Risk Risk - a combination of the probability that a particular outcome will occur and the severity of the harm involved. (Risiko - Kombinasi kemungkinan berlakunya kejadian berbahaya/kemalangan dan kesan akibatnya) -Chance or probability of danger, loss or injury occuring -A measure of economic loss or human injury in terms of both the accident likelihood and magnitude (consequence) of loss or injury -It is a combination of incident, probability and consequences. Danger – expresses the relative exposure to hazard. A hazard may presence, but there may be little danger because of the control strategy implemented and safety precautions taken.
Hazard A source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to environment or a combination of these. (MS 1722:2003) Source, situation or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, or a combination of these. (OHSAS 18001:2007)
Risk management involves the: hazard identification; assessment, and prioritization of risks; followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Checking and Reviewing the risk control strategy Controlling the risk Eliminating the hazard, if possible Minimizing, if possible Controling the hazard
Risk Management Policy An organization should set out its approach to; and appetite for risk and its approach to risk management. The policy should set out responsibilities for risk management throughout the organization and should refer to any legal requirement.
Risk Management Policy Risk management and internal control objectives Statement of the attitude of the organization to risk (risk strategy) Description of the control environment Level and nature of risk that is acceptable Risk management organization and arrangements (risk architecture) Arrangements for communicating risk information Standards procedures for risk recognition and rating (risk assessment) List of documentations for analyzing and reporting risk (risk protocols) Risk mitigation requirements and control mechanism Allocation of risk management roles and responsibilities Criteria for monitoring and benchmarking risks Allocation of appropriate resources Risk priorities and performance targets Risk management calendar of the coming year
Risk Management Standards CodeDescription ISO 27001:2009Risk Management: Methodology and Process ISO/IEC 31010:2009Risk Management: Risk Assessment Techniques ISO Guide 73:2009Risk Management: Vocabulary ISO 31000:2009Risk Management: Principles and Guidelines ISO 12100:2010Safety of Machinery: General Principles for Design – Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction BS 31100Risk Management COP
Issues in Managing of Health at Workplace Difficult to develop strategy due to: - Long latency period - Individual susceptibility factor The difficulties are experienced by: - Designers - difficult in taking account of health risks in their specifications - Managers - determining the level of health protection that personnel require - Operatives - being aware of health risks and the systems, whether control or prevention, that are put in place to protect them.
7 common causes of workplace accidents Shortcuts Overconfidence Poor or lack of housekeeping Doing task with inadequate information Neglecting safety procedures Mental distractions Lack of preparation
Identifying types of HAZARDS and Various Route of Entry
Manual Handling The lifting and carrying of loads is a big problem in every industry Manual handling injuries contributed about 25% of all work-related injuries PHYSICAL HAZARDS
How to reduce the effects? Bagged materials must be less than 25 kg. Apart of the weight factor, other factors also affect this manual handling related accident - The individual Age Gender Training Experience Previous Injury - The overall operation PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Work Related Upper Limb Disorder WRULD is caused by repetitive movements (RSI) Diseases associated - Neck disorder - Shoulder disorder - Elbow disorder - Wrist and Hand Lesions (localized area of diseased or injured tissue) - Thoracic Outlet Syndrome PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Work Related Upper Limb Disorder Factors associated with the development of WRULD - Resisting Excessive Force - Frequency and Duration of Movement Jobs are dictated by machine rather than personnel - Posture - ERGONOMIC - Work Organization Length of work period without rest breaks, lack of training and inadequate supervision - Psychosomatic Factors (illness due to the interaction of the mind and the body) Poor awareness by managers and employees Lack of management to detect problems Poor ergonomic job design Lack of training to control WRULD PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Noise It can cause hearing loss Factors influencing hearing loss - Intensity of the noise - Frequency - Length of exposure -Individual Tolerance. This factor is also affected by other factors such as: Age Effect of Drugs PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Sound Level in dB (A)Sources Harmfull140Jet Engine 130Riveting Hammer Critical120Propeller Aircraft 110Rock Drill 100Typical outdoor construction, plate fabrication noise 90Heavy Vehicle Safe80Pile drivers, power lawn mower, very busy traffic 70Private car 60Air compressor and concrete mixers 50Conversation (at 1 m) 40Average business office 30Quite Whisper PHYSICAL HAZARDS
How to control noise hazard? Review the design and change if possible Change with other processes or equipment PPE (Personel Protective Equipment): Earmuff PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Vibration Result in tissue damage Two kinds of vibration - Whole body vibration: vehicles -Segmental vibration: pneumatic handheld tools (white knuckles) How to control this hazard? - Use of vibration isolator - Select equipment that produces less vibration PHYSICAL HAZARDS
