Presentation on theme: "« Ordo Ab Chao : la modélisation pour gérer le chaos ? » Dispositifs denseignement/apprentissage en langues médiatisés et à distance Jean-Claude BERTIN."— Presentation transcript:
« Ordo Ab Chao : la modélisation pour gérer le chaos ? » Dispositifs denseignement/apprentissage en langues médiatisés et à distance Jean-Claude BERTIN UMR IDEES-CIRTAI, Le Havre Jean-Paul NARCY-COMBES, DILTEC, Sorbonne Nouvelle - UPMC
Plan de lintervention 1.Epistemological stance A systemic approach to language learning environments Morins Complex Thinking Emergentist perspectives 2.Destructuring the systems components Destructuring language Destructuring learning paths Destructuring mediation 3.Organizing chaos through modeling ? The didactic ergonomics model Evolving relationships within the model An emergentist perspective for the model
ComplexComplex systems theoriessystems (adapted from Sockett 2010) Theoretical level Mathematical level Application level complexity Dynamic systems theories Focus on changes within the system Connexionism Focus on interactions within the system Emergentism : Specific properties of a complex system Reductionism : Specific properties of the systems components refuted An evolving epistemological stance…
Chaos : destructuring language Syntax The structural properties of sentences can be explained without reference to inborn grammatical principles. Mac Whinney : grammar emerges from conversation as a way to facilitate accurate tracking and switching of perspective. O'Grady : syntactic phenomena are best understood in terms of the operation of a linear, efficiency-driven processor that seeks to reduce the burden on working memory in the course of sentence formation and interpretation. Morphology Morphological structure emerges from statistical regularities in the form-meaning relationship between words. Morphological structure exists but not in the categorical form commonly assumed and coming from frequency, semantic transparency, phonotactics. Lexicon The lexicon emerges from the way in which the brain responds to and stores experiences- by creating units whose strength and productivity is determined largely by frequency of occurrence. Some of these units corresponds to words, as in traditional lexicon, but many are phrases and other larger units of organization, including possibly abstract constructions. Phonology Donegan: Children begin with a set of processes (nasalization, devoicing) that emerge as responses to the physical limitations of the human vocal tract and the auditory apparatus. A language's phonemic inventory and allophonic patterns then emerge as specific processes are suppresed in response to experience. Discourse and pragmatics can be explained in similar terms => our model
Chaos : destructuring learning paths Non-linear Cannot be pre-structured Triggering interplay of complementary sets of processes in order to create connexions. Complementarity of processes is largely unpredictable in its results, but can be safely anticipated. Three questions remain problematic: (1)métareflection (Cummins: BICS et CALP). (2)Mediation. (3)Individual and cultural differences. The Learning Cycle model remains one dimensional => lacks temporality
Chaos : destructuring mediation in CALL/distance learning Pedagogic mediation Technological mediation Distance mediation The analyser concept (Lapassade 1971; Petit 1991) … anything that causes truth to emerge of what is hidden; anything may refer to a group, an individual, a situation, an event, a scandal […] (Lapassade, 1971, p. 15) « an individuals knowledge is described as a personal construction mediated by teachers or peers. Distance [and technology] will not affect the individuals construction of knowledge, but may make mediation and social interaction more complex » (Narcy-Combes 2010) Distance : « nouvelles formes déchanges pédagogiques non seulement grâce au dispositif technologique utilisé mais également grâce à des configurations socio-pédagogiques inédites. » (Dejean-Thricuir, Guichon & Nicolaev V. (2010, 378).
Modeling : towards some kind of order? Why refer to models? Emergentism considers real world macro-objects Finding ones way in uncertainty Structuring what can be structured in chaos Construct functions (technology) and roles (human) from interactions A heuristic model : Guiding the construction of the various components of the system by the various actors Identify interfaces (= « places ») for interactions The model is neither rigid nor normative The model guides the implementation of performances
Simplified Didactic Ergonomics model Tasks / learning cycle context teacher learner technology Language/culture - A global vision of the macro-object (simplified here) - Deconstruction into specialised sub-systems : teaching act, learning act, follow-up and regulation) emergence of new actors (teacher/tutor) and new roles (including learners roles).
