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Hermosa Hammond 1st Periodo Español IV Honores

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1 Hermosa Hammond 1st Periodo Español IV Honores
Libro de Gramática Hermosa Hammond 1st Periodo Español IV Honores

2 Table of Contents Present Irregular yo formas
Irregulars in the present Ser vs. Estar Verbs Like Gustar Nouns and Article Adjectives Adjectives Preterite vs. Imperfect Present Subjunctive Subjunctive Used in Noun Clauses Subjunctive Used in Adjective Clauses Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns in Commands Formal Commands Negative formal commands Informal Commands Commands Using Nosotros Object Pronouns Prepositional Pronouns Pronouns with Double Object Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns Por and Para Becoming Reflexive Verbs Table of Contents

3 Table of Contents (cont)
25. Future 26. Conditional 27. Present Perfect 28. Relative Pronouns 29. Que vs. Cual 30. The Neuter ‘Lo’ 31. Subjunctive Used in Adverbial Clauses 32. Past Subjunctive 33.Comparisons vs. Superlatives 34. Adverbs 35. Diminutives. Augmentatives 36. Present Perfect use in Subjunctive 37. Se 38. Past Participles Used as Adjectives 39. Expressing time with Hacer 40. Future Perfect. Conditional Perfect 41. Si Clauses. Transitional Expressions. Pero vs. Sino 42. Passive Voice 43. Negative and indefinite expressions 44. Past perfect and Past Perfect Subjunctive 45. Infinitivos 46. Prepositions Table of Contents (cont)

4 What’s happening AHORA!
El Presente What’s happening AHORA!

5 El Presente: Usar Actions in the present time General Truths
Near Future Literature Habitual Actions El Presente: Usar

6 El Presente: Regulares
-ER and IR O As A Amos Aís An O Es E Emos Eís En El Presente: Regulares

7 Nosotros and Vosotros NEVER have stem changes in the present tense!
Construir, destruir, incluir have a y before the personal endings. -AR & -ER stem changes: e to ie, o to i, u to ue. Stem Changing Verbos!

8 Irregular Formas Yo: Some of the –er/-ir verbos apply.
A common verb with an irregular yo is Saber, meaning to know, which is Yo Sé. -cer to –zco; -gir to –jo Prefixes attached to verbs follow the same rules as their root, even in the irregular yo form, such as conozco and reconozco. Irregular Formas

9 Ser and Estar To be or not to be That is the question!
They both mean to be! Ser and Estar

10 Para Usar…. Los dos palabras se significan “to be” in Ingles.
Ser means “to be” and it is permanent. Estar es “to be” but it is not permanent. estar Para Usar…. ser

11 A Comparison Ser Estar Place of origin Personality Possession Material
Animals Profession or occupation Relationship Date Season Used to express the permanence of an object Condition Temporality Location or spatial relationshio Health and states Emotions Certain weather expressions (esta nublado) Expressing death Variability Used to express impermanence of an object. A Comparison

12 Personal Forms Yo Tu Ella Nosotros Vosotros Ellas
SER Estar Yo Tu Ella Nosotros Vosotros Ellas Soy Eres Es Somos Sois Son Estoy Estás Está Estamos Estaís Están Personal Forms

13 Verbos Como Gustar Gustar means to please. Rather than “I like apples” as English says, Spanish says “Apples are pleasing to me.” Objects are attached to make a the “to me” part. So if the verb is gustar, apples is the subject, and “me” is what apples are pleasing to, you would read “Me gustan manzanas.” Gustar = Verbs Me = I Object Pronoun Manzanas = Subject N is added to the verb when the subject is plural, one apple = “Me gusta la manzana.” More than one? “Me gustan manzanas.”

