# A professional fisherman caught 30 fish during a 5 day tournament. Each day, he caught 3 more fish than the day before. How many fish did he catch on the.

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A professional fisherman caught 30 fish during a 5 day tournament. Each day, he caught 3 more fish than the day before. How many fish did he catch on the first day? 2/19 BELL WORK

Finish Evolution test? Classification Activity (Animal Grouping) 2/19 SCHEDULE

A professional fisherman caught 30 fish during a 5 day tournament. Each day, he caught 3 more fish than the day before. How many fish did he catch on the first day? 2/19 BELL WORK

A cow is tied to a post in the middle of a field with a 14 ft rope. Assume it eats 100 ft 2 of grass a day. How many days will the cow have enough to eat? Hint: Need circle area formula 2/22 BELL WORK

Catch Up Day Finish Evolution test Animal Grouping sheet Notes Ch 18.1 in “Classification” unit online Dir Rdg Ch 18 due TBA 2/22 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Animal Grouping sheet due TODAY 2.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due TBA

Objectives: 1.Use taxonomy to identify and group organisms. 2.Define cladistics and use to show relatedness of organisms.

CH 18.1 “THE IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFICATION” Objectives 1.Explain the benefits of a taxonomic systems. 2.Describe the information in a scientific name. 3.Identify the structure of the modern Linnaean system of classification.

THE NEED FOR SYSTEMS About 1.7 million species have been named and described by scientists. Scientists think that millions more are undiscovered.

THE NEED FOR SYSTEMS Taxonomy: practice of naming and classifying organisms Organizes knowledge of organisms. Attempts to consistently name and categorize organisms. Taxonomic systems DO NOT use common names, which may be confusing because they are different in different places. Is this a mountain lion, cougar, puma… ?

THE NEED FOR SYSTEMS Taxonomic Systems use categories from large to small to organize organisms. Each of these categories is a taxon (plural, taxa).

SCIENTIFIC NOMENCLATURE Various systems were invented in the early days of European biology. Used long, descriptive Latin phrases called polynomials. Names were inconsistent. The only taxon which was consistent was the genus, for similar species.

SCIENTIFIC NOMENCLATURE Binomial Nomenclature Developed by Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus in the 1750s. Two-word naming system Includes the genus name and a single descriptive species word, aka scientific name. Carl Linnaeus, a Homo sapien according to his system.

SCIENTIFIC NOMENCLATURE Naming Rules No two species have exactly the same scientific name. All scientific names have two Latin or Latin-like terms. All the members of a genus share the genus name. The species identifier, and is often descriptive. (color, size, location)

SCIENTIFIC NOMENCLATURE EX: The scientific name Apis mellifera is the European honeybee. mellifera comes from the Latin word for honey. Format: Genus species or Genus species

THE LINNAEAN SYSTEM Linnaeus’ System classified all plants and animals that were known during his time. Organisms are grouped at successive levels of the hierarchy based on similarities in their form and structure. 8 Modern Levels of Classification 1. domain5. order 2. kingdom6. family 3. phylum7. genus 4. class8. species Remember the order… Dotty King Phillip cried, “Oh for goodness sake!”

BIOLOGICAL HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION OF A BEE

THE LINNAEAN SYSTEM Domain Invented after Linnaeus’ time. Recognizes the most basic differences among the three cell types.

THE LINNAEAN SYSTEM Kingdom encompasses large groups (ex plants, animals, fungi) Six kingdoms Phylum is a subgroup within kingdom. Class is a subgroup of a phylum.

THE LINNAEAN SYSTEM Order is a subgroup of class. Family is a subgroup within an order. Genus (plural, genera) is a subgroup within family.

THE LINNAEAN SYSTEM Binomial Example: EX: Homo sapien is recognized as the only living primate species that walks upright and uses spoken language. Homo sapien sapiens are humans Homo sapien neanderthals were Neanderthals

Nothing is particularly hard if you divide it into small jobs. -- Henry Ford Who is Henry Ford, and what did he mean? 2/23 BELL WORK

Start notes Ch 18.2 “Modern Systematics” Binomial Nomenclature sheet Work time? Notes Ch 18.1 in “Classification” unit online Dir Rdg Ch 18 due TBA 2/23 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Animal Grouping sheet LATE 2.Binomal Nomenclature sheet due WEDNESDAY 3.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due TBA

CH 18.2 “MODERN SYSTEMATICS” Objectives: 1.Describe problems that arise when scientists try to group organisms by apparent similarities. 2.Use cladistics used to construct evolutionary relationships.

