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AHI Unit 8 The American Dream. EQ: How did westward migration and the agricultural revolution impact the West?

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Presentation on theme: "AHI Unit 8 The American Dream. EQ: How did westward migration and the agricultural revolution impact the West?"— Presentation transcript:

1 AHI Unit 8 The American Dream

2 EQ: How did westward migration and the agricultural revolution impact the West?

3 Early Westward Migration

4 Some went West for economic opportunity Miners for gold, silver, and copper Some went West for land Farmers and ranchers Some went West to escape religious persecution Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, and the Mormons

5 African American families left the South at the end of the War, some went West for opportunities Women went West with husbands or alone to start new lives The Chinese and Irish went West to work on the Transcontinental Railroad News of a strike in an area, prospectors flocked to the area in hopes of getting rich

6 Placer mining

7 Early prospectors took the shallow deposits of minerals Placer mining, simple equipment, pick ax, shovel, pan, sluice box

8 Hydraulic and Quartz Mining

9 Surface deposits gone, corporations moved in and started hydraulic mining Water cannons washed away surface soil to expose deeper mineral deposits Environmentally devastating State governments passed laws to regulate the disposal of sediments Quartz mining, deep underground mining

10 Required tunnels, explosives, and a rail system to move rock, soil, and minerals from the mine Dangerous, cave-ins a constant threat as were poisonous gases Deposits played out commercial mining disappeared, or continued on a limited basis

11 Comstock Lode

12 1859, Henry Comstock staked a claim in Six-Mile Canyon Almost pure silver ore Miners rushed to Virginia City Overnight the town goes from a frontier town to boomtown Population of about 30,000 Virginia City had an opera house, shops with clothing and furniture from Europe

13 Several newspapers A six story hotel with the first elevator in the West The silver veins ran out in several years Mines closed, the town economy collapsed, the citizens moved on to new opportunities Boom to Bust was common throughout the West

14 Boomtown Crime

15 Boom periods brought crime Prospectors fought over claims Thieves on the trails and streets Little law enforcement Citizens formed vigilance committees to capture and punish criminals The innocent were often punished and the guilty often went free

16 Most citizens respected the law and attempted to deal fairly and firmly with the accused Boomtowns mostly male population attracted women Women were property owners and town leaders May work as cooks or in laundries

17 The Colorado, Dakota and Montana Territories

18 Development/settlement in Colorado, Dakota, and Montana spurred by mining

19 Pike’s Peak

20 Gold discovered at Pike’s Peak in 1865 Resulted in a gold rush- “Pike’s Peak or Bust” Turned out to be a bust for most miners “Pike’s Peak Hoax”

21 Leadville

22 There was plenty of gold and silver in the Colorado Mountains, it was just hidden under the surface and hard to extract One of the richest strikes was at Leadville Deep deposits of lead held silver In the summer of 1879 people arrived at the pace of about 1,000 per week Leadville was one of the most legendary boomtowns

23 Mining in Colorado yielded over $1 billion This led to the building of railroads through the Rocky Mountains Denver, the supply center for the mining areas became the second largest city in the West after San Francisco

24 The Northern Great Plains

25 Gold in the Black Hills of Dakota and copper in Montana led to the growth of the Northern Great Plains Miners went in first in the late 1870s The miners were followed by the railroads in the 1880s The farmers and ranchers followed the railroads Congress divided the Dakota Territory, admitted North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and several other states

26 Cattle Ranching

27 Some went West post Civil War not to mine but build large cattle ranches on the Great Plains Cattle ranching developed because of the Texas Longhorn, descended from Spanish cattle Well adapted to living on the prairie, tough grass and little water 1865 5 million Longhorns on the grasslands of Texas Mexicans brought cattle ranching to New Mexico, California, and Texas before they were part of the United States

28 The Open Range

29 The cattle industry grew in the US because of the open range Ranchers turned their cattle to graze on government land free of charge No boundaries by private farms

30 Mexican Cowhands

31 Mexican cowhands developed tools and techniques to round up and drive cattle They taught Americans cowhands these skills

32 Growth of the Cattle Industry and the Civil War

33 Prior to the Civil War there was no financial incentive for ranchers to round up Longhorns The price of beef was low Transporting cattle to Eastern markets was not profitable Railroad construction during the Civil War changed the cattle industry Eastern cattle were slaughtered in large numbers to feed Union and Confederate troops