14 More verbos como Gustar
Abburir Caer bien Caer mal Doler Faltar Encantar Disgustar Fascinar Importar Interesar Sorprender Extra Points adding a + mi/ti, for example adds emphasis to the thing or person or self that is being “gusta-ed” (pleased) Verbs like gustar have plural and singular forms, adding an n makes it plural, but it refers to the subject, not IO pronoun. More verbos como Gustar

15 Like in English, a noun is a person, place, thing, quality, or idea.
Masculine or Feminine Masculine usually ens in o, or, l, s, and ma. Feminine usually ends in a, ora, ion, d, and z. El indicates masculine, along with los. La indicates feminine, with las. Those are articles. Plural mostly by adding s, but nouns ending in z add a c and then an es. hombre – hombres rana – ranas lapiz – lapices Nouns

16 Prepositional Pronouns
Mi, el, nosotros, ellos, ti, ella, vosotros, ellas, usted, si, ustedes. Function as the object of the preposition. Si is used to refer back to the same third person subject. Si mismo – himself or herself Prepositional Pronouns

17 Double Object Pronouns
IO’s precede the direct object when they appear together, as a rule of thumb. Double Object Pronouns

18 Possessive Adjectives
Mi, tu, su, nuestro, vuestro My, yours, his/hers, ours, you all’s. Add an s if what is being possessed is plural. Must agree with nouns that are being possessed, and the gender of that who is possessing. Mi cara, tu cara, sus caras, nuestros caras, vuestros caras Possessive Adjectives

19 Possessive Pronouns El mio, la mia, los mios, las mias all mean mine
Tuyo, tuya, tuyas, mean yours Nuestro/a, nuestros/as, mean our. Suyo/a, suyos/as mean theirs. Vuestro/a, vuestros/as mean you all’s Possessive Pronouns

20 Demonstrative Adjectives
Este: this Ese: that Aquel: that over there Este Ese Aquel Esta Esa Aquella Estos Esos Aquellos Estas Esas aquellas Can replace nouns Must agree in number and gender! Plural by adding s Demonstrative Adjectives

21 Show that a person is performing an action to him or herself
Routines Indicates emotion Agrees in Person and number. Singular Plural 1st Person Me Nos 2nd Person Te Os 3rd Person Se Reflexive Pronouns

22 Adjectives What kind Which one How many How much
MUST match noun it is describing in gender and number Single adjectives sometimes modify more than one noun, but the plural form is used. Adjective following a noun is literal, and preceding is more figurative, like pobre and pobre. Adjectives

23 Preterit vs. Imperfect Continuing? Done? The important questions!

24 Both are past actions, but…
Preterit Imperfect Seen as completed action Definite beginning and ending Does not lack specificity. Trigger words: ayer, anoche, desde el primer momento, la semana pasada, entonces, ayer por la tarde Not seen as a completed action Indefinite ending or beginning Vague or general Things you “used to do.” Trigger words: cuando era un niño, con frecuencia, mucho, nunca, muchas veces, siempre, todas las semanas, todos los dias Both are past actions, but…

25 Regular Preterit É Aste Ó Amos Asteis Aron íste Ió Imos Isteis Ieron
ER/IR É Aste Ó Amos Asteis Aron íste Ió Imos Isteis Ieron Regular Preterit

26 Regular Impefect Aba Abas Ábamos Abais aban Ía Ías Íamos Íais Ían AR
ER/IR Aba Abas Ábamos Abais aban Ía Ías Íamos Íais Ían Regular Impefect

27 Ser and Ir are the twins, conjugated the same: Fui Fuiste Fue Fuemos Fuisteis Fueron
Irregular Preterit

28 Irregular Preterit Dar Hacer Decir Traer Ver Di Hice Dije Traje Vi
Diste Hiciste Dijiste Trajiste Viste Dio Hizo Dijo Trajo Vio Dimos Hicimos Dhimos Trajimos Vimos Disteis Hicisteis Dijisteis Trajisteis Visteis Dieron Hicieron Dijeron Trajieron Vieron Car, gar, zar Qu Gu C Irregular Preterit

29 Preterite Trigger Words include…
Ayer, Anoche, El ano pasado, Ante ayer, Antes Preterite Trigger Words include…

30 Irregular Preterit -e: -iste -o -imos: -isteis -ieron Verbo Change
Andar Anduv Estar Estuv Tener Tuv Caber Cup Haber Hub Poder Pud Poner Pus -e: -iste -o Verbo Change Saber Sup Hacer Hic Querer Quis Venir vin Irregular Preterit -imos: -isteis -ieron

31 Irregular Imperfect Ir Ser Ver Iba Era Veía Ibas Eras Veías Ibamos
Eramos Veíamos Ibais Erais Veíais Eran Veían Irregular Imperfect

