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{ Libro de Gramática Hermosa Hammond 1 st Periodo Español IV Honores.

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1 { Libro de Gramática Hermosa Hammond 1 st Periodo Español IV Honores

2 Table of Contents 1. Present 2. Irregular yo formas 3. Irregulars in the present 4. Ser vs. Estar 5. Verbs Like Gustar 6. Nouns and Article Adjectives 7. Adjectives 8. Preterite vs. Imperfect 9. Present Subjunctive 10. Subjunctive Used in Noun Clauses 11. Subjunctive Used in Adjective Clauses 12. Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns in Commands 13. Formal Commands 14. Negative formal commands 15. Informal Commands 16. Commands Using Nosotros 17. Object Pronouns 18. Prepositional Pronouns 19. Pronouns with Double Object 20. Possessive Adjectives 21. Possessive Pronouns 22. Por and Para 23. Becoming 24. Reflexive Verbs

3 Table of Contents (cont) 25. Future 26. Conditional 27. Present Perfect 28. Relative Pronouns 29. Que vs. Cual 30. The Neuter Lo 31. Subjunctive Used in Adverbial Clauses 32. Past Subjunctive 33.Comparisons vs. Superlatives 34. Adverbs 35. Diminutives. Augmentatives 36. Present Perfect use in Subjunctive 37. Se 38. Past Participles Used as Adjectives 39. Expressing time with Hacer 40. Future Perfect. Conditional Perfect 41. Si Clauses. Transitional Expressions. Pero vs. Sino 42. Passive Voice 43. Negative and indefinite expressions 44. Past perfect and Past Perfect Subjunctive 45. Infinitivos 46. Prepositions

4 { El Presente Whats happening AHORA!

5 Actions in the present time Actions in the present time General Truths General Truths Near Future Near Future Literature Literature Habitual Actions Habitual Actions El Presente: Usar

6 {{ -AR - O - As - A - Amos - Aís - An -ER and IR - O - Es - E - Emos - Eís - En El Presente: Regulares

7 Nosotros and Vosotros NEVER have stem changes in the present tense! Nosotros and Vosotros NEVER have stem changes in the present tense! Construir, destruir, incluir have a y before the personal endings. Construir, destruir, incluir have a y before the personal endings. -AR & -ER stem changes: -AR & -ER stem changes: e to ie, o to i, u to ue. e to ie, o to i, u to ue. Stem Changing Verbos!

8 Yo: Yo: Some of the –er/-ir verbos apply. Some of the –er/-ir verbos apply. A common verb with an irregular yo is Saber, meaning to know, which is Yo Sé. A common verb with an irregular yo is Saber, meaning to know, which is Yo Sé. -cer to –zco; -gir to –jo -cer to –zco; -gir to –jo Prefixes attached to verbs follow the same rules as their root, even in the irregular yo form, such as conozco and reconozco. Prefixes attached to verbs follow the same rules as their root, even in the irregular yo form, such as conozco and reconozco. Irregular Formas

9 Ser and Estar To be or not to be That is the question! They both mean to be!

10 Los dos palabras se significan to be in Ingles. Los dos palabras se significan to be in Ingles. Ser means to be and it is permanent. Ser means to be and it is permanent. Estar es to be but it is not permanent. Estar es to be but it is not permanent. Para Usar…. estar ser

11 {{ Ser Place of origin Personality Possession Material Animals Profession or occupation Relationship Date Season Used to express the permanence of an object Estar Condition Temporality Location or spatial relationshio Health and states Emotions Certain weather expressions (esta nublado) Expressing death Variability Used to express impermanence of an object. A Comparison

12 {{ SER Soy Eres Es Somos Sois Son Estar Estoy Estás Está Estamos Estaís Están Personal Forms Yo Tu Ella Nosotros Vosotros Ellas

13 { Gustar means to please. Rather than I like apples as English says, Spanish says Apples are pleasing to me. Objects are attached to make a the to me part. So if the verb is gustar, apples is the subject, and me is what apples are pleasing to, you would read Me gustan manzanas. Gustar = Verbs Me = I Object Pronoun Manzanas = Subject N is added to the verb when the subject is plural, one apple = Me gusta la manzana. More than one? Me gustan manzanas. Verbos Como Gustar