CLASSIFICATION’S GOING TO THE DOGS… Name as many of these different kinds of dog-like animals you can. Most of them belong to the same genus, Canis. Identify which you think are the same species.

TRADITIONAL SYSTEMATICS Problematic Systematics Scientists traditionally used similarities in appearance and structure to group organisms. Issues… Some groups look similar but turn out to be distantly related. Other groups look different but are closely related.

TRADITIONAL SYSTEMATICS, CONTINUED EX: Dinosaurs vs. Birds Dinosaurs were seen as a group of reptiles that became extinct. Birds were a separate, modern group not related to any reptiles.

TRADITIONAL SYSTEMATICS, CONTINUED EX: Dinosaurs vs. Birds Fossil evidence has convinced scientists that birds evolved from a dinosaur lineage Some scientists classify birds as a subgroup of dinosaurs.

PHYLOGENETICS Phylogeny: studying the ancestral relationships between species. Grouping by similar structures is often assumed to reflect relationships, but isn’t always accurate EX: wings Birds, insects, and bats have wings. They are not closely related.

Scientific names are like a puzzle. They help you figure out how species are related, and often give clues about their appearance/behavior/location. Cyano = blue Tri = 3 Hydro = water Leo = lion Match the pictures with their scientific names. Trillium grandiflorum Leontodon autumnalis Cyanocitta cristata Hydrophyllum virginianum BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE

Shadow was vacationing in the Middle East. While walking along the shore of the Dead Sea, Shadow noticed a body wearing only a bathing suit floating face down in the water. The autopsy showed the victim drowned, and there were no physical marks or scars on the body. The noticeable absence of marks made Shadow certain the person was murdered and dumped. What would lead Shadow to this conclusion? 2/24 BELL WORK

Notes Ch 18.2 “Modern Systematics” Start Alien Taxonomy Project #1-2 Work time? Binomial Nomenclature sheet due TODAY Dir Rdg Ch 18 due TBA 2/24 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Animal Grouping sheet LATE 2.Binomal Nomenclature sheet due TODAY 3.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due TBA ALL Q3 assignments MUST be in TUESDAY 3/1 for credit! Get them in!

PHYLOGENETICS, CONTINUED Convergent evolution can make phylogenics difficult Groups are not closely related, but have adopted similar habitats or lifestyles. Such features are called analogous characters.

PHYLOGENETICS, CONTINUED Fossil evidence now shows that birds are considered part of the “family tree” of dinosaurs. This phylogenetic tree, shows a hypothesis of the relationships between reptile groups.

CLADISTICS Cladistics: careful comparisons of shared characteristics. Objective method uniting systematics with phylogenetics. Selects the most likely phylogeny among a given set of organisms (principle of parsimony).

CLADISTICS, CONTINUED Cladistics focuses on finding shared characters between different groups because of shared ancestry. Ancestral characters are thought to have evolved in a common ancestor of both groups. Derived characters evolved in one group but not the other.

CLADISTICS EX: All living conifers, flowering plants, and some prehistoric plants produce seeds. Ancestral Character: Seed production Derived Character: Flower production, only in flowering plants

CLADISTICS, CONTINUED Scientists construct a cladogram to show relationships between groups. Cladogram is a phylogenetic tree drawn according to specific rules.

CLADISTICS, CONTINUED Cladogram Rules 1.Organisms are grouped together by IDing their shared derived characters. 2.All groups that arise from one point on a cladogram belong to a clade. Clade: a set of groups that descend from a single ancestral lineage.

CLADISTICS, CONTINUED Cladogram Rules 3.Each clade is compared with an outgroup that lacks one/more of the shared characteristics. Conifers and flowering plants form a clade. Ferns are the outgroup.

1.Separate the organisms into two groups. These are your Kingdoms. Name descriptively. 2.Divide each Kingdom into Phyla based on similar characteristics. Name each Phylum. 3.Divide each Phylum into Genera. Choose Genus names. 4.Pick a descriptive species word for each creature. (size, shape, number…) 5.Make a flow chart that shows how you organized the creatures and their names. ALIEN TAXONOMY

2/29 BELL WORK Professor Quantum was gathering evidence for climate change. He relayed his information by shortwave radio to the nearest base. He reported the temperature as minus 40 degrees. “Is that Fahrenheit or Celsius?” responded the radio man. “I couldn’t care less,” replied the Professor. Why the cavalier attitude toward the data?