34 By the end of the Civil War the price of beef was up It was now profitable to round up Longhorns Needed a way to move the cattle East

35 Railheads

36 1860s, there were railroads on the Great Plains The rail lines ended at Abilene and Dodge City in Kansas and Sedalia in Missouri These towns were known as railheads

37 The First Long Drive

38 Ranchers and dealers realized if the cattle were driven several hundred miles to the railheads, they could be sold for a huge profit and shipped east to market 1866, ranchers rounded up 260,000 head of cattle and drove them to Sedalia Only a fraction of the herd survived the first Long Drive

39 The first long drive was a financial success even with the dead loss Cattle could be driven to the north to the railheads and sold for 10 times the price per head in Texas

40 The Chisholm Trail

41 Other cattle trails opened A major route to Abilene, Kansas was the Chisholm Trail 1867-1871, 1.5 million head of cattle travelled the Chisholm Trail Abilene matched the boomtowns when it filled with cowboys at the end of the drive Railroads expanded west, trails from Texas went to more towns in Kansas, Nebraska, Montana, and Wyoming

42 Long Drive

43 Each spring the ranchers met with the cowboys They rounded up the cattle from the open range Ownership was determined by brand Strays with no brands were mavericks-these were divided among the ranchers and then branded

44 Combined herds could number 2,500-5,000 head of cattle Cowboys with major ranchers went north with the herd Cowboys in the early drives were former Confederate soldiers who went west to escape the harsh life in the South during Reconstruction

45 Other cowboys were Hispanics and African Americans Trail life was dangerous, took discipline, endurance, and courage to survive the dangers of the drive Cowboys collected wages at the end of the drive and spent their money in town Life at the railheads was exciting

46 Cowboys told exaggerated tales of daring These stories were used for dime novels- adventure books that sold for a dime Dime novels helped spread the myth of the West back East

47 Ranching as Big Business Millions of head of cattle were driven north from Texas to Kansas Some of the cattle went straight to the slaughter houses, others were sold to ranchers building up herds and grazing them in Montana, Wyoming, and other territories Eastern and British investors jumped in on the cattle boom

48 Range Wars

49 Sheep herders moved flocks to the open range Farmers settled on land and blocked cattle trails Range wars erupted- ranchers often hired gunmen After violence and loss of life the open range was fenced off with barbed wire

50 Barbed wire patented by Joseph Glidden in 1873 was a cheap efficient way to fence off large areas Ranchers viewed barbed wire as a threat not an opportunity They did not want to lose open grazing Later ranchers used barbed wire to fence off competitors and keep animals closer to food and water sources

51 Cattle Industry Bust Barbed wire ended the Long Drive for cowboys The Long Drive also ended because of an oversupply of beef Too many people entered the industry during it’s boom period Oversupply led to a drop in prices In the mid 1880s ranchers began to go bankrupt

52 The winter of 1886 the blizzards were so bad, the snow too deep for the cattle to reach the grass, temperatures 40 below 0 The cattle industry survived but with major changes; the open range was over, the herds were raised on fenced in ranches, European breeds of cattle replaced the Longhorn, and the cowboy became the ranch hand

53 The Great Plains

54 The Great Plains-flatlands extending Westward from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and South from the Dakotas to West Texas Average rainfall less than 20 inches per year Trees grew only along rivers and streambeds Historically home to herds of buffalo which grazed on the prairie grass and nomadic Native Americans who hunted the buffalo for food, shelter, and clothing

55 Great Plains Settlement

56 The early belief was that the Great Plains was a useless desert The railroad allowed easier access to the Great Plains Railroad companies sold land along the rail lines at low prices and provided credit to settlers Railroads opened offices in major cities in the US and Europe where land was scarce

57 Railroads used posters pamphlets to advertise land “Book passage to the Plains = a ticket to opportunity” 1870s above average rainfall, the Plains turned green

58 The Homestead Act of 1862

59 To encourage settlement the federal government passed the Homestead Act of 1862 For a $10 registration fee an individual could file for a homestead on a tract of public land Homesteaders could claim up to 160 acres Live on the land for 5 years and get title to the land Later actions by Congress increased the size of the tracts

60 The Homestead Act allowed for a legal avenue for settlers to gain a clear title to the land in the West With property rights protected settlers were willing to move to the Plains