14 Abburir Abburir Caer bien Caer bien Caer mal Caer mal Doler Doler Faltar Faltar Encantar Encantar Disgustar Disgustar Fascinar Fascinar Importar Importar Interesar Interesar Sorprender Sorprender Importar Importar More verbos como Gustar Extra Points adding a + mi/ti, for example adds emphasis to the thing or person or self that is being gusta-ed (pleased) Verbs like gustar have plural and singular forms, adding an n makes it plural, but it refers to the subject, not IO pronoun.

15 Like in English, a noun is a person, place, thing, quality, or idea. Like in English, a noun is a person, place, thing, quality, or idea. Masculine or Feminine Masculine or Feminine Masculine usually ens in o, or, l, s, and ma. Masculine usually ens in o, or, l, s, and ma. Feminine usually ends in a, ora, ion, d, and z. Feminine usually ends in a, ora, ion, d, and z. El indicates masculine, along with los. La indicates feminine, with las. Those are articles. El indicates masculine, along with los. La indicates feminine, with las. Those are articles. Plural mostly by adding s, but nouns ending in z add a c and then an es. Plural mostly by adding s, but nouns ending in z add a c and then an es. hombre – hombres rana – ranas lapiz – lapices Nouns

16 Mi, el, nosotros, ellos, ti, ella, vosotros, ellas, usted, si, ustedes. Mi, el, nosotros, ellos, ti, ella, vosotros, ellas, usted, si, ustedes. Function as the object of the preposition. Function as the object of the preposition. Si is used to refer back to the same third person subject. Si is used to refer back to the same third person subject. Si mismo – himself or herself Si mismo – himself or herself Prepositional Pronouns

17 IOs precede the direct object when they appear together, as a rule of thumb. Double Object Pronouns

18 Mi, tu, su, nuestro, vuestro Mi, tu, su, nuestro, vuestro My, yours, his/hers, ours, you alls. My, yours, his/hers, ours, you alls. Add an s if what is being possessed is plural. Add an s if what is being possessed is plural. Must agree with nouns that are being possessed, and the gender of that who is possessing. Must agree with nouns that are being possessed, and the gender of that who is possessing. Mi cara, tu cara, sus caras, nuestros caras, vuestros caras Mi cara, tu cara, sus caras, nuestros caras, vuestros caras Possessive Adjectives

19 El mio, la mia, los mios, las mias all mean mine El mio, la mia, los mios, las mias all mean mine Tuyo, tuya, tuyas, mean yours Tuyo, tuya, tuyas, mean yours Nuestro/a, nuestros/as, mean our. Nuestro/a, nuestros/as, mean our. Suyo/a, suyos/as mean theirs. Suyo/a, suyos/as mean theirs. Vuestro/a, vuestros/as mean you alls Vuestro/a, vuestros/as mean you alls Possessive Pronouns

20 Este: thisEse: thatAquel: that over there EsteEseAquel EstaEsaAquella EstosEsosAquellos EstasEsasaquellas Demonstrative Adjectives Can replace nouns Must agree in number and gender! Plural by adding s

21 Show that a person is performing an action to him or herself Show that a person is performing an action to him or herself Routines Routines Indicates emotion Indicates emotion Agrees in Person and number. Agrees in Person and number. Reflexive Pronouns SingularPlural 1 st PersonMeNos 2 nd PersonTeOs 3 rd PersonSe

22 What kind What kind Which one Which one How many How many How much How much MUST match noun it is describing in gender and number MUST match noun it is describing in gender and number Single adjectives sometimes modify more than one noun, but the plural form is used. Single adjectives sometimes modify more than one noun, but the plural form is used. Adjective following a noun is literal, and preceding is more figurative, like pobre and pobre. Adjective following a noun is literal, and preceding is more figurative, like pobre and pobre. Adjectives