Progress Sheets Signed, due WED Notes Ch 18.2 “Modern Systematics” Dichotomous Keys Practice Alien Taxonomy Project #1-3 Work time? 2/29 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Animal Grouping sheet LATE 2.Binomal Nomenclature sheet LATE 3.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due TBA ALL Q3 assignments MUST be in TUESDAY 3/1 for credit! Get them in! Galileo Final THURSDAY

1.Put the following in order from biggest to smallest: domain, species, family, kingdom. 2.Linnaeus included “domain” in his classification system. T/F 3.You are looking for the relationships between fish, dogs, and birds. What derived characters could you use to separate them? CLASSIFICATION AND CLADOGRAM REVIEW

Look at the dichotomous key on the next page and try to figure out the rules on how to write them. Then ID the Norns. Norns belong to the genus Norno and can be divided into eight species. DICHOTOMOUS BRAINSTORM

Dichotomous Key on Norns 1. A. Has pointed ears.................................... go to 3 B. Has rounded ears....................................go to 2 2. A. Has no tail............................................. Kentuckyus B. Has tail.................................................. Dakotus 3. A. Ears point upward.................................... go to 5 B. Ears point downward..............go to 4 4.A. Engages in waving behavior............................. Dallus B. Has hairy tufts on ears..........................................Californius 5. A. Engages in waving behavior............................. WalaWala B. Does not engage in waving behavior....................go to 6 6. A. Has hair on head............................................. Beverlus B. Has no hair on head (may have ear tufts).......go to 7 7. A. Has a tail............................................. Yorkio B. Has no tail, aggressive............................ Rajus DICHOTOMOUS BRAINSTORM

Now let’s practice making our own key!! Rules: 1.Always 2 options (has/lacks, red/blue, up/down, left/right) 2.Answer is either “go to #” or one of the objects. 3.Avoid judgment calls like pretty, ugly, etc. Everyone take off your shoes! Put one of the front desk, and other by the closet door. Here we go… DICHOTOMOUS SHOES

What do the following have in common? Baseball Seamstress Lilo 3/1 BELL WORK

Progress Sheets Signed, due WED Notes Ch 18.2 “Modern Systematics” Work Beasties and Phylogeny Alien Taxonomy Project #1-3 3/1 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Animal Grouping sheet LATE 2.Binomal Nomenclature sheet LATE 3.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due TBA ALL Q3 assignments MUST be in TODAY for credit! Get them in! Galileo Final THURSDAY

INFERRING EVOLUTIONARY RELATEDNESS, Morphological Evidence Morphology: physical structure or anatomy of organisms. Large-scale morphological evidence, like seeds and flowers, have been well studied. Scientists must look carefully at similar traits, to avoid using analogous characters.

INFERRING EVOLUTIONARY RELATEDNESS, CONTINUED Molecular Evidence Genetic information can also assist phylogenies. Genes, and sometimes mutations, are passed on Some mutations may be passed on to all species that have a common ancestor.

INFERRING EVOLUTIONARY RELATEDNESS, CONTINUED Molecular Evidence Genetic sequence data are now widely used. First, the sequence of DNA bases in a gene (or of amino acids in a protein) is determined. Then, each letter (or amino acid) at each position is compared.

SIMILARITIES IN AMINO ACID SEQUENCES

INFERRING EVOLUTIONARY RELATEDNESS, CONTINUED Evidence of Order and Time Cladistics can determine only the relative order of divergence. The fossil record can often be used to infer the actual time when a group may have“branched off.” Ex: Scientists have identified lancets as the closest relative of vertebrates. The oldest vertebrate fossils are 450 mil years old, but lancet fossils could be 535 mil years old

INFERRING EVOLUTIONARY RELATEDNESS, CONTINUED These two lineages must have diverged more than 535 million years ago. Lancet Vertebrates

INFERRING EVOLUTIONARY RELATEDNESS, CONTINUED Mutations occur at relatively constant rates, so they can be an approximate “genetic clock.” Scientists can measure the genetic differences between taxa and estimate time of divergence.