61 Life on the Plains

62 Life on the Plains was very difficult Lack of trees and water Built sod homes Dug wells up to 300 feet deep Used windmills to pump the water Summertime temperatures over 100 degrees Prairie fires a danger

63 Grasshoppers swarmed the farms and destroyed crops Winter blizzards and cold temperatures Settlers learned how to adapt and live on the Plains

64 The Wheat Belt

65 The Wheat Belt was the Eastern edge of the Great Plains; Dakotas, Western Nebraska, and Kansas People with capital could make Plains farming profitable New inventions, innovations, and farming techniques changed agriculture

66 Dry Farming Dry farming involved planting the seeds deep into the soil where there was adequate moisture for seed germination

67 1860s Farming on the Plains

68 1860s farmers used steel plows, seed drills, reapers, and thrashing machines This new machinery made dry farming possible

69 The Rain Follows the Plow A Nebraskan coined the slogan “Rain follows the Plow” This was an attempt to sell the idea that cultivating the Plains would increase rainfall This appeared to be a true as the rainfall in the decade of the 1870s was well above average

70 Farming’s effect on the land

71 Sodbusters who used a plow on the Plains usually lost their homesteads to drought, wind erosion, and overuse of the land Large landowners had the same problems They were able to make quick profits with the use of mechanical reapers to harvest faster, mechanical binders tied wheat into bundles

72 Threshing machines knocked kernels from the stalks Wheat withstood drought better than corn The new agricultural machines worked well with wheat Wheat was as important to the Plains as cotton was to the South 1880s farmers from Minnesota and other Midwestern states go to the Plains for cheap land and new farming technology

73 Commercial Farming

74 One family could farm several hundred acres with the help of machinery Some farms as large as 50,000 acres These large farms were called bonanza farms The bonanza farms yielded a large profit They were set up as a business- the company made a large investment in acreage and machinery

75 The Bust of the Wheat Industry

76 American wheat farmers encountered competition from foreign producers In the 1890s the supply of wheat was too high and the prices dropped In order to survive the lean years the farmers mortgaged their land

77 Closing the West and Frederick Jackson Turner

78 1890 census, settlement in the West was so rapid, no frontier existed Even though there was still much unoccupied land Settlement continued at such a strong pace into the 1900s many became concerned Frederick Jackson Turner believed the frontier provided a safety valve of social discontent

79 It was a place where Americans could always make a fresh start Many Americans did make a fresh start They adapted to the harsh Plains conditions They dug deep water wells, the water used to plant trees and gardens Railroads brought lumber and brick to replace sod as a building material and coal for fuel

80 Plains farmers bought manufactured goods from back East; clothes and household goods Small scale farmers rarely became rich, but they were self-sufficient Homesteaders raised cattle, chickens, and a few crops

81 Morrill Act 1862

82 Congress gave states large tracts of federal land The states were required to use part of the land for colleges to promote agriculture and manufacturing Colleges were to offer courses in agriculture and engineering as well as other academic areas Military training programs were also required

83 Most state agricultural and engineering colleges today were established under the Morrill Act Every state has at least one land-grant college

84 Post Civil War Railroad Construction

85 1865, 35,000 miles of railroad track, most of it located east of the Mississippi River After the Civil War railroad construction linked distant regions in a transportation network

86 The Pacific Railway Act

87 1862, President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act Allowed for the construction of a transcontinental railroad Two companies; the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific built the transcontinental railroad The government gave each company land on either side of the railroad track (a specific amount for each mile of track laid) Each company pushed to lay as much track as possible to obtain public money and land

88 The Union Pacific

89 Union Pacific construction was directed by Grenville Doge The Union Pacific pushed west from Omaha, Nebraska in 1865 The railroad laborers faced blizzards in the mountains, heat in the desert, and angry Native Americans Labor, money, and engineering problems plagued the supervisors of the project

90 Union Pacific workers; Civil War veterans, immigrants from Ireland were recruited to work on the railroad, miners, farmers, cooks, and adventurers The Union Pacific employed about 10,000 workers Most of the workers camped along the line, 25% slept 3 to 5 deep in bunk beds on rolling boarding cars

91 Camp life was rough, dirty, and dangerous All materials and supplies had to travel with the extension of the railroad line

92 The Big Four and the Central Pacific

93 The Central Pacific began as a dream of Theodore Dehone Judah Judah convinced the California Legislature to organize a state railroad convention to support his idea Judah sold stock in his new company to four Sacramento merchants Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, and Collis P. Huntington

