Presentation on theme: "WATER “Our Most Valuable & Renewable Environmental Resource on the Planet.”"— Presentation transcript:
WATER “Our Most Valuable & Renewable Environmental Resource on the Planet.”
Table of Contents 4.Facts vs. Myths of the CWA 5.Our Waters I. Drinking water II. Ground water III. Waste water 6.Contaminants & Pollutants I. Microbes II. Radionuclides III. Inorganic contaminants IV. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) V. Disinfectants VI. Disinfection byproducts VII. MTBE 7.Summary & Conclusion 8.References 1.INTRODUCTION I.Beings of water II.What does water do for you III.Distribution of water over the world 2.THE WATER CYCLE I.Steps and definitions II.Video 3.LEGISLATIONS GOVERNING WATER I.Clean Water Act (CWA) II.CZARA III.ESA IV.MPRSA V.SDWA VI.Public Health Security & Bioterrorism Preparedness & Response Act of 2002 VII.Executive Orders VIII.HSPDs IX.Regulatory Information
We along with all life on Earth are beings composed of water in various amounts. One thing is certain though, we all need water to survive.
What Does Water do for you? Needed by the brain to manufacture hormones and neurotransmitters Forms saliva (digestion) Keeps mucosal membranes moist Regulates body temperature (sweating and respiration) Allows body’s cells to grow, reproduce and survive Acts as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord Flushes body waste, mainly in urine Converts food to components needed for survival – digestion Lubricates joints Helps deliver oxygen all over the body Water is the major component of most body parts
How to tell if your drinking enough water. The colored chart to the right shows different levels of hydration and dehydration based on the color of your urine output. The darker the color of your urine stream the more water you need to drink to maintain proper homeostasis.
One Estimate of Global Water Distribution (Numbers are rounded) Water source Water volume, in cubic miles Water volume, in cubic kilometers Percent of freshwater Percent of total water Oceans, Seas, & Bays 321,000,0001,338,000,000--96.5 Ice caps, Glaciers, & Permanent Snow 5,773,00024,064,00068.71.74 Groundwater5,614,00023,400,000--1.69 Fresh2,526,00010,530,00030.1 0.76 Saline3,088,00012,870,000-- 0.93 Soil Moisture3,95916,5000.050.001 Ground Ice & Permafrost 71,970300,0000.860.022 Lakes42,320176,400--0.013 Fresh21,83091,0000.260.007 Saline20,49085,400--0.006 Atmosphere3,09512,9000.040.001 Swamp Water2,75211,4700.030.0008 Rivers5092,1200.0060.0002 Biological Water2691,1200.0030.0001 Source: Igor Shiklomanov's chapter "World fresh water resources" in Peter H. Gleick (editor), 1993, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources (Oxford University Press, New York). How water is distributed throughout the world.
A breakdown of how the Earth’s water is composed.
Steps in the Water Cycle https:// www.yo utube.c om/wat ch?feat ure=play er_emb edded& v=0_c0Z zZfC8c https:// www.yo utube.c om/wat ch?feat ure=play er_emb edded& v=0_c0Z zZfC8c Evaporation o The processes of water changing from liquid form into gaseous form. Condensation o The process of water vapor changing from gaseous form back into liquid form. Sublimation o The process of solid water turning into gaseous form. Precipitation o Is the process of water moving from the air back to the ground due to condensation. Transpiration o Similar to evaporation, the water is absorbed by plants and is turned into water vapor expelled by the plants’ leaves during photosynthesis. Runoff o Runoff is the process where water runs over the surface of earth moving top soil and eventually running to the sea. Infiltration o Is the water that seeps into the soil increasing the ground water level
Legislations Governing Water 1.The Clean Water Act o Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 2.Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217 3. Endangered Species Act (ESA) 4.Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act 5.The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) 6.Title IV of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Bioterrorism Act) 7.Executive Order, Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes 8.Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance 9.Executive Order 13508, Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration 10.Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management 11.Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs) o HSPD 7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection HSPD 7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection o HSPD 8: National Preparedness HSPD 8: National Preparedness o HSPD 9: Defense of United States Agriculture and Food HSPD 9: Defense of United States Agriculture and Food o HSPD 10: Biodefense for the 21st Century HSPD 10: Biodefense for the 21st Century 12.Regulatory Information
The Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq. (1972) Amendments to the Clean Water Act The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the cornerstone of surface water quality protection in the United States. (The Act does not deal directly with groundwater nor with water quantity issues.) The statute employs a variety of regulatory and non-regulatory tools to reduce direct pollutant discharges into waterways, finance municipal wastewater treatment facilities, and manage polluted runoff. These tools are employed to achieve the broader goal of restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters so that they can support "the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water." Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000
The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act of 2000 is an amendment to the Clean Water Act (Section 406) that authorizes EPA to award grants to eligible states, territories and tribes to develop and implement beach water quality monitoring and notification programs for coastal and Great Lakes recreational beach waters. The grants also help these governments develop and implement programs to inform the public about the risk of exposure to disease- causing microorganisms in the water at the nation’s beaches.
