International variables Unspoken rules Unconscious rules
Models of culture To map the unspoken and unconscious rules The primary reasons to use models of culture are: to gain insight into the information needs and behavioral tendencies of the audience to collect data for radical localization to complete task analyses for a multinational audience
Models of culture Two pioneers of intercultural communication studies: Edward Hall Geert Hofstede
Edward Hall Focuses on determining what releases the right response rather than what sends the right message. Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimension. Anchor Books: 1990 Hall, Edward T. Beyond Culture. Anchor Books: 1989 Hall's cultural variables deal with: Speed of messages Context Space Time Information flow
Hall: Context Context Information Information explicitly stated Information implicitly stated Low- Context Cultures High- Context Cultures
Hall: Space All cultures have different senses of space, or invisible boundaries. These are qualified as: Territoriality Personal space Multisensory space Unconscious reactions to spatial differences
Hall: Time In Hall’s model of culture, there are two types of relation with time:
Hall: Information flow In High-Context Cultures: o Information flows fast and free In Low-Context Cultures: o Information tends to be slow
Geert Hofstede Focuses on determining the patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting that form a culture's mental programming. Hofstede, Geert Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill: 2004 Hofstede's cultural variables deal with: Power distance Collectivism versus Individualism Femininity versus Masculinity Uncertainty avoidance Long-term orientation versus short-term orientation
Hofstede: Power distance How subordinates respond to inequality. High-power distance : Subordinates tend to fear their bosses. Bosses tend to be autocratic. South America, France, Spain, Asia and Africa. Low-power distance : Subordinates are more likely to challenge bosses. Bosses tend to be more consultative. USA, Great Britain, northern Europe, New Zealand, Israel.
Hofstede: Collectivism vs Individualism What are the ties among individuals in a society? Individualistic cultures : People are expected to look out for themselves. Little social cohesion. USA, France, Germany, South Africa, Canada. Collectivist cultures : Individuals develop strong personal ties, and are expected to be loyal to the group. Japan, Costa Rica, Mexico, Korea, Greece.
Hofstede: Femininity vs Masculinity Masculine and feminine work goals index.
Hofstede: Femininity vs Masculinity Countries/Regions where the Masculine index is more valued: USA, Japan, Mexico, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Italy, Germany, New Zealand Countries/Regions where the Feminine index is more valued: Sweden, Israel, Spain, Korea, France, Denmark, Finland, Indonesia
Hofstede: Uncertainty avoidance This focuses on the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.
Hofstede: Uncertainty avoidance Countries/Regions with Strong uncertainty avoidance : South America, Japan, South Korea Countries/Regions with Weak uncertainty avoidance : Netherlands, USA, Singapore, Hong Kong, Great Britain
Countries/regions that have a Long-term orientation toward life: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, India Countries/regions that have a Short-term orientation toward life: Pakistan, the Philippines, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, Australia, USA
Other models of culture Trompenaars, Fons Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business. McGraw- Hill: 2011 Axtell, Roger Do’s and Taboos Around the World. Wiley: 1993 Copeland, Lennie and Lewis Griggs Going International: How to Make Friends and Deal Effectively in the Global Marketplace. Penguin: 1985 GlobeSmart: at http://corp.aperianglobal.com/globesmartn http://corp.aperianglobal.com/globesmartn with overview and demo access