94 The Big Four made a fortune from their investment Stanford became a governor of California, served as a US Senator, and founded Stanford University in 1885 A labor shortage in California forced the Central Pacific to hire 10,000 workers from China

95 The equipment, rails, cars, locomotives, and machinery were shipped from the East Coast around the Cape Horn or over the Isthmus of Panama in Central America

96 Promontory Point, Utah

97 The Transcontinental Railroad was completed May 10, 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah A gold and a sliver spike were used to join the two railroad lines

98 Railroads promote growth

99 The Transcontinental Railroad was one of many lines that crisscrossed America The railroads linked the nation Railroads increased the size of markets for many products Railroads were also large consumers, they stimulated the economy, spent huge sums of money on coal, steel, timber, and other products

100 Plains Indian Culture

101 The Great Plains were the home of Native American nations for hundreds of years Some lived in communities as farmer hunters Most were nomadic Roamed the Plains Main food source was the buffalo Plains Indians had differences but were similar in that:

102 1. they lived in extended families 2. they enjoyed a close relationship with nature Each band had a governing Most of the members of the band engaged in decision making Work assignments made by gender:

103 A. women; domestic jobs, child rearing, cooking, and preparing hides B. men; hunting, trading, and the supervision of the military life of the band Native American religion was based on the belief in the spiritual powers of the natural world Native Americans did not believe in individual ownership of land, the land was owned by the band or the nation in common, one member could not sell it

104 The effects of miners, farmers and ranchers on the Plains

105 Miners, farmers, and ranchers moved to the Plains restricting the hunting grounds of the Native Americans White settlers broke treaties that had guaranteed land for the Plains Indians Native Americans were forced to relocate to new areas Native resistance; attacked wagon trains, stagecoaches and ranches

106 On occasion an entire band or group would go to war against nearby settlers and troops The first major uprising was in 1862 by the Sioux in Minnesota

107 The Dakota Sioux Uprising

108 The Dakota lived on a small reservation in Minnesota The Sioux had given up land in exchange for a yearly annuity, 5-30 cents per acre Most of the payment was taken by the American traders on the reservation, who often fabricated debts The Summer of 1862 Congress delayed the payment

109 The Dakotas were starving Chief Little Crow asked the traders to provide his people food on credit Andrew Myrick told Little Crow to let his people eat grass or dung Two weeks later the Dakotas armed themselves, Myrick was found shot to death with grass stuffed in his mouth

110 Little Crow led the uprising, did not want to wage war on civilians but on soldiers Little Crow could not stop the slaughter of hundreds of settlers in the area US troops arrived and ended the uprising 308 Native Americans were sentenced to death Lincoln reduced the number to 38 Many Dakota Sioux left the reservation and became exiles in the Dakota Territory

111 Buffalo Soldiers

112 Buffalo soldiers were African American cavalry The name buffalo soldier originated with the Native Americans

113 The Lakota Sioux

114 After the Dakota Sioux uprising US troops patrol the Northern Great Plains to prevent trouble from the Sioux The military action did not prevent problems but made the situation worse The troops encountered the Lakota Sioux, a nomadic group who had offered refuge to the Native Americans from Minnesota

115 The Lakota had long fought to control their traditional hunting grounds, the Black Hills to the Bighorn Mountains They had battled rival groups and were not going to let settlers come in Led by Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull Red Cloud defeated the Army in Wyoming in 1866 Troops from a fort on the Bozeman Trail, used by prospectors to reach the mines in Montana

116 Fetterman Massacre

117 Crazy Horse led the troops led by Captain William Fetterman into an ambush 80 troopers had been sent out in pursuit of a supposedly same Sioux raiding party Instead of a small group, hundreds of warriors were waiting and all of the soldiers were killed

118 Sand Creek Massacre

119 Fetterman’s Massacre was an example of growing violence between settlers and Native Americans 1860s there was tension between the Cheyenne and the Arapaho people and the miners Miners were coming to Colorado for gold and silver

120 As the number of miners and settlers increased bands of Native Americans began to raid wagon trains, steal cattle and horses from ranches The Summer of 1864 travel to Denver or the mining camps was unsafe Trade in the area had come to a stop Ranches were burned And estimated 200 settlers had been killed