23 { Continuing? Done? The important questions! Preterit vs. Imperfect

24 {{ Preterit Seen as completed action Definite beginning and ending Does not lack specificity. Trigger words: ayer, anoche, desde el primer momento, la semana pasada, entonces, ayer por la tarde Imperfect Not seen as a completed action Indefinite ending or beginning Vague or general Things you used to do. Trigger words: cuando era un niño, con frecuencia, mucho, nunca, muchas veces, siempre, todas las semanas, todos los dias Both are past actions, but…

25 {{ ARER/IR íste Ió Imos Isteis Ieron Regular Preterit

26 {{ AR Aba Abas Aba Ábamos Abais aban ER/IR Ía Ías Ía Íamos Íais Ían Regular Impefect

27 Ser and Ir are the twins, conjugated the same: FuiFuisteFueFuemosFuisteisFueron Irregular Preterit

28 DarHacerDecirTraerVer DiHiceDijeTrajeVi DisteHicisteDijisteTrajisteViste DioHizoDijoTrajoVio DimosHicimosDhimosTrajimosVimos DisteisHicisteisDijisteisTrajisteisVisteis DieronHicieronDijeronTrajieronVieron Irregular Preterit Car, gar, zar Qu Gu C

29 Ayer, Ayer, Anoche, Anoche, El ano pasado, El ano pasado, Ante ayer, Ante ayer, Antes Antes Preterite Trigger Words include…

30 VerboChange AndarAnduv EstarEstuv TenerTuv CaberCup HaberHub PoderPud PonerPus Irregular Preterit VerboChange SaberSup HacerHic QuererQuis Venirvin -e: -iste -o -imos: -isteis -ieron

31 IrSerVer IbaEraVeía IbasErasVeías IbaEraVeía IbamosEramosVeíamos IbaisEraisVeíais IbasEranVeían Irregular Imperfect

32 WEDDING WEDDING Wishing Wishing Emotions Emotions Doubt Doubt Disbelief Disbelief Impersonal expression Impersonal expression Negotiation Negotiation God God Subjunctive is a mood Subjunctive is a mood Uncertain, hypothetical Uncertain, hypothetical Main clause and connector and subordinate clause Main clause and connector and subordinate clause Ar: e, es, e, emos, en Ar: e, es, e, emos, en Er and ir: a, as, a, amos, an Er and ir: a, as, a, amos, an Irregulars are dar, estar, ir, saber, and ser. Irregulars are dar, estar, ir, saber, and ser. Present Subjunctive

33 Es Bueno que Es Bueno que Es malo que Es malo que Es necesario que Es necesario que Es urgente que Es urgente que Es importante que Es importante que Es mejor que Es mejor que Es _____ que Es _____ que Impersonal Expressions

34 An adjective clause describes a noun or pronoun. An adjective clause describes a noun or pronoun. Group of words. Group of words. Subjunctive is used when antecedent of the adjective is indefinite or unknown, nonexistent or negated. Subjunctive is used when antecedent of the adjective is indefinite or unknown, nonexistent or negated. Busco un libro que me gustaria. Subjunctive Used in Adjective Clauses

35 Used to show respect Used to show respect More of a suggestion More of a suggestion Usted and ustedes Usted and ustedes Conjugated the same as in subjunctive. Conjugated the same as in subjunctive. Use present tense, drop the o and add present subjunctive endings. Use present tense, drop the o and add present subjunctive endings. To make negative, precede with no. To make negative, precede with no. Formal Commands

36 One who you are familiar with One who you are familiar with Less respectful Less respectful Conjugated the same as present-tense usted form of the verb Conjugated the same as present-tense usted form of the verb Negatives have no preceding and are irregular like present subjunctive. Negatives have no preceding and are irregular like present subjunctive. Informal Commands

37 Mainly used when the speaker suggests to a group he or she is included in. Mainly used when the speaker suggests to a group he or she is included in. Ir form and subjunctive form can be used Ir form and subjunctive form can be used Ir uses present form of ir as the command. Ir uses present form of ir as the command. Subjunctive uses nosotros in present subjunctive form as the command. Subjunctive uses nosotros in present subjunctive form as the command. Place no in front of the command to make it negative. Place no in front of the command to make it negative. Commanding Nosotros