32 Present Subjunctive WEDDING Wishing Emotions Doubt Disbelief
Impersonal expression Negotiation God Subjunctive is a mood Uncertain, hypothetical Main clause and connector and subordinate clause Ar: e, es, e, emos, en Er and ir: a, as, a, amos, an Irregulars are dar, estar, ir, saber, and ser. Present Subjunctive

33 Impersonal Expressions
Es Bueno que Es malo que Es necesario que Es urgente que Es importante que Es mejor que Es _____ que Impersonal Expressions

34 Subjunctive Used in Adjective Clauses
An adjective clause describes a noun or pronoun. Group of words. Subjunctive is used when antecedent of the adjective is indefinite or unknown, nonexistent or negated. Busco un libro que me gustaria. Subjunctive Used in Adjective Clauses

35 Formal Commands Used to show respect More of a suggestion
Usted and ustedes Conjugated the same as in subjunctive. Use present tense, drop the o and add present subjunctive endings. To make negative, precede with no. Formal Commands

36 Informal Commands One who you are familiar with Less respectful
Conjugated the same as present-tense usted form of the verb Negatives have no preceding and are irregular like present subjunctive. Informal Commands

37 Mainly used when the speaker suggests to a group he or she is included in.
Ir form and subjunctive form can be used Ir uses present form of ir as the command. Subjunctive uses nosotros in present subjunctive form as the command. Place no in front of the command to make it negative. Commanding Nosotros

38 Direct receive action of the verb DIRECTLY. Who or what
Indirect tell to whom or what and for whom or what. Precede conjugated verb in a sentence, but can be attached to words, like gerunds. Le and Les change to se when used with lo/a, los/as. Object Pronouns

39 Reflexive Verbs Transitive has object Intransitive does not.
Can sometimes be used with prepositions a, de, and en. Object is also subject in many cases. Examples of reflexive verbs: Abburirse – to become bored Ponerse – to get or to become Acordarse –to remember Comerse– to eat up Dormirse – to fall asleep Mudarse – to move Ponerse – to put on clothing quitarse – to take off clothing. Reflexive Verbs

40 Por vs. Para Por Para Gratitude/apology Use/purpose Bartering/sales
Recipients During Deadline Communication/transport Through, along, by In order to, for purpose of Cause or reason Idiomatic expressions behalf Por vs. Para

41 Hacerse is a reflexive verb that means to become, and is conjugated irregularly, (yo me hago)
Ponerse: reflexive form of poner, to put (yo me pongo) Volverse: yo me vuelvo Llegar a ser: literally means to become, conjugated like ser. Becoming

42 Future. What will happen?
Expresses wonder or probability in current state. Can be expressed by conjugated ir + infinitive. Some irregulares: Tener – tedr Salir – saldr Haber – habr Decir – dir Caber – cabr Hacer – har Regular verbs end in É Ás Á Emos Éis Án Future.

43 Would / should / could Regulars end in: ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían. Irregulars mainly the same as future. Use for speculation about the past or future, reported speech, advice, polite requests, etc. Conditional expresses what might happen by probability, wonder, or conjecture.

44 Relative Pronouns Que vs Cual Q- what C- which
Combine two sentences that share a common noun. Related to a noun that has previously been stated already. Introduction to a clause that modifies a noun. Que vs Cual Q- what C- which Q – definitions C- used before es, not in definitions Q- before nouns C- suggests from a group, suggestions, clauses Relative Pronouns

45 The Neuter Lo Lo facil Lo bueno Lo bello Lo justo Lo mejor
It is _________ that Lo + adjective translated in english as part/one/thing usually The Neuter Lo

46 Subjunctive Used in adverbial
Used to express will or influence, emotion, doubt, or denial Verbs that have stem changes in the present subjunctive – only ir verbs have stem changes in nosotros and vosotros. A group of words in a subordinate noun clause act as a noun, and apply here. Dependent clauses serve as direct object or compliment in a noun clause. Creo que vaya al gimnasio a tres. Subjunctive Used in adverbial

47 Past Subjunctivo Completed actions
Actions that happened before another action. Conditional constructions hypothetical Imperfect sub. Of haber is used alongside a past participle. Past Subjunctivo

48 Comparitive vs Superlative
Like in english, er vs est In spanish comparitive uses mas _____ que, for example. In spanish superlative uses el mas _______. To show that there is almost NO comparison. Goes after the noun. Hermosa es mas lista que Juan. Ellen Page es el actriz mast bonita. Comparitive vs Superlative

49 Present Perfect Use In Subjunctive.
What had happened in the past Formed using Haber + past participle verb… which are formed by adding ado to –ar verbs and ido to –er/ir verbs. He Has Han Hemos Hebais Subjunctive: Haya Hayas Hayamos Hayais Hayan + Past Participle Present Perfect Use In Subjunctive.

