (but it will stop in the future)Algo que está ocurriendo ahora pero parará en el futuro)A definite plan for the future :Something we intend to do, usually in the near future.Algo que tenemos la intención de hacer en un futuro cercano
5Habit States Young-Mi goes to class every day. "Every day" is a habit. It rains a lot in Vancouver This means that it rains often.Santos always talks about his family "Always" means this is a habit.Jerry spends Christmas with his parents This implies that he spends Christmaswith his parents every year.StatesBianca lives in Florida This is a state, because it doesn't change.Jean-Paul has red hair Someone's hair colour doesn't usually change.Martin likes chocolate When we like something, usually we will always like it.Anna believes in God Beliefs and opinions are states.They don't often change.
6Non-continuous verbs / Stative verbs There are some verbs that you don't usually use in the continuous form, just as inSpanish.Generally speaking they're verbs that describe states and not actions, such as these:verbs describing thought processes and opinions: think, believe, remember, know, forget, agree, disagree…verbs describing emotions: want, like, love, hate, adore, detest…verbs describing the senses: see, hear, taste, feel, smell…This doesn't mean that it's impossible to use these verbs in the continuous.It just means that it's unusual and would probably be very specific in a particularsituation.
7Frequency adverbs and time expressions At the end of the sentenceHow often..?I do yoga twice a weekAlwaysUsuallyOftenSometimesHardly everNeverEvery dayOnce a day / week / month..Twice a day / week / month..Three times a day / week / month..Twelve times a day / week / month..Before the verbShe often plays golfAfter to beThey are always hungry
8Temporary action happening now John is winning the game Right now, John is winning, but the game isn'tfinished yet.It's raining outside It's raining right now (but it may stop soon).Soraya's working in the library She's working there right now.Sihol is spending Christmas with his family He's spending Christmas withhis family right now, this year.(Maybe next year he won't.)
91. What are you cooking? It smells / is smelling wonderful. Choose the correct answer.1. What are you cooking? It smells / is smelling wonderful.2.What time do you usually go / are you usually going to bed?3.Be quiet! The baby sleeps / is sleeping.4.How often do you visit / are you visiting your grandmother?5.In most US schools, the students don’t wear / aren’t wearing uniforms.6.Turn off the television. The children don’t watch / aren’t watching it.7.You don’t need an umbrella this morning. It doesn’t rain / isn’t raining.8.He is a vegetarian. He doesn’t eat / isn’t eating meat.9.Right now, the president meets / is meeting some important people.10.Tom has got a car now so he doesn’t walk / isn’t walking to school any more.
11Use Past Simple + - ? Suj + I played 2nd col I sang I didn´t play Monosyllabic ending in 1 vowel+1 conson, double consonStop—stopped2 syllables & stress in the 2nd, double consonantPermit—permittedV ending in conson + y i + edStudy—studiedVowel + y ed play - playedI playedUse+Suj +V+ -ed2nd colI sang-Suj + didn´t + verbPast and finished actions.We visited the museum last weekA series of completed actions in the pastWhen I opened the door, the dog barked at the postman.Past states.The old lady lived in this house in 1887I didn´t playI didn´t sing?Did+ Suj + verb ?A+S+V ?Did you play?Did you sing?TIME EXPRESSIONSYesterday last week/year2 days ago In in the 80s when then
12+ - ? Past Continuous Remember + Was/ wasn´t I was playing + Were+V-ingI , He , She , ItWas/ wasn´tI was playing+WasWere+V-ingSuj +You were singingYou, we, theyI wasn´t playing-Wasn´tWeren´tSuj ++V-ingYou weren´t singingWere/weren´t?Was I playing?WasWere+Suj +V-ingWere you singing?A+S+V ?Time expressions:While , as , last night / week ,at 3 o´clock
13Usos :Para decir lo que estaba ocurriendo en un momento concreto del pasado (no algo puntual, sino algo en proceso). La acción comenzó antes de dicho momento y seguramente continuó después.Fíjate que suelen expresar acciones largas.I was studying all day yesterday I studied all day yesterdaySolamente informas, no quieresdar la idea de cuánto tiempopasaste estudiandoParece q la acción d estudiarfue algo muy largo2. Para 2 acciones que estuvieron ocurriendo al mismo tiempo.While you were reading the newspaper, I was doing my homework3. Para la mas larga de las acciones, que suele ser interrumpida x unamas breve.I was walking by the street when it began to rain.