38 Direct receive action of the verb DIRECTLY. Who or what Direct receive action of the verb DIRECTLY. Who or what Indirect tell to whom or what and for whom or what. Indirect tell to whom or what and for whom or what. Precede conjugated verb in a sentence, but can be attached to words, like gerunds. Precede conjugated verb in a sentence, but can be attached to words, like gerunds. Le and Les change to se when used with lo/a, los/as. Le and Les change to se when used with lo/a, los/as. Object Pronouns

39 Transitive has object Transitive has object Intransitive does not. Intransitive does not. Can sometimes be used with prepositions a, de, and en. Can sometimes be used with prepositions a, de, and en. Object is also subject in many cases. Object is also subject in many cases. Examples of reflexive verbs: Examples of reflexive verbs: Abburirse – to become bored Abburirse – to become bored Ponerse – to get or to become Ponerse – to get or to become Acordarse –to remember Acordarse –to remember Comerse– to eat up Comerse– to eat up Dormirse – to fall asleep Dormirse – to fall asleep Mudarse – to move Mudarse – to move Ponerse – to put on clothing Ponerse – to put on clothing quitarse – to take off clothing. quitarse – to take off clothing. Reflexive Verbs

40 Por vs. Para PorPara Gratitude/apologyUse/purpose Bartering/salesRecipients DuringDeadline Communication/transport Through, along, by In order to, for purpose of Cause or reason Idiomatic expressions behalf

41 Hacerse is a reflexive verb that means to become, and is conjugated irregularly, (yo me hago) Hacerse is a reflexive verb that means to become, and is conjugated irregularly, (yo me hago) Ponerse: reflexive form of poner, to put (yo me pongo) Ponerse: reflexive form of poner, to put (yo me pongo) Volverse: yo me vuelvo Volverse: yo me vuelvo Llegar a ser: literally means to become, conjugated like ser. Llegar a ser: literally means to become, conjugated like ser. Becoming

42 What will happen? What will happen? Expresses wonder or probability in current state. Expresses wonder or probability in current state. Can be expressed by conjugated ir + infinitive. Can be expressed by conjugated ir + infinitive. Some irregulares: Some irregulares: Tener – tedr Tener – tedr Salir – saldr Salir – saldr Haber – habr Haber – habr Decir – dir Decir – dir Caber – cabr Caber – cabr Hacer – har Hacer – har Regular verbs end in Regular verbs end in É Ás Ás Á Emos Emos Éis Éis Án Án Future.

43 Would / should / could Would / should / could Regulars end in: ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían. Regulars end in: ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían. Irregulars mainly the same as future. Irregulars mainly the same as future. Use for speculation about the past or future, reported speech, advice, polite requests, etc. Use for speculation about the past or future, reported speech, advice, polite requests, etc. Conditional expresses what might happen by probability, wonder, or conjecture.

44 Combine two sentences that share a common noun. Combine two sentences that share a common noun. Related to a noun that has previously been stated already. Related to a noun that has previously been stated already. Introduction to a clause that modifies a noun. Introduction to a clause that modifies a noun. Que vs Cual Que vs Cual Q- what C- which Q- what C- which Q – definitions C- used before es, not in definitions Q – definitions C- used before es, not in definitions Q- before nouns C- suggests from a group, suggestions, clauses Q- before nouns C- suggests from a group, suggestions, clauses Relative Pronouns

45 Lo facil Lo facil Lo bueno Lo bueno Lo bello Lo bello Lo justo Lo justo Lo mejor Lo mejor It is _________ that It is _________ that Lo + adjective translated in english as part/one/thing usually Lo + adjective translated in english as part/one/thing usually The Neuter Lo

46 Used to express will or influence, emotion, doubt, or denial Used to express will or influence, emotion, doubt, or denial Verbs that have stem changes in the present subjunctive – only ir verbs have stem changes in nosotros and vosotros. Verbs that have stem changes in the present subjunctive – only ir verbs have stem changes in nosotros and vosotros. A group of words in a subordinate noun clause act as a noun, and apply here. A group of words in a subordinate noun clause act as a noun, and apply here. Dependent clauses serve as direct object or compliment in a noun clause. Dependent clauses serve as direct object or compliment in a noun clause. Creo que vaya al gimnasio a tres. Creo que vaya al gimnasio a tres. Subjunctive Used in adverbial