Would you rather have no thumbs or extra thumbs? Why? 3/2 BELL WORK

Progress Sheets Signed, due TODAY Work Beasties and Phylogeny due FRI Alien Taxonomy Project #1-3 due FRI Study for final 3/2 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Beasties and Aliens packets due FRIDAY 2.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due TBA Galileo Final THURSDAY

3/3 BELL WORK A pair of twins is how many people? Explain

Galileo Final = 10% of semester grade!! www.ati-online.com, Student-Parent Center www.ati-online.com Galileo site while taking the test or calculator. Other sites, texting, searching for music, etc. will get your test locked! 3/3 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Signed Grade Sheets - LATE 2.Beasties and Aliens packets due FRIDAY 3.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due MON

Write an equation whose answer is 34 that includes parentheses. EX: 2(17) = 34 3/4 BELL WORK

Finish Final! Take notes Ch 18.3 “Kingdoms and Domains” Work Aliens and Beasties packets due TODAY Dir Rdg Ch 18 due MON 3/4 SCHEDULE Assignments: 1.Signed Grade Sheets - LATE 2.Beasties and Aliens packets due TODAY 3.Dir Rdg Ch 18 “Classif” due MON Food Web = arrow points to consumer Expect Ch 18 “Classification” Test TUESDAY

KINGDOMS?!? How many biology Kingdoms can you name?

CH 18.3 “KINGDOMS AND DOMAINS” Objectives: 1.Describe how the Kingdoms have changed over time. 2.Identify the modern Kingdoms and Domains.

UPDATING CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS Classification Timeline 2 Kingdoms: Greeks through Linnaeus 1.Plantae 2.Animalia 4 Kingdoms: 1800s 3. Protista – single celled eukaryotes 4. Monera – bacteria 5 Kingdoms: 1950s 5. Fungi Protist Fungi

UPDATING CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS, CONTINUED Classification Timeline 6 Kingdoms: 1990s genetic data splits Kingdom Monera 5. Eubacteria 6. Archaebacteria Eubacteria

PHYLOGENETIC DIAGRAM OF MAJOR GROUPS OF ORGANISMS

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM, CONTINUED Major taxa are defined by major characteristics: 1. Cell Type: prokaryotic or eukaryotic 2. Cell Walls: absent or present 3. Body Type: unicellular or multicellular 4. Nutrition: autotroph (makes own food) or heterotroph (gets nutrients from other organisms)

KINGDOM AND DOMAIN CHARACTERISTICS

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM Domain Archaea vs. Domain Bacteria Called archaea vs bacteria Archaea have a unique cell wall, membranes, and genetic system. Bacteria have a cell wall and a unique genetic system, but their cell membrane is like eukaryotes.

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM Archaea are often extremophiles Many found in extreme environments salt lakes (halophiles) deep ocean hot springs that exceeded 100°C (thermoacidophiles) oxygen-free environments (methanogens )

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM, Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia. Members are composed of cells with organelles.

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM The major groups of eukaryotes are defined by number of cells, body organization, and types of nutrition. Plantae Animalia Fungi Protista

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM Plantae Almost all are autotrophs that produce their own food by photosynthesis. Their cell walls are made of a cellulose. More than 350,000 known species of plants exist. Parasitic ghost plants Durian fruit

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM Animalia Animals are multicellular heterotrophs. Their bodies may be simple collections of cells or complex networks of organ systems. Cells lack a rigid cell wall. More than 1 million known species. Sun Bear Goliath beetle

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM, CONTINUED Fungi Fungi are heterotrophs that are mostly multicellular. Cell walls made chitin. Considered to be more closely related to animals than to any other kingdom. More than 70,000 known species of fungi exist. Mold Mushroom

THE THREE-DOMAIN SYSTEM, CONTINUED Protista A “leftover” taxon… diverse group not descended from a common ancestor Members often reclassified into the other Kingdoms, although some scientists propose creating a few new Kingdoms for the others. Volvox Dinoflagellate

STOP NOTES!

Work in pairs or by yourself. Create a dichotomous key that could be used to ID people in this class. 10 minutes to work, then we test your key! Remember… 1.There should always be two options (A/B, Girl/Boy, etc) 2.Avoid judgment calls like pretty, ugly, fat, skinny, dirty… 3.Keep it school appropriate and be considerate of other peoples’ feelings!! 10 points, automatic 0 for breaking Rule #2-3 DICHOTOMOUS KEY REVIEW

Make a cladogram that shows how they are related. Don’t forget the derived characters! 1. Are worms and ants or worms and spiders more closely related? Why? CLADOGRAM REVIEW cellslegs6 legswings fly spider ant worm

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