(CZARA) Section 6217 Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments The Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217 addresses nonpoint pollution problems in coastal waters. Section 6217 requires states and territories with approved Coastal Zone Management Programs to develop Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs. In its program, a state or territory describes how it will implement nonpoint source pollution controls, known as management measures, that conform with those described in Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. This program is administered jointly with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As of 2010, 34 states and territories participate in this program. Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
(ESA) Endangered Species Act The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found. The lead federal agencies for implementing ESA are the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service. Federal agencies are directed, under section 7(a)(1) of the ESA, to utilize their authorities to carry out programs for the conservation of threatened and endangered species. Thus, Federal agencies must consult with NOAA Fisheries Service and/or FWS, Under section 7(a)(2) of the ESA, on activities that may affect a listed species. Endangered Species Act (ESA)U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service
(MPRSA) Marine Protection, Research, & Sanctuaries Act The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) also known as the Ocean Dumping Act prohibits the dumping of material into the ocean that would unreasonably degrade or endanger human health or the marine environment. Virtually all material ocean dumped today is dredged material (sediments) removed from the bottom of water bodies in order to maintain navigation channels and berthing areas. Other materials that are currently ocean disposed include fish wastes, human remains, and vessels.
(SDWA) Safe Drinking Water Act The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans' drinking water. Under SDWA, EPA sets standards for drinking water quality and oversees the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement those standards.
Title IV of the Public Health Security & Bioterrorism Preparedness Response Act of 2002 (Bioterrorism Act) Title IV of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Bioterrorism Act) addresses drinking water security and safety. Title IV requires drinking water systems serving more than 3,300 persons to conduct assessments of their vulnerabilities to terrorist attacks or other intentional acts.
Executive Orders Executive Order, Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes, July 19, 2010 – On July 19, 2010, President Barack Obama signed an executive order establishing the National Ocean Council. The Executive Order established for the first time a comprehensive, integrated National Policy for the stewardship of the ocean, our coasts and Great Lakes, which sets our Nation on a path toward comprehensive planning for the preservation and sustainable uses of these water bodies.
Executive Orders Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, October 5, 2009 – On October 5, 2009, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order setting sustainability goals for federal agencies and focuses on making improvements in their environmental, energy, and economic performance. The EO requires federal agencies to improve water efficiency and management by: 1.Reducing potable water consumption intensity 2 percent annually through fiscal year 2020, or 26 percent by the end of fiscal year 2020, relative to a fiscal year 2007 baseline. 2.Reducing agency industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water consumption 2 percent annually, or 20 percent by the end of fiscal year 2020, relative to a fiscal year 2010 baseline. 3.Identifying, promoting, and implementing water reuse strategies consistent with state law that reduce potable water consumption.
Executive Orders Executive Order 13508, Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration, May 12, 2009 – On May 12, 2009, President Barack Obama signed an executive order creating a Federal Leadership Committee for the Chesapeake Bay, chaired by EPA. The executive order calls for EPA and six other federal agencies to coordinate and expand federal tools and resources to help speed cleanup of the nation’s largest estuary.
Executive Orders Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, January 24, 2007 – On January 24, 2007, President George W. Bush signed an executive order requiring federal agencies to implement water-efficiency measures, including the purchase, installation, and implementation of water- efficient products and practices. Beginning in fiscal year 2008, agencies were required to reduce water consumption intensity, relative to their fiscal year 2007 baseline, through cost-effective life-cycle measures by 2 percent annually (or 16 percent total) by the end of fiscal year 2015.
Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs) The government uses these directives to disseminate Presidential and Homeland Security decisions on national security matters. HSPDs 7, 8, 9, and 10 are of particular relevance to water security issues. o HSPD 7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection HSPD 7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection o HSPD 8: National Preparedness HSPD 8: National Preparedness o HSPD 9: Defense of United States Agriculture and Food HSPD 9: Defense of United States Agriculture and Food o HSPD 10: Biodefense for the 21st Century HSPD 10: Biodefense for the 21st Century
Regulatory Information Congress authorizes EPA and other federal agencies to write rules and regulations that explain the critical details necessary to implement environmental laws. Below are some of the key rules and regulations that the Office of Water employs to implement key statutes and programs.
Rules and Regulations Implemented under the Clean Water Act Analytical Methods (Sections 301(a), 304(h), and 501(a)) - EPA publishes laboratory analytical methods (test procedures) that are used by industries and municipalities to analyze the chemical, physical and biological components of wastewater and other environmental samples that are required by regulations under the CWA. Most of these methods are published as regulations in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 Part 136. Some methods may also be found at 40 CFR Parts 401–503 (these methods are sometimes referred to as wastewater, Part 136, or 304(h) methods).