Emergentisme et modèle dergonomie didactique Temporalité ? ? ? (Adapted from Miras 2011) Réorganisation du système Propriétés émergentes (capacité à générer des activités liées à lapprentissage) variables dans le temps
Deconstructing the model – teacher-centred sub-system Sub-system 1: teacher-centred - Process organization of materials and pedagogic mediation Competence in: Course design Task design (including technological constraints and potential) Materials design Environment design Computer literacy / team organizer Follow-up organization & planning provision of monitoring devices
Deconstructing the model – learner-centred sub-system Sub-system 2: learner-centred Process language learning New dimensions / actors due to specificity of technological mediation + distance Asynchronous articulation between SS1 and SS2 Teacher-centred system organization & planning (virtual, latent) Learner-centred system only when learner interacts with materials
Deconstructing the model – regulation sub-system SS1 and SS2 : 2 different perspectives Teacher pedagogy driven + representations of the computer Learner individual representations of language learning and of technology Potential gaps between didactic intention and practices Need for data on systems operation monitoring Objectives of follow-up Individual level: learner evaluation, feedback and support Systemic level: system regulation Roles -Tutor contributes to raise learners awareness of the emerging steps in the task (Bygate) -Contributes to inform teacher about discontinuities. -Teacher in charge of reorganising system at T+1 -Modes of reorganisation are context specific.
Conclusions Modeling concerns the learning environment / not the processes Functions og the learning environment Generate the emergence of conditions favorable to language acquisition Generate conditions for potential sequencing of language learning related operations The didactic dimension of the learning environment is non linear and unpredictable. Distance highlights discontinuities through the time gap between the teaching and the learning acts need for more information on learner activity (monitoring) for regulation purposes (task and learning environment levels) The technological element cannot accept total unpredictability its function = stabilize the environment + flexilbility to adapt to different contexts. The general model ensure designers take into account all the components + interactions within the system Important : operating the model implies defining the respective responsibility of learner, teacher and/or tutor, according to specific contexts.
Bibliographie Conference based on : Bertin, J.-C., Gravé, P. & Narcy-Combes, J.-P. (2010). Second-language distance learning and teaching: theoretical perspectives and didactic ergonomics, IGI Global, USA Dejean-Thricuir, C., Guichon, N. & Nicolaev V. (2010). Compétences interactionnelles des tuteurs dans des échanges vidéographiques synchrones. Distance et Savoirs, 8/2010, Fischer, R. (2006), How do we know what students are actually doing? Monitoring students behavior in CALL. Conférence plénière : CALL Conference 2006, université dAnvers. Lapassade, G. (1971). Lanalyseur et lanalyste. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. Miras (2011). Mémoire de Master 2 recherche, Sorbonne-Nouvelle. Morin, E., & Lemoigne, J.-L. (1999). Introduction à la pensée complexe. Paris: LHarmattan Narcy-Combes, Jean-Paul (2005). Didactique des langues et TIC: vers une recherche-action responsable. Gap Paris, Ophrys. Petit, F. (1991). Introduction à la psychosociologie des organisations. Paris: Privat, Pratiques Sociales Rabardel, P. (1995). Les Hommes et les Technologies – Approche cognitive des instruments contemporains, Armand colin, série Psychologie, Paris. Sockett, G. (2010), « La complexité, l'émergence et la didactique des langues », Présentation à la journée d'étude « Permanences et évolutions en didactique des langues » à l'Université de Nantes, 25 juin
Lapproche systémique Interactionism : focus on interactionsDynamic systems : focus on interactions + retroactions
La Pensée Complexe (E. Morin) ?? Holistic perspective