50 Just like in english, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
In english we often add –ly to adjectives to make adverbs, the spanish equivalent is –mente. Add an a before the mente usually! Rapido = rapidamente quickly Carinoso = carinosamente Kindly Adverbs

51 Diminutives Indicate smallness (diminutive) Indicates affection
You can drop o or a from almost any noun and ad ito or ita Cito or cita can be added to words not ending in o or a Nino  ninito Diminutives

52 Augmentatives Indicates largeness Opposite of diminutive
Can end in anzo/a, on/a, ucho/a, acho/a, or udo/a. NOT affectionate. Ganzoanzo (not affectionate goose) Muchacho – como “Adios, Muchacho!” Es mal. Augmentatives

53 Past Perfecto Subjunctivo
Completed actions Actions that happened before another action. Conditional constructions hypothetical Imperfect sub. Of haber is used alongside a past participle. Past Perfecto Subjunctivo

54 SE Reflexive pronouns when subject is also object.
Equivalent of the passive voice in english Can replace le or les to avoid two l pronouns! SE

55 Past Participles as Adjectives
Agree with noun in gender and number Follow same rules regarding er/ir and then ar verbs. Past Participles as Adjectives

56 Expressing time using hacer.
Hace + time + que Hace tres anos que voy a mexico. It has been two years since I have been to mexico. Negatives can be formed by adding “no” simply. Present tense uses desde. Verb + desde hace + time Yo voy a mexico desde hace dos anos. I have been going to mexico for two years. Expressing time using hacer.

57 Future perfect Event hasn’t happened, but is expected to happen.
Equivalent of english “will” or “shall” happen. Formed by the future indicative of haber and the participle form. Habré Habrás Habrá Habremos Habréis habrán Future perfect future perfect

58 Conditional Perfect Tense
Something that would have happened If In the past Superstition/probability Haber + past participle Habría Habrías Habrían Habríamos Conditional Perfect Tense

59 Si If liklihood is expressed, si can be used. With present indicative.
If condition is contrary or unlikely, si can be used with past subjunctive verbs. It may precede the sentence, or not. Does not only mean “yes” Also means IF! Si quieres tomar el examen, dime que hora. Si

60 Transitional Expressions
Cause and effect: ya que, como, porque Clarification: en otras palabras Explanation: ademas Contrast and similarity: sin embargo, igualmente General and specific: espesificamente Intro and conclusion: el primero lugar – para concluir. Transitional Expressions

61 Pero and Sino Coordinating conjunctions Equivalent of english “but”
Pero indicates contrast of things or ideas Sino is used when the part of the sentence following the conjunction is negative, meaning something closer to “rather.” Pero and Sino

62 Used with a generalized subject, subject that refers to something else, or a peripheral subject.
Whatever receives the action of the verb comes first. Followed by verb “to be” Followed by participle Ser is usd Subject would be a DO if written actively. El coche fue rompido por la arbol. Passive voice. Shhhh….

63 Negative and Indefinite Expressions
Negative: nobody or nothing Nada: nothing Nadie: nobody Ningun: not any Ni: neither Tampoco: neither Indefinite: ambiguous Algo: something Alguien: someone Alguna vez: some time Alguno: some Cualquier: which Algo pasó. Negative and Indefinite Expressions

64 Formed by adding auxiliary verb of had with a participle.
Negatives formed by adding no prior to haber. Había Habías Habíamos participle Habían Past Perfecto

65 Formed by adding auxiliary verb of had with a participle.
Negatives formed by adding no prior to haber. Subjunctive conjugation Haya Hayas Hayan Haya participle Hayamos Hayaian Past Subjuctive

66 Infinitives -ar -er -ir Subject (gerund) english equivalent of –ing
Predicate nominative Objects Verb preposition Infinitives

67 Prepositions Form a phrase! Tell location, approximation, etc.
Almost always followed by adjective. A Con Contra Antes de Durante En Entre Hasta Para Por Sin sobre Prepositions

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