Rules and Regulations Implemented under the Clean Water Act Cooling Water Intakes (Section 316(b)) - Section 306(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that the location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Cooling Water Intakes Effluent Limitations Guidelines - Existing regulations and regulations under development regarding national standards for industrial wastewater discharges to surface waters and publicly owned treatment works. (Current and proposed ELGs.) Effluent Limitations GuidelinesCurrent and proposed ELGs o Section 304(m)(1)(B) and (C) - Requires EPA to promulgate effluent guidelines for new categories of dischargers under certain circumstances o Sections 301(d), 304(b), 304(g)(1), 306(b)(1)(B) - Requires that EPA periodically review existing effluent guidelines, pretreatment standards, and standards of performance for new sources and to revise them "if appropriate" or, in the case of new source performance standards, "as technology and alternatives change "
Rules and Regulations Implemented under the Clean Water Act National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Rules and Regulations (Section 402) - Section 402 of the Clean Water Act prohibits the discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States without a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by EPA, a state, or, where authorized, a tribal government on an Indian reservation. To help implement this provision of the Clean Water Act, EPA has proposed new or revised NPDES rules, which have included: o Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Final Rule – The CAFO Rule requires concentrated animal feeding operations to safely manage manure. Manure contains the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, which, when not managed properly on agricultural land, can pollute nearby streams, lakes, and other waters. The rule requires that an owner or operator of a CAFO that actually discharges to streams, lakes, and other waters must apply for a NPDES permit under the Clean Water Act and that nutrient management plans for manure be submitted as part of the permit application. o Pretreatment Streamlining Rule – The Pretreatment Streamlining Rule makes final changes to EPA’s General Pretreatment Regulations, which requires publicly owned treatment works that meet certain criteria to develop pretreatment programs to control industrial discharges into their sewage collection systems. These programs must be approved by either EPA or states acting as the Pretreatment “Approval Authority.” The Pretreatment Streamlining Rule, promulgated in 2005, streamlined and clarified various provisions of the General Pretreatment Regulations for existing and new sources of pollution codified at 40 CFR Part 403.
Rules and Regulations Implemented under the Clean Water Act NPDES Permit Program (Section 402) - As authorized by Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, the NPDES permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. Point sources are discrete conveyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities that discharge to waters of the U.S. must obtain permits. There are two categories of NPDES permits: individual permits and general permits. o Individual permits are issued to individual dischargers and are specifically tailored to the specific facility to regulate its discharge of pollutants. o General permits cover several entities that have the same type of discharge and set forth requirements applicable to the entire category of covered dischargers and include: the Vessels General Permit, Multi- Sector General Permit, and Construction General Permit.
Rules and Regulations Implemented under the Clean Water Act Section 404 Regulations - Section 404 of the Clean Water Act establishes a program to regulate the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States, including wetlands. EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have promulgated a number of regulations to implement the permitting program. Sewage Sludge (Bio solids) Rule (Section 405) - The Standards for the Use or Disposal of Sewage Sludge rule (40 CFR Part 503) establishes requirements for the final use or disposal of sewage sludge (i.e., bio solids) when bio solids are: applied to land to condition the soil or fertilize crops or other vegetation grown in the soil; placed on a surface disposal site for final disposal; or fired in a bio solids incinerator. The Agency is required to conduct a review of the 503 standards at least every two years.
Rules and Regulations Implemented under the Clean Water Act Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and Impaired Waters Rules (Section 303(d)) - As authorized by Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states, territories, and authorized tribes are required to develop lists of impaired waters. These are waters that are too polluted or otherwise degraded to meet the water quality standards set by states, territories, or authorized tribes. The law requires that these jurisdictions establish priority rankings for waters on the lists and develop TMDLs for these waters. A Total Maximum Daily Load, or TMDL, is a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still safely meet water quality standards.
Rules and Regulations Implemented under the Clean Water Act Water Quality Standards define the goals for a water body by designating its uses, setting criteria to measure attainment of those uses, and establishing policies to protect water quality from pollutants. o Section 101(a) - Declaration of Goals and PolicyDeclaration of Goals and Policy o Section 303 - Water Quality Standards and Implementation PlansWater Quality Standards and Implementation Plans Water Quality Standards Regulation: CFR Title 40 Part 131 Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System: CFR Title 40 Part 132 Section - Permits and Licenses - Certification Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System: CFR Title 40 Part 132 Section o Section 510 - State Authority Section 510 o Water Quality Standards Regulations and Determinations Water Quality Standards Regulations and Determinations
Clean Water Act Myths vs. Facts MythsFacts 1.The rule would regulate all ditches, even those that only flow after rainfall. 2.A permit is needed for walking cows across a wet field or stream. 3.Ponds on the farm will be regulated. 1.The proposed rule actually reduces regulation of ditches because for the first time it would exclude ditches that are constructed through dry lands and don’t have water year-round. 2.No. Normal farming and ranching activities don’t need permits under the Clean Water Act, including moving cattle. 3.The proposed rule does not change the exemption for farm ponds that has been in place for decades. It would for the first time specifically exclude stock watering and irrigation ponds constructed in dry lands.