121 Territorial Governor John Evans ordered all Native Americans to surrender at Fort Lyon Evans promised the Native Americans food and protection Several hundred surrendered but many did not November, 1864 Chief Black Kettle came to Fort Lyon with several hundred Cheyenne

122 Black Kettle came to talk not surrender The fort commander told Black Kettle he had not authority to negotiate Black Kettle was instructed to camp with his people at Sand Creek Colonel John Chivington of the Colorado Volunteers ordered an attack on the Cheyenne at Sand Creek

123 There were varying accounts of what took place – Black Kettle was flying an American flag and a flag of truce, both were ignored by Chivington – The troops opened fire on unsuspecting Native Americans, murdered hundreds of women and children – A savage battle between the Native Americans and the troops lasted for two days- 14 soldiers died and 69-600 Native Americans died

124 The US Senate investigated the event but decided not to charge Chivington

125 Congressional Response to Plains Violence

126 The Fetterman and Sand Creek Massacres along with other incidents prompted Congress to end the escalating conflict on the Plains 1867, Congress created the Indian Peace Commission Proposed two large reservations on the Plains One for the Sioux and one for the southern Plains Indians

127 Agents from the Bureau of Indian Affairs would run the reservations The Army had the authority to deal with any groups that refused to report or remain on the reservations The Native American leaders were forced to sign treaties at Medicine Lodge Creek in 1867 There was no assurance the chiefs for followers would abide by the terms of the treaty

128 Life on the Reservations Native Americans who reported to the Reservations faced a life of: – Poverty – Despair – The corrupt practices of American traders on the Reservations – 1870s Native Americans began to leave the Reservations in large numbers out of disgust – They wanted to hunt buffalo on the Plains

129 The extermination of the Buffalo

130 The buffalo were quickly disappearing With the Gold Rush, migrants crossing the Plains killed thousands of buffalo After the Civil War, professional buffalo hunters on the Plains killed buffalo for their hides Others killed buffalo for sport and left the carcass to rot

131 Railroad companies hired sharpshooters to kill large numbers of buffalo that obstructed rail traffic The Army encouraged the slaughter of the buffalo to force the Native Americans onto the Reservations By 1889 there were very few buffalo left on the Plains

132 The Battle of the Little Bighorn

133 1876, prospectors overran the Lakota Reservation in the Black Hills of South Dakota The Lakota saw no reason to honor a treaty that the settlers were not honoring Many left the Reservation to hunt buffalo in the Bighorn Mountains of Montana The government sent General Alfred Terry and Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer and his Seventh Cavalry to return the Lakota to the Reservation

134 On June 25, 1876 Custer launched a three-prong attack on one of the largest groups of Native American warriors ever assembled on the Great Plains 2,500 Lakota and Cheyenne warriors camped along the Bighorn River The Native Americans turned back a cavalry charge from the South Turned on Custer and 210 soldiers and killed all

135 The newspapers painted Custer as a victim of a massacre The Army increased it’s effort against the Native Americans Sitting Bull fled to Canada with his followers The Lakota left on the Plains were forced to give up the Black Hills and return to the Reservation

136 Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce

137 Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce of the American Northwest refused to move to a smaller Reservation in Idaho in 1877 The Army arrived to relocate the Nez Perce The Nez Perce fled and traveled 1,300 miles October 1877 Chief Joseph surrendered The Nez Perce were exiled to Oklahoma

138 Chief Joseph “Our chiefs are killed….The little children are freezing to death, My people have no blankets, no food. Hear me, my chiefs; I am tired; my heart is sick and sad, From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever”

139 Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor

140 A growing number of Americans opposed the treatment of Native Americans Author Helen Hunt Jackson chronicled the years of broken promises and assaults on Native Americans in her book A Century of Broken Promises The book published in 1881 described events like the massacre at Sand Creek Prompted discussion in America and Congress for better treatment for Native Americans

141 Industrialization is…….. The large scale introduction of manufacturing, advanced technical enterprises, and other productive economic activity into an area, society, or country

142 The Rise of Industry

143 The industrial revolution began in the early 1800s in the United States By the time of the Civil War the United States still largely an agricultural nation A population of 30 million, 1.3 million worked in industry in 1860 Post-Civil War industrial expansion took place Millions left the farms to work in the mines or factories