47 Completed actions Completed actions Actions that happened before another action. Actions that happened before another action. Conditional constructions Conditional constructions hypothetical hypothetical Imperfect sub. Of haber is used alongside a past participle. Imperfect sub. Of haber is used alongside a past participle. Past Subjunctivo

48 Like in english, er vs est Like in english, er vs est In spanish comparitive uses mas _____ que, for example. In spanish comparitive uses mas _____ que, for example. In spanish superlative uses el mas _______. To show that there is almost NO comparison. In spanish superlative uses el mas _______. To show that there is almost NO comparison. Goes after the noun. Goes after the noun. Hermosa es mas lista que Juan. Ellen Page es el actriz mast bonita. Comparitive vs Superlative

49 What had happened in the past What had happened in the past Formed using Haber + past participle verb… which are formed by adding ado to –ar verbs and ido to –er/ir verbs. Formed using Haber + past participle verb… which are formed by adding ado to –ar verbs and ido to –er/ir verbs. He He Has Has Han Han Hemos Hemos Hebais Hebais Han HanSubjunctive:HayaHayasHayaHayamosHayaisHayan Present Perfect Use In Subjunctive. + Past Participle

50 Just like in english, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Just like in english, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. In english we often add –ly to adjectives to make adverbs, the spanish equivalent is – mente. In english we often add –ly to adjectives to make adverbs, the spanish equivalent is – mente. Add an a before the mente usually! Add an a before the mente usually! Rapido = rapidamente Rapido = rapidamente quickly quickly Carinoso = carinosamente Carinoso = carinosamente Kindly Kindly Adverbs

51 Indicate smallness (diminutive) Indicate smallness (diminutive) Indicates affection Indicates affection You can drop o or a from almost any noun and ad ito or ita You can drop o or a from almost any noun and ad ito or ita Cito or cita can be added to words not ending in o or a Cito or cita can be added to words not ending in o or a Nino ninito Nino ninito Diminutives

52 Indicates largeness Indicates largeness Opposite of diminutive Opposite of diminutive Can end in anzo/a, on/a, ucho/a, acho/a, or udo/a. Can end in anzo/a, on/a, ucho/a, acho/a, or udo/a. NOT affectionate. NOT affectionate. Ganzoanzo (not affectionate goose) Ganzoanzo (not affectionate goose) Muchacho – como Adios, Muchacho! Es mal. Muchacho – como Adios, Muchacho! Es mal. Augmentatives

53 Completed actions Completed actions Actions that happened before another action. Actions that happened before another action. Conditional constructions Conditional constructions hypothetical hypothetical Imperfect sub. Of haber is used alongside a past participle. Imperfect sub. Of haber is used alongside a past participle. Past Perfecto Subjunctivo

54 Reflexive pronouns when subject is also object. Reflexive pronouns when subject is also object. Equivalent of the passive voice in english Equivalent of the passive voice in english Can replace le or les to avoid two l pronouns! Can replace le or les to avoid two l pronouns! SE

55 Agree with noun in gender and number Agree with noun in gender and number Follow same rules regarding er/ir and then ar verbs. Follow same rules regarding er/ir and then ar verbs. Past Participles as Adjectives

56 Hace + time + que Hace + time + que Hace tres anos que voy a mexico. Hace tres anos que voy a mexico. It has been two years since I have been to mexico. It has been two years since I have been to mexico. Negatives can be formed by adding no simply. Negatives can be formed by adding no simply. Present tense uses desde. Present tense uses desde. Verb + desde hace + time Verb + desde hace + time Yo voy a mexico desde hace dos anos. Yo voy a mexico desde hace dos anos. I have been going to mexico for two years. I have been going to mexico for two years. Expressing time using hacer.