Electronics assembly worker – Eye problems from doing close work, especially in poor light Long periods with inadequate seating, can suffer from back and other musculoskeletal problems. Solder fumes or solder “flecks” in the eye when the excess solder is cut off with pliers. PHYSICAL HAZARDS - examples Source: International Labor Organization (ILO) PSYCOLOGICAL OCCUPATIONAL STRESS;
Common Types of Toxic Effect Irritations - Lung By inhaling some chemicals, e.g. ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide - Skin: chemical, physical, mechanical and biological Central Nervous System (CNS) Depression - Headache, Drowsiness, Unconsciousness - Organ affected: brain - Many solvents (toluene, xylene, ether, acetone) produce this effect if the vapor concentration is high CHEMICAL HAZARDS
Asphyxia - Interfere with the transfer of oxygen - Suffocated because the bloodstream cannot supply enough oxygen - When the oxygen level of 21% drop to 16% - Sources Gas from sewerage Argon, propane, methane Carbon monoxide Hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen cyanide CHEMICAL HAZARDS Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont
Cancer - The effect is about 20-30 years - Sources Benzene Leukemia Chromium, Beryllium and Arsenic Trioxide Lung Cancer Asbestos Larynx, Lung and Abdomen cancer Vynil Chloride Liver Cancer Coal Tar Pitch Skin Cancer Benzidine Bladder Cancer CHEMICAL HAZARDS Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont
Pneumoconiosis -Dusts retained in the lung - Reduce the elasticity of the lung - Sources Silica, beryllium, asbestos, iron oxide, tin Reproductive Effect - Cause the ability to reproduce and fetal development Mercury Low birth weight PCBs Brown patches Lead Miscarriage X-Rays and Some Pesticides (e.g., DBPC) Decreased sperm cell and sterility CHEMICAL HAZARDS Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont
Systemic Poisons (effect whole body or at least a multiple of organs - Affect to more than one organ - Sources Cadmium: - causes lung irritation, - impairs kidney normal function and - may cause sterility Mercury: - Accumulation in the brain causes tremors and mood changes - Decreased kidney efficiency - Gum inflammation and excess saliva CHEMICAL HAZARDS Common Types of Toxic Effect …cont
Factors Affecting Toxic Effect Factors related to the agent - Chemical Composition - Physical properties - Solubility in body fluids Factors related to the Exposure Situation - Dose: how much and how long? - Co-factors: Presence of other materials Factors related to the individuals - Individual differences: genetic status and allergic status - Age - Presence of predisposing disease: Angina (Heart Disease) cannot tolerate carbon monoxide Emphysema (lung ailment) CHEMICAL HAZARDS
Construction Materials Causing Occupational Diseases DISEASE SkinRespiratory TractLungsEyesNervous System Construction Material Form OilsIrritation Cement (Chromium)Lesions, Eczema, Burns Insulation Mineral woolIrritation Glass woolIrritation IsocyanateDamage Asthma AsphaltIrritation, BurnsBronchitis, Increased risk of cancer Caulking and Sealants PolyacrylateIrritation Methyl ethyl ketoneIrritation Methyl isobutyl ketoneIrritation IsocyanateEczemaAsthma Adhesive Acrylic monomersIrritation TolueneIrritation Damage XyleneIrritation Damage IsocyanateDiscomfort Epoxy ResinIrritation PolyamineIrritation Plasters, Drywall, PuttiesIrritation
Asbestos It can cause lung cancer The disease develops 20-40 years after exposure Problems with asbestos in construction - Many construction contracts are being awarded without the contractors being informed of the presence of asbestos materials Construction Materials Causing Occupational Diseases CHEMICAL HAZARDS
CHEMICAL Hazard …..cont - Identification Hazards related materials - Workplace Hazardous Material Information System (WHMIS) (Canada’s National Workplace Hazard Communication Std) The key elements of the system are cautionary labelling of containers of WHMIS "controlled products", the provision of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and worker education and training programs
Class B: Flammable Class A: Compressed Gas & Combustible WHMIS Symbol Class C: Oxidizing Material Class D: Poisonous and Infectious Material
Material Safety Data Sheets - MSDS A form with data regarding the detailed properties of a particular hazardous material An important component of product stewardship and workplace safety, it is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner
What is an MSDS? A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) provides detailed information about a specific hazardous material. An MSDS contains the following information: - Identity (name of substance) - Physical Hazards (target organ) - Health Hazards - Routes of Body Entry - Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) - Carcinogenic Factors (cancer causing) - Safe-Handling Procedures
What is an MSDS? - Data of Sheet Preparation - Control Measures (personal protective equipment) - Emergency First Aid Procedures (emergency telephone number) - Contact Information (for the preparer of the sheet) - Special Instructions
Sample MSDS Page - Nitric Acid, 70% This is a sample page from the MSDS for Nitric Acid, 70 percent. The product is made by the ABC Rubber Company, Science Products Division, P.O. Box M, Altonia, Illinois 40361. Effective date is 8- 21-85.
Sample MSDS Page - Nitric Acid, 70% Product identification, synonyms, other names for nitric acid are: aqua fortis, azotic acid, nitric acid 70 percent. Formula CAS Number 7697-37-2. Molecular weight 63.00. Hazardous ingredients, not applicable. Chemical formula, HNO 3. Precautionary measures, danger, strong oxidizer, contact with other materials may cause fire. Causes sever burns, may be fatal if swallowed. Harmful if inhaled. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Avoid breathing mist, use only with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after handling. Do not store near combustible materials. Store in a tightly closed container. Remove and wash contaminated clothing properly.