144 Gross National Product

145 By the early 1900s the United States turned into the leading manufacturing nation in the world 1914 the GNP was eight times greater than at the end of the Civil War GNP= the total dollar value of all finished goods and services in a one year period

146 Natural Resources

147 Industrial development dependent upon raw materials US, vast quantities of water, timber, coal, iron, and copper US did not have to import raw materials Industry could obtain raw materials cheaply in the US Many resources located in the mountains of the WestSettlement of the West after the Civil War fed industrial growth The construction of the transcontinental railroad brought settlers and miners to the West and transported raw materials back East

148 The Oil Industry

149 Petroleum became an important natural resource It was refined into kerosene Kerosene was used in lanterns and stoves The US oil industry was built on processing oil into kerosene The oil industry began in western Pennsylvania

150 Edwin Drake

151 1859, Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well near Titusville, Pa. By 1900 there were oil wells from Pennsylvania to Texas Oil production increased and fueled economic expansion

152 Large Workforce

153 The abundance of human resources enable rapid industrial growth 1860-1910, the population of the US almost tripled Growth of population = large workforce for industry and demand for consumer goods that the factories produced Population growth due to: large families and immigration

154 Industrial growth in the US occurred when social and economic conditions in China and Eastern Europe were bad People left to come to the US 1870-1910, 20 million immigrants Added to the growing workforce, factories increased production and the demand for industrial products grew

155 Free Enterprise/Laissez-faire The free enterprise system allowed for industrial growth Government had a laissez-faire attitude towards business (hands off) No government interference in the economy, just protect private property rights and maintain peace Government interference in the economy would increase costs and hurt society more than it helped

156 Under laissez-faire supply and demand regulated prices and wages not the government Free markets with competition increased efficiency = more wealth for all Low taxes, individuals decided how the wealth of the nation was spent not the government Limited government debt, left more money for individuals to borrow for their own use Private capital from Europe, especially Great Britain was invested in the United States

157 The Government Role The United States government practiced laissez- faire economic policy in the late 1800s State and federal governments kept taxes and spending low Had very few cost adding regulations Northern leaders wanted a high tariff to protect American industry The federal government subsidized companies for building roads, canals, and railroads to the West

158 Southern leaders opposed the subsidies for internal improvements They wanted lower tariffs to promote trade and keep the cost of imports down The Civil War ended the tariff debate, the South seceded, the Republicans in control of Congress passed the Morrill Tariff; which increased tariffs, by the end of the Civil War tariffs had almost tripled

159 Congress gave Western land tracts, $65 million in loans to Western railroads Sold public lands with mineral resources for less than market value Laissez-faire did not agree with tariffs and subsidies which protected inefficient producers Industrial growth so great in the 1800s in America because it was one of the largest free trade areas in the world

160 Europe; many nations each with its own tariff Constitution forbids states from imposing tariffs Very few regulations to slow the movement of goods across the nation Free trade in labor, few restrictions on immigration US increased tariffs, other nations raised tariffs on American products

161 This hurt US businesses selling in Europe Hurt farmers, problems farmers encountered may have fueled industrial growth as many left the farm to take factory jobs Many business leaders and members of Congress felt the tariffs were necessary Western Europe already industrialized, afraid US industry could not compete without a protective tariff

162 Invention and Innovation

163 Invention; a new product or process Innovation; an improvement of a product or process

164 Alexander Graham Bell

165 1874 Alexander Graham Bell was working on the use of electrical current of varying intensity to transmit sound 1876 successfully transmitted his voice The invention revolutionized business and personal communication 1877 organized Bell Telephone Company, later became AT&T

166 Thomas Alva Edison

167 Thomas Edison worked to invent new products and improve devices invented by others Edison had a research lab at Menlo Park, NJ The lab was staffed by skilled assistants 1877 invented first phonograph 1879 invented the light bulb and the electric generator

168 His lab invented or improved the battery, Dictaphone, and motion pictures 1882 Edison Electric Illuminating Company was founded to supply electric power to customers in New York City 1889 several Edison companies merged to form Edison General Electric Company, known as GE today

169 George Westinghouse Entrepreneur and inventor First invented the air brake for railroad cars Allowed for longer trains that carried heavier loads

170 Thaddeus Lowe after the Civil War Thaddeus Lowe invented the ice machine The basis of refrigerator in the early 1870s