Clean Water Act Myths vs. Facts (Continued) MythsFacts 4.Groundwater is regulated by the Clean Water Act. 5.The federal government is going to regulate puddles and water on driveways and playgrounds. 6.EPA is gaining power over farms and ranches. 7.Only the 56 conservation practices are now exempt from the Clean Water Act. 8.The proposed rule will apply to wet areas or erosional features on fields. 9.This is the largest land grab in history. 4.The proposed rule specifically excludes groundwater. 5.Not remotely true. Such water is never jurisdictional. 6.No. All historical exclusions and exemptions for agriculture are reserved. 7.No. The proposal did not remove the normal farming exemption. It adds 56 beneficial conservation practices to the exemption, which is self-implementing. 8.Water-filled areas on crop fields are not jurisdictional and the proposal specifically excludes erosional features. 9.The Clean Water Act only regulates the pollution and destruction of U.S. waters. The proposed rule would not regulate land or land use.
Clean Water Act Myths vs. Facts (Continued) MythsFacts 10.EPA and the Army Corps are going around Congress and the Supreme Court. 11.The proposal will now require permits for all activities in floodplains. 12.This proposed rule will harm the economy. 13.The costs of this proposal are too burdensome. 10.EPA and the Army Corps are responding to calls from Congress and the Supreme Court to clarify regulations. Chief Justice Roberts said that a rulemaking would provide clarification of jurisdiction. 11.The Clean Water Act does not regulate land, and the agencies are not asserting jurisdiction over land in floodplains. 12.Protecting water is vital to the health of the economy. Streams and wetlands are economic drivers because of their role in fishing, hunting, agriculture, recreation, energy, and manufacturing. 13.The potential economic benefits of the proposed rule are estimated to be about double the potential costs – $390 to $510 million in benefits versus $160 to $278 million in costs.
Clean Water Act Myths vs. Facts (Continued) MythsFacts 14.This is a massive expansion of federal authority 15.This is increasing the number of regulated waters by including waters that do not flow year-round as waters of the U.S. 16.Only actual navigable waters can be covered under the Clean Water Act. 14.The proposal does not protect any waters that have not historically been covered under the Clean Water Act. The proposed rule specifically reflects the more narrow reading of jurisdiction established by the Supreme Court and protects fewer waters than prior to the Supreme Court cases. 15.Streams that only flow seasonally or after rain have been protected by the Clean Water Act since it was enacted in 1972. More than 60 percent of streams nationwide do not flow year-round and contribute to the drinking water supply for 117 million Americans. 16.Court decisions and the legislative history of the Clean Water Act make clear that waters do not need actual navigation to be covered, and these waters have been protected by the Clean Water Act since it was passed in 1972.
Clean Water Act Myths vs. Facts (Continued) MythsFacts 17.The proposal sets no limits on federal jurisdiction. 18.This rule is coming before the science is available. 19.This is about little streams in the middle of nowhere that don’t matter. 17.The proposed rule does not protect any types of waters that have not historically been covered under the Clean Water Act and specifically reflects the Supreme Court’s more narrow reading of jurisdiction, and includes several specific exclusions. 18.EPA’s scientific assessment is based on more than 1,000 pieces of previously peer-reviewed and publicly available literature. The rule will not be finalized until the scientific assessment is finalized. 19.Everyone lives downstream. This means that our communities, our cities, our businesses, our schools, and our farms are all impacted by the pollution and destruction that happens upstream.
Clean Water Act Myths vs. Facts (Continued) MythsFacts 20.The proposal infringes on private property rights and hinders development. 21.Stakeholders were not consulted in the development of the proposed rule. 22.The federal government is taking authority away from the states. 23.Nobody wanted a rulemaking to define Waters of U.S. 20.EPA, the Army Corps, and states issue thousands of permits annually that allow for property development and economic activity in ways that protect the environment. The proposed rule will help reduce regulatory confusion and delays in determining which waters are covered. 21.This is a proposal. Agencies are seeking public comment and participating in extensive outreach to state and tribal partners, the regulated community including small business, and the general public. 22.The proposed rule fully preserves and respects the effective federal-state partnership and federal-tribal partnership established under the Clean Water Act. The proposed rule will not affect state water laws, including those governing water supply and use. 23.A rulemaking to provide clarity was requested by the full spectrum of stakeholders – Congress, industry, agriculture, businesses, hunters and fisherman, and more.
Our waters are composed of and include the following areas for which guidance and regulatory information is available. See the above legislations governing our waters for more details about specifics. Fish Advisories - A compendium of information on locally issued fish advisories and safe eating guidelines. Ground Water Lakes Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries and Beaches o Beach Information o Coral Reefs o Marine Debris Nutrient Pollution - Nutrient pollution, one of America's most widespread, costly and challenging environmental problems, is caused by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the air and water. Rivers and Streams Watersheds - The area that drains to a common waterway, such as a stream, lake, estuary, wetland, aquifer, or even the ocean. Wetlands - Areas where water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year, including during the growing season.