14Past simple vs past continuous Recuerda q las acciones largas suelen ir en PC y las cortas en PSShe was talking on the phone when he arrivedCuando se cuenta una historia, la narración en sí, es decir, la progresión histórica, puede ir en PS, mientras q las descripciones y el ambiente suelen ir en PC.It was a beautiful day. The sun was shining and flags were flying high everywhere. He felt confident and he knew what he had to do. He spoke to the people in the square. They were looking at him anxiously.
15Complete with a suitable verb Last weekend Carmela ……… to the cinemato see "The Others". Carmela ……………… . it because it……………. about ghosts and she is afraid of them. While she …………… home with her friend Lola, she …………… very strange.wentdidn´t likewaswas goingfeltThey ……………a noise behind them, but they could not see anyone. It ………………..a lot and there …………………any taxis on the street, so they ……………………to go home walking. The noise …………….. still behind them and while they ………………… to see what or who …………….. it , the lights on the street …………………. out and they ……………….for five minutes. Do you know what happened next?heardwas rainingweren´tdecidedwaswere tryingwaswentwere crying
16Listen dear ; here is an article about how many words women use a day: 30,000 to a man's 15,000 What ?'The reason has to be because we have to repeat everything to men...
17+ - ? Present perfect Time expressions + A+S+V ? HaveHas+V-ed3ª col+I have workedShe has written-I haven´t workedShe hasn´t written?Have you worked?Has she written ?A+S+V ?Time expressionsEver , never , yet , just ,Already , lately , how long..?For , since , in recent years
18TIME EXPRESSIONSEVER : (Interrogativas)(“alguna vez”) Entre el auxiliar y el verbo.Have you ever been in London?NEVER : (“Nunca”) Siempre con el verbo afirmativa.I have never seen a class like this.FOR : Indica un periodo de tiempo, cuánto ha durado una acción. (durante-desde hace)I´ve known him for twenty years. (Le conozco desde hace 20 años)SINCE : Indica el momento o circunstancia concreta en que comenzó la acción.I´ve known her since (La conozco desde 1994)JUST : Indica que la acción acaba de concluir. Va entre el auxiliar y el verbo.Have + just + Past Participle = “acabar de + infinitivo”I´ve just washed my hair ( Me acabo de lavar el pelo).ALREADY : Va con oraciones afirmativas e interrogativas. (Entre el auxiliar y el verbo).( “ Ya” )I´ve already seen that film ( Ya he visto esa película)Have you already washed the dishes? (¿Ya has lavado los platos?)YET : Va con oraciones negativas e interrogativas. ( Al final de la frase)Negativas. (aún,todavía). I haven´t found it yet. (Aún no lo he encontrado)Interrogativas (“ya”) Has the doctor come yet? (¿Ha venido ya el médico?)
19usosPara hablar de experiencias y hechos pasados que han ocurrido a lo largo del tiempo sin especificar el momento.I have eaten Chinese food many timesPara hablar de acciones que aún continúan aunque empezaron tiempo atrás.(Suele llevar “for” y “since” ). Las preguntas se hacen con “How long..?”I´ve lived here for five years ( Vivo aquí desde hace 5 años-todavía vivo aquí)Para acciones que ocurrieron en un momento indeterminado del pasado y cuyo resultado podemos ver.We´ve painted the kitchenExpresar que una acción acaba de ocurrir. Entonces añadimos “just” entre el aux. y el verboThe team has just scored a goal
20CONTRASTE PAST SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT Past Simple: acciones que ocurrieron en un momento concreto del pasado.When did Sam go to India? Last JunePresent Perfect: experiencias que han ocurrido en algún momento indeterminado.Sam has been to India.Past Simple: acciones completamente acabadas. I lived in India in 1992.Present Perfect: acciones que comenzaron en el pasado pero que continúan en el presente I´ve lived in India sincePast Simple: se acompaña de expresiones de tiempo pasado yesterday, 2 years ago.Present Perfect: se acompaña con ever, never, yet, already….
