Transnational Stewart, 2012 LRA Noun: Those who have "moved bodily across national borders while maintaining and cultivating practices tied…to their home countries" (Hornberger, 2007) Adjective: To depict social practices, political processes, and cultural phenomena among individuals who do cross geopolitical borders regularly as well as those who do not." (Warriner, 2007)
Technology Stewart, 2012 LRA Technology uniquely affects the hybridization of cultures occurring in transnationalism. (Garcia Canclini, 1995) Digital media has sparked the greatest change in literacy since the printing press. (Warschauer, 2009)
Technology and Immigrant Youth Stewart, 2012 LRA Extant research primarily focuses on how Asian immigrant youth in North America develop their multilingual and multicultural identities in digital spaces through the use of a variety of technology. (Black, 2006; Lam, 2000, 2004; McGinnis, et al., 2007; McLean, 2010; Yi, 2007, 2010)
Research Questions 1) For what purposes do the participants use Facebook? 2) How does their transnational Facebook use challenge their label as at-risk students? Part of a larger study of newcomer Latina/o immigrants out- of-school literacies. High school: 2,000 students of many races with 13 in the ESL classes Stewart, 2012 LRA
Participant Information as of Jan Stewart, 2012 LRA Name *pseudonym AgeCountry of Origin Time in U.S. Grade in School Level of Education Completed in Country of Origin Level of L2 Acquisition as of today Valeria19El Salvador 20 months SophomoreIn first year of bachillerato = 10 th grade Beginner Alejandra (Valeria's sister) 17El Salvador 20 months JuniorIn second year of bachillerato = 11 th grade Intermediate Celia17Mexico18 months JuniorFinished secundaria = 10 th grade Beginner Miguel20Guatemala9 months JuniorIn third year of universificado = 12 th grade Beginner
Methodology Interviews, n=5-8 for each student Observations in their ESL classes, n=15 Analysis of Facebook data: All posts from creation to June 2012 Facebook information as of June 2012 Stewart, 2012 LRA Date Started Page # of FB Friends All Post s by Participant All Posts to Participant ValeriaJanuary AlejandraDecember CeliaAugust MiguelMay
1) For what purposes do the participants use Facebook? Demonstrate sophisticated transnational literacies through Facebook in order to: 1) Connect to Home 2) Maintain their Latina/o Identities 3) Acquire English Stewart, 2012 LRA
Connect to Home Stewart, 2012 LRA Why do you use Facebook? "For my sister and my mom. "Para mis hermanos y mis primos" For my brother, sister, and cousins. Vecinos neighbors Mother/daughter relationship: "El otro día me regañó [mi mamá] porque eso, había una foto donde tenía el cabello todo arreglado y me gusta que lise el cabello. Se enojó por eso." The other day she got onto me because there was a picture of me with my hair all done up and she likes my hair straight. She got angry because of that.
Connect to Home "feliz cumple pollo happy birthday chicken "feliz cumple aki en guatemala lo qeremos muxo bndiciones muaa..!! cuidece. happy birthday here in guatemala we love you many blessings mwaaa..!! take care. Protect younger siblings: "Hey victor mucho respeto a mi hermana ok" Hey victor respect my sister ok Stewart, 2012 LRA
Latina/o Identities: FB Likes Stewart, 2012 LRA Latin American Music Artists, TV Shows, and Soccer Teams
Youth Codes in Spanish Stewart, 2012 LRA TQM Te quiero mucho/ I love you a lot X Por For XK Porque Because
Acquire English "Aquí en la escuela casi no tengo amigos de americano, así que los tengo en Facebook." Here in school I really don't have American friends, so I have them on Facebook. "i love" "me too" "what up" "They are sooo precious!" "yes i know >>they are Hilda's baby" Stewart, 2012 LRA
Acquire English: Youth Codes Stewart, 2012 LRA Cuando yo leo, yo pregunto que es esto, y ellos me dicen. When I read it, I ask what is this, and they [co-workers] tell me." (omg, lol, XD) omg!!!!!!-Posted by Alejandra on Celias page Celia: omg? Hola mi amiga? Celia on why she does not post much on FB: "Es que quiero escribir en inglés, pero no puedo. It's because I want to write in English, but I can't." Celia posting on her page: "omg tomorrow i have test"
Significance More than a decade ago, the New London Group (1996) asked us to consider how the notion of literacy must change to address educational inequalities in response to: 1) the increasing local diversity through global connectedness; and, 2) the development of new technologies. Stewart, 2012 LRA
2) How does the students transnational Facebook use challenge their label as at- risk students? Stewart, 2012 LRA Outsiders in their high school Lost in mainstream classes Failing high stakes tests required for graduation Limited English proficient Posses transnational skills needed in the 21 st century that are rare in mainstream populations Communicate in multilingual and multimodal ways Emergent multilinguals
Implications Facebook facilitates their English acquisition more effectively than their school environment. Use for writing Facebook provides a safe place for them to interact with americanos. Use to create dialogue in classes between the newcomer and mainstream students Shared funds of knowledge (Paris, 2012) Facebook allows them to get news and information from other parts of the world. Critical literacy, cultural consciousness Stewart, 2012 LRA
Future Research Stewart, 2012 LRA Studies that demonstrate how immigrant students social networking can be leveraged for academic learning Studies at the college level show how FB has been used in the classroom to: analyze literature (Skerrett, 2010) safely develop an academic discourse (Reid, 2011) foster intercultural communication (Lang, 2010) create a sense of community within the class (Reich, 2010)
Muxo gracias X venir Thx 4 coming XD Stewart, 2012 LRA Slides available at maryamandastewart.weebly.com. Paper on LRA site.