Fish Advisories Fish are a lean, low-calorie source of protein. However, some fish may contain chemicals that could pose health risks. When contaminant levels are unsafe, consumption advisories may recommend that people limit or avoid eating certain species of fish caught in certain places. Every year since 1993, the EPA has made available to the public a compendium of information on locally issued fish advisories and safe eating guidelines. This information is provided to EPA by states, U.S. territories, Indian tribes, and local governments who issue fish consumption advisories and safe eating guidelines to inform people about the recommended level of consumption for fish caught in local waters. EPA and FDA Advice about Eating Fish: Availability of Draft Update - EPA and FDA have released for review and comment an update to the 2004 advice contained in their jointly released document entitled “What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish.” The proposed update makes the advice consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. The update also contains additional information for those who want to understand the advice in greater detail.
Ground Water When rain falls to the ground, the water does not stop moving. Some of it flows along the land surface to streams or lakes, some is used by plants. Some evaporates and returns to the atmosphere. And some seeps underground, into pores between sand, clay and rock formations called aquifers. Water moves through aquifers much like a glass of water poured onto a pile of sand. Many communities obtain their drinking water from aquifers. Water suppliers drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to reach the ground and supply the public with drinking water. Many homes also have their own private wells drilled on their property to tap this supply. Unfortunately, the ground water can become contaminated by human activity. These chemicals can enter the soil and rock, polluting the aquifer and eventually the well.
Ground Water Rule Resources Ground Water Rule - The Ground Water Rule provides for increased protection against microbial pathogens in public water systems that use ground water sources. Source Water Protection o Wellhead Protection Program - The Wellhead Protection Program (WHPP) is a pollution prevention and management program used to protect underground sources of drinking water. http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/sourcewa ter/protection/epastateandtribalprograms.cfm#wellhead http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/sourcewa ter/protection/epastateandtribalprograms.cfm#wellhead o Citizens Guide to Ground Water Protection http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/ sourcewater/protection/upload/2007_11_29_sourc ewater_pubs_citguid.pdf http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/ sourcewater/protection/upload/2007_11_29_sourc ewater_pubs_citguid.pdf
(UIC) Underground Injection Control Program Underground Injection Control Program - The UIC Program is responsible for regulating the construction, operation, permitting, and closure of injection wells that place fluids underground for storage or disposal. This site provides information for owners and operators of injection wells and state regulators on how to safely operate injection wells to prevent contamination of underground drinking water resources. http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/index. cfm http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/index. cfm
Wellhead Protection Program (WHPP) The Wellhead Protection Program (WHPP) is a pollution prevention and management program used to protect underground sources of drinking water. The national WHPP was established under section 1428 of the 1986 SDWA amendments. The law specified that certain program activities, such as delineation, contaminant source inventory, contingency planning and source management, be incorporated into state WHPPs, which are approved by EPA prior to implementation. All states have EPA-approved state WHPPs. Although section 1428 applies only to states, a number of tribes are implementing the program as well. WHPPs provided the foundation for many of the state source water assessment programs required under the 1996 SDWA amendments. Most states also use the wellhead protection program as a foundation for assessing and protecting ground water systems. State WHPPs vary greatly. For example, some states require community water systems to develop management plans, while others rely on education and technical assistance to encourage voluntary action. Other states have mandatory requirements for wellhead protection at the local level. Guidance, publications and other resources are available on state source water web sites.
Things to know about private drinking wells Private Drinking Water Wells - Approximately 15 percent of Americans rely on their own private drinking water supplies, and these supplies are not subject to EPA standards. Some state and local governments do set rules to protect users of private wells. Households with private wells must take special precautions to ensure the protection and maintenance of their drinking water supplies. o http://water.epa.gov/drink/info/well/index.cfm http://water.epa.gov/drink/info/well/index.cfm
Private Drinking Water Wells If your family gets drinking water from a private well, do you know if your water is safe to drink? What health risks could you and your family face? Where can you go for help or advice? The information contained in this web site will help you answer these questions. http://water.epa.gov/drink/info/well/index.cfmhttp://water.epa.gov/drink/info/well/index.cfm EPA regulates public water systems; it does not have the authority to regulate private drinking water wells. Approximately 15 percent of Americans rely on their own private drinking water supplies, and these supplies are not subject to EPA standards, although some state and local governments do set rules to protect users of these wells. Unlike public drinking water systems serving many people, they do not have experts regularly checking the water’s source and its quality before it is sent to the tap. These households must take special precautions to ensure the protection and maintenance of their drinking water supplies.