171 Gustavus Swift

172 Guatavus Swift hired an engineer to develop a refrigerated railroad car 1877 Swift shipped meat by refrigerated rail car Food kept fresher longer and reduced the risk of food poisoning

173 Textile Industry

174 Mid 1800s the Northrop automatic loom allowed cloth to be manufactured at a faster rate Bobbins that had been changed by hand now were changed automatically without stopping the loom The clothing industry moved to standardized sizes Garment industry hired women workers- paid by the piece- often referred to as sweat shops

175 The Civil War and the Clothing Industry Measurements made of Union soldiers during the Civil War were used to manufacture ready- made clothes Power driven sewing machines and cloth cutters moved the clothing industry from small tailor shops to large factories

176 Isaac Singer

177 Isaac Singer, a inventor, actor, and entrepreneur The founder of Singer Sewing Machine Company Singer made improvements to existing sewing machines Singer sewing machines were popular due to ease of use, the adaptability to home use and purchase on installment plans

178 Shoemaking

179 New inventions and processes increased shoe production Large factories mass produced shoes less expensively and more efficiently than local cobblers, able to pass savings along to the consumer By the 1900s local shoe cobblers all but disappeared

180 Mass Production The production of large amounts of standardized products The production process usually takes place in a factory setting and involves the use of machines

181 The Impact of Technology Ice machine and refrigerated rail car allowed for food to remain fresh for longer periods of time, decreased cases of food poisoning oil production heated and lighted buildings Bell’s telephone improved communications Automatic looms, bobbin changers, and cloth cutters led to the development of the clothing industry, price of clothes decreased

182 Shoe factories mass produced inexpensive shoes Edison brought electric lighting to factories, businesses, and homes Singer’s sewing machine made clothes production easier in the factory and in the home Technology of the late 1800s provided jobs, brought down prices, and improved life for many Americans

183 Railroad Growth Early 1800s railroads built lines to serve certain cities or local needs By 1865 hundreds of unconnected railroad lines The challenge was to create a single rail network

184 Railroad Consolidation

185 Railroad consolidation took place 1865-1900 Larger lines took over 400 smaller lines 1890 Pennsylvania Railroad was a consolidation of 73 smaller lines 7 major lines with terminals in major cities and branches in the countryside controlled most of the rail traffic Cornelius Vanderbilt, most successful consolidator, former boat captain, had a large steamboat fleet

186 1869, Vanderbilt merged three short New York railroads to form the New York Central Ran from New York City to Chicago Vanderbilt extended control over lines to Chicago Offered first direct rail service, New York to Chicago 1871, began construction of Grand Central Station in New York City

187 The Benefits of an Integrated Rail System An integrated rail system benefited the nation Rail cars could be shifted from one section of the nation to another depending on seasonal needs The new rail system and powerful locomotives made rail operations efficient The average rate per mile dropped from 2 cents in 1860 to ¾ of a cent in 1900 The nationwide rail network united Americans in different regions

188 Land Grant System The construction and operation of railroads across the unsettled West required more money than individual investors could raise on their own The federal government gave land grants to railroad companies to encourage construction The railroads sold land to settlers, real estate companies, and businesses to raise money for construction

189 After the Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 the government gave land directly to the railroad companies 1850s and 1860s the federal land grants totaled 120 million acres The Central Pacific and Union Pacific generated enough money from the government land grants to cover most of the cost of building their lines

190 Robber Barons/Captains of Industry

191 Robber Baron was a derogatory term applied to American capitalists of the latter part of the 19 th century who became wealthy through exploitation. Railroad entrepreneurs of the late 1800s were accused of gaining fortunes by cheating investors, taxpayers, bribing government officials, and fulfilling contracts and debts Among those considered Robber Barons were Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, J.P. Morgan, and Jay Gould Capitalists who looted and exploited an industry and gave nothing back Some considered the group Captains of Industry who helped led the way to an industrialized America by taking risks and creating corporations

192 Jay Gould

193 Jay Gould had one of the worst reputations as a railroad Robber Baron He practiced insider trading, used information as a railroad owner to manipulate stock prices for his own benefit Bribery was commonplace State and federal governments were deeply involved in funding railroads

194 Investors found they could make more money getting government land grants than operating railroads Many investors bribed members of Congress and state legislatures to vote approval of additional land grants