57 Event hasnt happened, but is expected to happen. Event hasnt happened, but is expected to happen. Equivalent of english will or shall happen. Equivalent of english will or shall happen. Formed by the future indicative of haber and the participle form. Formed by the future indicative of haber and the participle form. Habré Habré Habrás Habrás Habrá Habrá Habremos Habremos Habréis Habréis habrán habrán Future perfect future perfect

58 Something that would have happened Something that would have happened If If In the past In the past Superstition/probability Superstition/probability Haber + past participle Haber + past participle Habría Habría Habrías Habrías Habrían Habrían Habríamos Habríamos Habrías Habrías Habrían Habrían Conditional Perfect Tense

59 If liklihood is expressed, si can be used. With present indicative. If liklihood is expressed, si can be used. With present indicative. If condition is contrary or unlikely, si can be used with past subjunctive verbs. If condition is contrary or unlikely, si can be used with past subjunctive verbs. It may precede the sentence, or not. It may precede the sentence, or not. Does not only mean yes Does not only mean yes Also means IF! Also means IF! Si quieres tomar el examen, dime que hora. Si quieres tomar el examen, dime que hora. Si

60 Cause and effect: ya que, como, porque Cause and effect: ya que, como, porque Clarification: en otras palabras Clarification: en otras palabras Explanation: ademas Explanation: ademas Contrast and similarity: sin embargo, igualmente Contrast and similarity: sin embargo, igualmente General and specific: espesificamente General and specific: espesificamente Intro and conclusion: el primero lugar – para concluir. Intro and conclusion: el primero lugar – para concluir. Transitional Expressions

61 Coordinating conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions Equivalent of english but Equivalent of english but Pero indicates contrast of things or ideas Pero indicates contrast of things or ideas Sino is used when the part of the sentence following the conjunction is negative, meaning something closer to rather. Sino is used when the part of the sentence following the conjunction is negative, meaning something closer to rather. Pero and Sino

62 Used with a generalized subject, subject that refers to something else, or a peripheral subject. Used with a generalized subject, subject that refers to something else, or a peripheral subject. Whatever receives the action of the verb comes first. Whatever receives the action of the verb comes first. Followed by verb to be Followed by verb to be Followed by participle Followed by participle Ser is usd Ser is usd Subject would be a DO if written actively. Subject would be a DO if written actively. El coche fue rompido por la arbol. Passive voice. Shhhh….

63 Negative: nobody or nothing Negative: nobody or nothing Nada: nothing Nada: nothing Nadie: nobody Nadie: nobody Ningun: not any Ningun: not any Ni: neither Ni: neither Tampoco: neither Tampoco: neither Indefinite: ambiguous Indefinite: ambiguous Algo: something Algo: something Alguien: someone Alguien: someone Alguna vez: some time Alguna vez: some time Alguno: some Alguno: some Cualquier: which Cualquier: which Algo pasó. Algo pasó. Negative and Indefinite Expressions

64 Formed by adding auxiliary verb of had with a participle. Formed by adding auxiliary verb of had with a participle. Negatives formed by adding no prior to haber. Negatives formed by adding no prior to haber. Había Había Habías Habías Había Había Habíamos +participle Habíamos +participle Habías Habías Habían Habían Past Perfecto

65 Formed by adding auxiliary verb of had with a participle. Formed by adding auxiliary verb of had with a participle. Negatives formed by adding no prior to haber. Negatives formed by adding no prior to haber. Subjunctive conjugation Subjunctive conjugation Haya Haya Hayas Hayas Hayan Hayan Haya +participle Haya +participle Hayamos Hayamos Hayaian Hayaian Past Subjuctive

66 -ar -ar -er -er -ir -ir Subject (gerund) english equivalent of –ing Subject (gerund) english equivalent of –ing Predicate nominative Predicate nominative Objects Objects Verb Verb preposition preposition Infinitives

67 Form a phrase! Tell location, approximation, etc. Form a phrase! Tell location, approximation, etc. Almost always followed by adjective. Almost always followed by adjective. A Con Con Contra Contra Antes de Antes de Durante Durante En En Entre Entre Hasta Hasta Para Para Por Por Sin Sin sobre sobre Prepositions


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