Lakes Comprising 39.9 million acres, lakes and reservoirs are a major water resource in this country. Freshwater inland lakes and reservoirs provide our nation with 70% of its drinking water and supply water for industry, irrigation, and hydropower. Lake ecosystems support complex and important food web interactions and provide habitat needed to support numerous threatened and endangered species. Lakes are also the cornerstone of our nation's 19 billion dollar freshwater fishing industry, form the backbone of numerous State tourism industries, and provide countless recreational opportunities. http://water.epa.gov/type/lakes/index.cfm
Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries & Beaches National Ocean Policy On July 19, 2010, the President issued Executive Order 13547 (EO) that establishes the Nation’s first comprehensive National Policy for the stewardship of the ocean, our coasts, and the Great Lakes. The EO adopts the Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force, and directs Federal agencies to take steps to implement them. It also creates an interagency National Ocean Council to strengthen ocean governance, and provide sustained, high-level focus on the national priority objectives for action to advance the National Policy. On November 9th, 2010, EPA Deputy Administrator Bob Perciasepe attended the inaugural National Ocean Council meeting where Agency responsibilities were discussed along with the ambitious set of actions the National Policy lays out. EPA is now in the process of working with Federal, State, and tribal partners to coordinate efforts in implementing the goals and priorities outlined by EO 13547 and the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force Final Recommendations. The EO, Final Recommendations, and other key documents can found at the National Ocean Council website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/oceanshttp://www.whitehouse.gov/oceans
Marine Debris Trash and litter along our coasts and in our waterways can be harmful to our health, the environment, and the economy. Most trash that ends up in the water begins its journey on land. EPA is working to reduce the amount of trash and litter that enters streams and rivers, lakes and bays, beaches and coastlines, and ultimately the world’s oceans. This Agency work includes outreach and education, research, and new program partnerships. However, we cannot solve this problem alone. EPA needs help from citizens, businesses, municipalities, researchers, and many others to keep trash out of our waters. Everyone needs to pitch in!
Nutrient Pollution What is nutrient pollution? o Nutrient pollution is one of America's most widespread, costly and challenging environmental problems, and is caused by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the air and water. o Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients that are natural parts of aquatic ecosystems. Nitrogen is also the most abundant element in the air we breathe. Nitrogen and phosphorus support the growth of algae and aquatic plants, which provide food and habitat for fish, shellfish and smaller organisms that live in water. o But when too much nitrogen and phosphorus enter the environment - usually from a wide range of human activities - the air and water can become polluted. Nutrient pollution has impacted many streams, rivers, lakes, bays and coastal waters for the past several decades, resulting in serious environmental and human health issues, and impacting the economy.
Nutrient Pollution Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in the water causes algae to grow faster than ecosystems can handle. Significant increases in algae harm water quality, food resources and habitats, and decrease the oxygen that fish and other aquatic life need to survive. Large growths of algae are called algal blooms and they can severely reduce or eliminate oxygen in the water, leading to illnesses in fish and the death of large numbers of fish. Some algal blooms are harmful to humans because they produce elevated toxins and bacterial growth that can make people sick if they come into contact with polluted water, consume tainted fish or shellfish, or drink contaminated water.
Nutrient Pollution Nutrient pollution in ground water - which millions of people in the United States use as their drinking water source - can be harmful, even at low levels. Infants are vulnerable to a nitrogen-based compound called nitrates in drinking water. Excess nitrogen in the atmosphere can produce pollutants such as ammonia and ozone, which can impair our ability to breathe, limit visibility and alter plant growth. When excess nitrogen comes back to earth from the atmosphere, it can harm the health of forests, soils and waterways.
Nutrient Pollution Nutrients can run off of land in urban areas where lawn fertilizers are used. Pet and wildlife wastes are also sources of nutrients. To see how this happens, consider this visualization of the Chesapeake Bay, part of the largest watershed in the Northeast. This illustration shows the amount of suspended matter (e.g., silt, mud, debris) in waterways before (right) and after (left) areas in this region received exceptionally heavy rainfall in 2011. All of this rain and runoff eventually made its way into the Chesapeake Bay.
Nutrient Pollution Continued This process is also known as eutrophication. Excessive amounts of nutrients can lead to more serious problems such as low levels of oxygen dissolved in the water. Severe algal growth blocks light that is needed for plants, such as sea grasses, to grow. When the algae and sea grass die, they decay. In the process of decay, the oxygen in the water is used up and this leads to low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water. This, in turn, can kill fish, crabs, oysters, and other aquatic animals. Nutrients come from a variety of different sources. They can occur naturally as a result of weathering of rocks and soil in the watershed and they can also come from the ocean due to mixing of water currents. Scientists are most interested in the nutrients that are related to people living in the coastal zone because human-related inputs are much greater than natural inputs. Because there are increasingly more people living in coastal areas, there are more nutrients entering our coastal waters from wastewater treatment facilities, runoff from land in urban areas during rains, and from farming. All of these factors can lead to increased nutrient pollution.
Look at what nutrient pollution control measures are happening near you at the following website. http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/fil es/documents/epa-nutrient-pollution- reduction-efforts_1.4b.pdf
Rivers & Streams There are over 3.5 million miles of rivers and streams in the U.S., covering an enormous and diverse landscape. Rivers supply our drinking water; irrigate our crops; power our cities with hydroelectricity; support fish and other aquatic species; and provide countless recreational and commercial opportunities.