21Write sentences or questions. Use the past simple or present perfect 1 you / go / on holiday last year?______________________________2 you / ever / go / to England?3 I / never / try / windsurfing4 Maria / study / photography last year5 your teacher / ever / live in England?Did you go on holiday last year?Have you ever been to England?I’ve never tried windsurfingMaria studied photography last year.Has your teacher ever lived in England?
22Choose the correct answer. 1. The boy won / has won the judo competition yesterday.2. When did you return / have you returned from your holiday?3. She knew / has known Melissa since they were babies.4. Mr Smith didn’t sleep / hasn’t slept last night because of the noise.5. He called me last month but I didn’t hear / haven’t heard from him since 2002.6. Did you see / Have you seen Penélope Cruz’s latest film yet?7. They went / have gone skiing two years ago.8. I never ate / have never eaten here before.Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple.haven’t found1. I am still looking for my ticket. I ……………………… (not find) it yet.2. The basketball game ……………………… (finish) an hour ago.3. ……………… you ever ……………… (see) so many fans at a game?4. My little brother ……………………… (not drink) anything at all yesterday.I ……………………… (never eat) snails before.6. ……………… you ……………… (do) your homework last week?finishedHaveseendidn’t drinkhave never eatenDiddo
23Even a woodpecker owes his success to the fact that he uses his head
24Present perfect continuous Use Time expressions + + - ? of “to be”Have beenHas been+V-ing( llevar + gerundio)I have been workingShe has been studyingTime expressions+For a year , since 2002 ,how long..?All day / night / week …I haven´t been workingShe hasn´t been studying-Have you been working ?Has she been studying ?Use?An action that started in the past and which still continues in the present.(Como todos los contínuos resalta el tiempo que está durando la acción)She has been working here for 2 yearsAn action whose results are still apparent.I´m still tired.. I have been studying all night
25Past perfect Use Time expressions + - ? V-ed Had + 3ª col Already , by the time, after ,Before, Until , never , just+I had worked-I hadn´t worked?UseHad you worked ?A completed action which took place before another action in the pastBy the time we arrived at the cinema, the film had already startedPresentFuturePastPerfectPast
26Past perfect continuous Use Time expressions + + - ? Past perfect of “to be”+had beenV-ing(llevaba + gerundio)Time expressionsFor hours , since last yearAll morning , when , until , before+I had been-I hadn´t beenUse?Had you been ?Para hablar de una acción prolongada que ocurrió en el pasado antes queotra acción breve también pasada. Suelen ir unidas por una expresiónde tiempo de las del cuadro, o “although” , “because”.We had been driving for 5 hours when we ran out of petrol.
27Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple.Some people won’t drive without their GPS navigational systems, but some people find this device is ruining their lives. Last month a lorry driver from Slovakia (1) …………… (get) his truck stuck* while he (2) ……………………… (drive) on a small country road in Britain. The driver, who (3) ……………………… (arrive) in Britain only a few hours before, (4) ……………………… (not speak) English and (5) ……………………… (become) very upset. This was not surprising because he (6) ……………………… (knock) down an electricity pole* just minutes before. Similarly, a large lorry (7) ……………………… (break) Dorothea North’s front gate while it (8) ……………………… (travel) through her small British village, Wedmore. Both these accidents (9) ……………………… (happen) because the lorry drivers (10) ……………………… (not watch) where they were going. They (11) ……………………… (use) their GPS navigational systems instead.gotwas drivinghad arriveddidn’t speakbecamehad knockedbrokewas travellinghappenedweren’t watchingwere using*Get stuck – quedarse clavado / paralizado*Electricity pole – poste d electricidad
28Future TO BE GOING TO + INFINITIVO ( Futuro de intención)Para hablar de nuestras intenciones, planes cercanos, o preguntar a otros lo que han pensado hacer en un futuro próximo.Next week I´m going to celebrate my birthday.Para hacer predicciones basadas en una evidencia en el momento enque hablamos.Listen to the wind. It´s going to be a storm.FUTURE SIMPLE will + infPara expresar decisiones espontáneas en el momento en que hablamos (ofrecimientos, peticiones, promesas, advertencias, amenazas..)I think you´ll learn this very quicklyThe window is open. Don´t worry I´ll close itPara hacer predicciones basadas en nuestra opinión.He won´t come.
29FUTURE CONTINUOUS Use FUTURE perfect Use Time expressions Future de “to be” + V-ingTime expressions+At this time, at this time next…On Thursday , in the next decadeI will be studying-I won´t be studying?Will you be studying ?An action in progress at a certain time in the futureAt this time next year, I will be studying Law in MadridUseFUTURE perfectV-ed3ª colFuture de “have” ++I will have studiedTime expressions-I won´t have studiedUseBy this time next week,by 10 o´clock…, In three months?Will you have studied?A completed action at a certain time in the future.By the end of June, we will have finished our exams
30Choose the correct answer. 1. I … to Paris many times, but this trip is the most exciting.a. have been c. will have beenb. had been d. was2. Tim couldn’t do the homework because he … his books the day before.a. have lost c. didn’t loseb. had lost d. will have lost3. They had read the book before they … the film.a. saw c. will have seenb. had seen d. has seen4. By the time you read this letter, I … the country.a. had left c. will have leftb. have left d. left5. He … cooking before he got the job.a. hasn’t studied c. hadn’t studiedb. won’t have studied d. didn’t study
31Complete texts A and B with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the present simple, present continuous, past simple or past continuous. AJill usually (1) __________ (go) out with her friends on Saturdays, but today she (2) __________ (not have) time. Last week she (3) __________ (have) a test at school, but she (4) __________ (not pass) it. So today she (5) __________ (study) for her exams.BAt the moment, Billy (6) __________ (talk) to a police officer, because he (7) __________ (see) a traffic accident this morning. A man (8) __________ (drive) too fast when a dog(9) __________ (run) into the road. Luckily, the dog (10) __________ (not die).goesdoesn’t havehad’s studyingdidn’t passis talkingsawwas drivingrandidn’t die
32Choose the correct answer 1. So you’re finally here! I waited / have been waiting / had waited for you since ten o’clock.2. Why won’t you have come / didn’t you come / haven’t you come to Sam’s party last night?3. I’m not hungry. I will have had / have had / have been having dinner.4. Dan left the football team because he has been suffering /had been suffering / has suffered from poor health. He’s feeling better now and may return.5. By this time next year, they will have travelled / have travelled / have been travelling to India.
33Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use the Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous.1. Why did you go to the doctor?Because (my leg / hurt / all week)2. Do you like Martin?I don’t know. I (just meet / him)3. Did you go out with Janis yesterday?No, I (not see / her / for a week)4. Why is his electricity bill so high?Because he(use / the air conditioner / 24 hours a day)my leg has been hurting all weekhave just met him.I haven’t seen her for a weekhas been using the air conditioner 24 hours a day.
34What is white when it's dirty and black when it's clean ? A blackboard.
35What letter of the alphabet is an insect? B (bee)What letter of the alphabet is a part of the head? I (eye)What letter is a drink? T (tea)
36What letter of the alphabet is a body of water? C (sea)What letter is an exclamation ? O (oh!)What comes once in a minute, twice in a moment but not once in a thousand years ? the letter m