When Do You Use an MSDS? You should use an MSDS whenever you need additional information about a hazardous material that is not included on the product label. For example, you have spilled nitric acid on the floor, and you need to know how to clean it up safely. You need only refer to the "Safe-Handling Procedures" section of the nitric acid MSDS.
Safe-Handling Procedures Section - Nitric Acid, 70% Isolate or enclose the area of the leak or spill. Clean-up personnel should wear protective clothing and respiratory equipment suitable for toxic or corrosive fluids or vapors. For small spills: Flush with water, and neutralize with alkaline material (soda ash, lime, et cetera). Sewer with excess water. For larger spills and lot sizes: Neutralize with alkaline, pick up with absorbent material (sand, earth, vermiculite) and dispose in a RCRA approved waste facility or sewer the neutralized slurry with excess water if local ordinances allow. Provide forced ventilation to dissipate fumes. Reportable Quantity (RQ) (CWA/CERCLA): 1000 pounds Insure compliance with local, state and federal regulations. Sample
When Do You Use an MSDS? Some chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide, are very dangerous. If you have an accident, you may not have time to look up the information you need in an MSDS. You should read the MSDSs for the hazardous materials present in your work area before you work with them.
i.Physical Hazards ii.Chemical Hazards iii. Biological Hazards – living organism or once-living organism eg. Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses iv. Electrical Hazards v. Radiation Hazards vi. Psychological Hazards Types of HAZARDS - categories
iii. Biological Hazards a. Microorganism -Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses route –in contact with bacteria thro’ improper treated cooling towers b. Arthropods – mosquitoes, spiders route – bitten by infected mosquitoes c. Animals – crocodiles, snakes d. Plant allergens and toxins – pollen e. Protein allergens – food, urine, feces, hair route – rodent dropping/urine - route -> infection, needle stick injury, handling of waste Types of HAZARDS - categories
i.Physical Hazards ii.Chemical Hazards iii. Biological Hazards iv. Electrical Hazards eg current, voltage, sparks - route -> direct electrocution, contact with overhead or underground cables v. Radiation Hazards vi. Psychological Hazards Types of HAZARDS - categories
i.Physical Hazards ii.Chemical Hazards iii. Biological Hazards iv. Electrical Hazards v.Radiation Hazards eg. UV light, lasers etc - route -> skin contact, eye contact vi. Psychological Hazards Types of HAZARDS - categories
Ultraviolet UV can damage eyes and skin - Skin cancer - Skin burn - Eye discomfort Where is the exposure of this hazard? - Outdoor job - Welding - Work using high intensity lamp How to reduce the hazard? - Sun block - UV Protection Sunglasses - Blue color costume
i.Physical Hazards ii.Chemical Hazards iii. Biological Hazards iv. Electrical Hazards v.Radiation Hazards vi. Psychological Hazards eg. workplace, space, organizational culture, stress Types of HAZARDS - categories
Occupational Stress Three types of occupational stress - Physical - Mental - Emotional PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Causes of Occupational Stress Uncertainty and lack of control (low job discretion) Lack of support from others, including co-workers Conflicts High demands of working environment, e.g. long hours, high responsibility, commitment Very low demands: boredom, lack of meaning in work Work station: noise, poor lighting, lack of space, extreme temperatures, poor ergonomics Chemical hazards, fumes, passive smoking PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Organizational culture Repetitive Tasks Low pay leading to overtime and piecework Change PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS Causes of Occupational Stress …cont
How do humans react? 3 stages Alarm Stage -Immediate reaction - Fight or Flight? - Human body coordinates the readiness of action, influencing mood, causing heart palpitation, shallow fast breathing, muscle tension, dryness of throat, dizziness and light- headedness, numbness of the limbs, nausea, anxiety and sweating PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Resistance Stage Alarm stage cannot be maintained indefinitely At one point, resistance stage occurs in which humans develop survival strategies and a way of fighting the stress Typically, short-term relief is preferable Exhaustion Stage -Stress response is healthy and a motivator - When expectations are not realistic, humans become suffer PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS How do humans react?
can be burnt from the sparks the danger of the work process starting a fire. the intense light can cause permanent eye damage Heat HAZARDS – can you identify them? Source: International Labor Organization (ILO) PHYSICAL PSYCOLOGICAL fumes given off by the process which can damage the lungs CHEMICAL Welder
Electronics assembly worker – Eye problems from doing close work, especially in poor light Long periods with inadequate seating, can suffer from back and other musculoskeletal problems. Solder fumes or solder “flecks” in the eye when the excess solder is cut off with pliers. PHYSICAL HAZARDS - examples Source: International Labor Organization (ILO) PSYCOLOGICAL OCCUPATIONAL STRESS; Control ????