Rivers & Streams Small streams (such as headwater streams) and their associated wetlands are equally important. These streams, including streams and wetlands that do not have water year round, play a key role in providing critical habitat, food and shelter for waterfowl, fish, and other aquatic species. They also mitigate damage from floods, provide sources of drinking water, filter pollutants, and support economically important local and downstream recreational and commercial uses. Not surprisingly, the condition of the nation’s rivers, streams, and wetlands varies widely. Cities and town, farmlands, mines, factories, sewage treatment facilities, dams, and many human activities on the land have significant impacts on the quality of our waters. Understanding the condition of rivers, streams, and wetlands is critical if we are to develop effective plans to maintain, manage, and restore them.
Watersheds What is a Watershed? A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. John Wesley Powell, scientist geographer, put it best when he said that a watershed is: o “That area of land, a bounded hydrologic system, within which all living things are inextricably linked by their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded that they become part of a community. "Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes. They cross county, state, and national boundaries. In the continental US, there are 2,110 watersheds; including Hawaii Alaska, and Puerto Rico, there are 2,267 watersheds.
Wetlands Wetlands are part of the foundation of our nation's water resources and are vital to the health of waterways and communities that are downstream. Wetlands feed downstream waters, trap floodwaters, recharge groundwater supplies, remove pollution, and provide fish and wildlife habitat. Wetlands are also economic drivers because of their key role in fishing, hunting, agriculture and recreation. Wetlands include swamps, marshes and bogs. Wetlands vary widely because of differences in soils, topography, climate, hydrology, water chemistry, vegetation, and other factors. Wetlands are often found alongside waterways and in flood plains. However, some wetlands have no apparent connection to surface water like rivers, lakes or the ocean, but have critical groundwater connections.
Wetlands Definitions Generally, wetlands are lands where saturation with water is the dominant factor determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal communities living in the soil and on its surface (Cowardin, December 1979). Wetlands vary widely because of regional and local differences in soils, topography, climate, hydrology, water chemistry, vegetation, and other factors, including human disturbance. Indeed, wetlands are found from the tundra to the tropics and on every continent except Antarctica. For regulatory purposes under the Clean Water Act, the term wetlands means "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs and similar areas."
NPDES Water pollution degrades surface waters making them unsafe for drinking, fishing, swimming, and other activities. As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. Point sources are discrete conveyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters. In most cases, the NPDES permit program is administered by authorized states. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.
Wastewater EPA regulates the discharge and treatment of wastewater under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) issues permits to all wastewater dischargers and treatment facilities. These permits establish specific discharge limits, monitoring and reporting requirements and may also require these facilities to undertake special measures to protect the environment from harmful pollutants.
Water Contaminants Drinking water, including bottled and tap water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. In the United States, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) sets strict standards for approximately 90 different types of contaminants that can be found in drinking water.
Microbes Fecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicate that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. This microbe has an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for long periods of time which makes it tolerant to many chlorine disinfectants. It causes cryptosporidiosis, a mild gastrointestinal disease. However, the disease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems. EPA and CDC have prepared advice for those with severely compromised immune systems who are concerned about Cryptosporidium. Giardia lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e.g. diarrhea, vomiting, cramps). Giardia, like cryptosporidium, can survive long periods of time outside the body and is also difficult to treat with just basic chlorine disinfectants.
Microbes Coliform bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. However, the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water. This indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection because the particles can act as shields for viruses and bacteria and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.
Radionuclides Alpha emitters. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Beta/photon emitters. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Combined Radium 226/228. The total amount of radium allowed in drinking water is very small. However, people that drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in underground water sources, such as wells, and in the air in your home. Breathing radon can cause lung cancer. Drinking water containing radon presents a risk of developing cancer. Radon in air is more dangerous than radon in water.
Inorganic Contaminants Fluoride: Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health. Each community makes its own decision about whether or not to add fluoride. EPA has set an enforceable drinking water standard for fluoride of 4 mg/L (some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of this level over many years could get bone disease, including pain and tenderness of the bones). EPA has also set a secondary fluoride standard of 2 mg/L to protect against dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis, in its moderate or severe forms, may result in a brown staining and/or pitting of the permanent teeth. This problem occurs only in developing teeth, before they erupt from the gums. Children under nine should not drink water that has more than 2 mg/L of fluoride.
Inorganic Contaminants Lead: Typically leaches into water from plumbing in older buildings. Lead pipes and plumbing fittings have been banned since August 1998. Children and pregnant women are most susceptible to lead health risks. Arsenic: A highly toxic heavy metal. Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of EPA's standard over many years could experience a wide range of serious problems. Health concerns include damage to the bladder, lungs, heart, kidney and liver. Arsenic can also harm the central & peripheral nervous system and circulatory system. Arsenic exposure has been linked to several types of cancers.
Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOCs) A list of (VOCs) and their allowable limits in drinking water can be found at the following link. http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/docume nts/metals-vocs.pdf http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/docume nts/metals-vocs.pdf Drinking water, including bottled and tap water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. In the United States, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) sets strict standards for approximately 90 different types of contaminants that can be found in drinking water.
Disinfectants Many water suppliers add a disinfectant to drinking water to kill germs such as giardia and e coli. Especially after heavy rainstorms, your water system may add more disinfectant to guarantee that these germs are killed. o Chlorine: Some people who use drinking water containing chlorine in excess of EPA's standard could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose as well as stomach discomfort. o Chloramines: Most commonly formed when chlorine and ammonia are added together to treat drinking water. Water that contains chloramines is usually safe as long as it meets EPA regulations. However, some people who are exposed to chloramines in excess of EPA's standard may experience irritating effects to their eyes, nose and stomach. o Chlorine Dioxides: A water additive used to control taste and odor in water. Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects as well as anemia. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine dioxide in excess of EPA's standard.
Disinfection Byproducts Disinfection byproducts form when disinfectants added to drinking water to kill germs react with naturally-occurring organic matter in water. o Total Trihalomethanes: Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of EPA's standard over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or central nervous systems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer. o Haloacetic Acids: Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. o Bromate: Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of EPA's standard over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer. o Chlorite: Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in excess of EPA's standard could experience nervous system effects as well as anemia. Similar effects may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite in excess of EPA's standard.
MTBE MTBE is a fuel additive, commonly used in the United States to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels caused by auto emissions. Due to its widespread use, reports of MTBE detections in the nation's ground and surface water supplies are increasing. The Office of Water and other EPA offices are working with a panel of leading experts to focus on issues posed by the continued use of MTBE and other oxygenates in gasoline. EPA is currently studying the implications of setting a drinking water standard for MTBE. Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants.
Summary The world that we live in is a flourishing environment that provides abundant resources that we use on a daily basis. The most vital and abundant of these is our Air and our Water. Both are vital for our survival because we can’t live without them. Our water resources sustain the environment; it aids in regulating our climate, it supports our food supply, is a habitat for the majority of life on the planet, creates recreational activities and is key to the survival and sustainment of all beings on the Earth.
Summary Clean fresh drinking water is becoming less abundant as we are consuming more of this resource faster than it can be renewed through natural means. As well as consuming more of our freshwater resources, we are also polluting more through our use of industry, energy, chemistry & agriculture. Pollution of our water resources not only hurts the environment locally but it has global impacts and spreads across the world because the water cycle is all interconnected.
Conclusion There are many things that effect our environment and the water that is in it. The water we drink or play in already has trace elements of contaminants in acceptable levels that don’t cause alarm to health concerns but never the less, we must remain vigilant not to pollute this water. This resource is not infinite especially once it is polluted. Cleaning the water from some pollutants is possible but not all contaminants are able to be separated and cleaned from the water supply once it has been mixed. We must remain good custodians of the environment in order to thrive in it and enjoy a healthy lifestyle without becoming a risk to ourselves.
References The water in you. (n.d.). Water properties: (Water Science for Schools). Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/propertyyou.htmlhttp://water.usgs.gov/edu/propertyyou.html. (n.d.).. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014- 07/documents/ditch_the_myth_wotus.pdfhttp://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014- 07/documents/ditch_the_myth_wotus.pdf THE WATER CYCLE: A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS. (n.d.). Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/resource-water-cycle-student-guide.htm http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/resource-water-cycle-student-guide.htm Laws & Regulations. (n.d.). Retrieved August 10, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/ http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/ EPA. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2014, from http://www2.epa.gov/learn-issues/water- resourceshttp://www2.epa.gov/learn-issues/water- resources Underground Injection Control Program. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/index.cfm http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/index.cfm Citizen’s Guide To Ground Water Protection. (n.d.). Retrieved August 17, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/sourcewater/protection/upload/2007_ 11_29_sourcewater_pubs_citguid.pdf http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/sourcewater/protection/upload/2007_ 11_29_sourcewater_pubs_citguid.pdf Clean Lakes. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/type/lakes/index.cfm http://water.epa.gov/type/lakes/index.cfm Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries & Beaches. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/index.cfm http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/index.cfm
References (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2014, from http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/epa-nutrient-pollution-reduction- efforts_1.4b.pdf http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/epa-nutrient-pollution-reduction- efforts_1.4b.pdf What is nutrient pollution? (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2014, from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/nutpollution.html http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/nutpollution.html EPA. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2014, from http://www2.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/problem http://www2.epa.gov/nutrientpollution/problem Rivers & Streams. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/index.cfm http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/index.cfm What is a Watershed? (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/type/watersheds/whatis.cfm http://water.epa.gov/type/watersheds/whatis.cfm Wetlands. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2014, from http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/index.cfm http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/index.cfm List of Constituents to be Analyzed with EPA Testing Methods and Permit Limits. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2014, from http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/metals-vocs.pdf http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/metals-vocs.pdf