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1 An econometric model for international tourism flows to Spain Applied Economics Letters, 2000, 7, 525-529.

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Presentation on theme: "1 An econometric model for international tourism flows to Spain Applied Economics Letters, 2000, 7, 525-529."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 An econometric model for international tourism flows to Spain Applied Economics Letters, 2000, 7,

2 2 n Teresa Garín Muñoz n Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain. n n Teodosio Pérez Amaral n Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain n

3 3 Outline n Abstract n I. Introduction. n II. The model and the data. n III. Empirical results. n IV. Conclusions.

4 4

5 5 I. Introduction. n 1997, tourism, 10.5% GDP n USA 77 BILLION DOLLARS n ITALY 30 n SPAIN 28 n Forecasting studies, Spain: n Almagro (1979), n Padilla (1988)

6 6 International demand studies n Elasticities, policies, scenarios, n Bakkal, 1991; n Loebb, 1982; n Summary, 1987; n Syriopoulos and Sinclair, 1993; n Witt and Martin, 1987.

7 7 Outline n Abstract n I. Introduction. n II. The model and the data. n III. Empirical results. n IV. Conclusions.

8 8 II. The model and the data. n We use an unbalanced panel data set consisting of 17 routes of tourism over a period of 11 years ( ). n Annual data.

9 9 TABLE 1, % part. by country

10 10 Determinants of tourism n income, n price, n exchange rate, n transportation costs, n population,

11 11 n LTOUR it = α i + β 1 LGNP it + β 2 LEX it + β 3 LPR it + β 4 D91 t + u it n β 1, β 2 > 0 n β 3, β 4 < 0

12 12 n Where the subindex i is for countries, t is for time and L denotes natural logarithms (log). And: –L TOUR i t is the log of the number of nights spent in Spanish hotels by tourists from country i during year t. In per capita terms.

13 13 L GNP i t log of the Gross National Product (in PPP dollars) of country i during year t. Expressed in per capita terms. –L EX i t log of the number of pesetas per unit of currency of country i during year t. –L PR t log of the price index of tourist services in Spain divided by the CPI of each country. –D91 t dummy variable for the Gulf War that takes the value 1 in 1991 and 0 elsewhere. –u i t Random error term.

14 14 Outline n Abstract n I. Introduction. n II. The model and the data. n III. Empirical results. n IV. Conclusions.

15 15 3. EMPIRICAL RESULTS n Selected Model: within. n Income elasticity: n Exchange rate elasticity: n Price elasticity: n D91:

16 16 Outline n Abstract n I. Introduction. n II. The model and the data. n III. Empirical results. n IV. Conclusions.

17 17 IV. Conclusions n Income, n Price, n Exchange rate, n Gulf War, n Expo and Olimpic Games, 92.

18 18 Other possible factors n Age distribution, n Income distribution, n Quality, n Price of alternative destinations, n Education, n Leisure and business,

19 19 However n Useful for assessing scenarios, n As a starting point, n More desagregated data. n Comparable to many international studies.


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