195 The Credit Mobilier Scandal

196 Railroad corruption was made pubic with the Credit Mobilier Scandal Credit Mobilier was a construction company set up by the stockholders of the Union Pacific, including Congressman Oakes Ames Acting for both Credit Mobilier and the Union Pacific the stockholders signed contracts with themselves

197 Credit Mobilier overcharged the Union Pacific The investors controlled both companies and the Union Pacific paid inflated bills When the Union Pacific was completed the investors made millions but the Union Pacific was almost bankrupt To encourage Congress to give railroads more grants Oakes Ames gave members of Congress shares of Union Pacific stock priced below market value

198 During the election of 1872 an Ames associate sent a letter to the New York Sun listing members of Congress who had accepted Union Pacific stock The scandal led to an investigation, several members of Congress were implicated, including Speaker of the House James G. Blaine, James Garfield, and Vice President Schuyler Colfax The Credit Mobilier Scandal presented the impression that all railroad entrepreneurs were robber barons

199 The Great Northern James J. Hill was an honest railroad owner Built the Great Northern from St. Paul, Minnesota to Everett, Washington Hill built the railroad over a carefully chosen route, passed by towns in the region, received no government subsidy or land grants To generate business Hill offered low fares to settlers and homesteaders

200 The freight hauled by the Great Northern included American goods in demand in China; cotton, textiles, and flour The railroad earned revenues by hauling goods East and West The Great Northern was the most successful transcontinental railroad; the only one not eventually forced into bankruptcy

201 Big Business

202 Video Clip Business organizations before the Civil War tended to be a few people of wealth operating in a partnership; including the early factories Most of the factories were small 1900, big business dominated the economy A vast organization of factories, warehouses, offices, and distribution centers

203 The Rise of the Corporation

204 Big business would not have been possible without the corporation A corporation = a business owned by many people; recognized by the law as an individual Corporations could own property, pay taxes, make contracts, sue and be sued The owners = stockholders Stock is a share of ownership

205 Economies of Scale Corporations generate large amounts of capital by selling stock Corporations spread financial risk, limited liability Prior to the 1830s very few corporations Entrepreneurs had to convince state legislatures to issue to a charter 1830s states passed general incorporation laws, corporations could issue/sell stock without a charter

206 The capital generated from the sale of stock was used to finance new technologies, hire a large workforce, and purchase machines This allowed for an increase in efficiency Factories were able to achieve economies of scale Made goods cheaply by producing a large quantity of goods quickly This required large manufacturing facilities

207 Business Costs Businesses have two types of costs Fixed cost; cost a business has to pay whether it is operating or not, loans or taxes Operating/variable cost; cost that occurs when operating a business, wages, shipping charges, and purchasing of raw materials Small factories before the Civil War had low fixed costs but high operating costs

208 If sales dropped it was better to shut down and wait for an improvement in economic conditions Big factories had high fixed costs; it took large sums of money to build and maintain the factory, but had low operating costs in comparison to fixed costs Wages and transportation costs were a small part of the corporation’s total costs

209 Big business would continue to operate during a recession Corporations produced goods more efficiently and at a lower cost Prices were cut during a slow economy to increase sales instead of closing down Large corporations got rebates from railroads; lower transportation costs which lowered total costs

210 Small business could not compete and were forced from the market place Many people became critical of Big Business for cutting prices and receiving rebates Corporations often acted unethically by using wealth to drive out small competitors The change in business organization and the importance of fixed costs forced may small businesses to permanently close

211 The Consolidation of Industry

212 Many business did not like the intense competition of the market Competition kept consumer prices low, and also kept profits low In the 1870s competition reduced many industries to a few large efficient corporations Larger companies take over smaller companies or force them from the market

213 Pooling To push prices up and reduce competition businesses began to form pools A group of businesses who produced the same product agreed to keep prices at a target level This was price fixing Citizens and the courts were unsure of pools They interfered with competition and property rights

214 The businesses that formed the pools had no legal protection and they could not enforce their agreements in court Pools were short lived They disbanded when one member cut prices to take market share from the other members This resulted in a resumption of competition

215 Monopoly

216 Control of market supply: a situation in which one company controls an industry or is the only provider of a product or service Not subject to competition, could charge whatever price they wanted Some felt monopolies kept prices low, if price was too high competitors would enter the market

217 Andrew Carnegie

218 Immigrant from Scotland Age 12 worked as a bobbin boy in a textile mill, earned $1.20 a week Age 14 messenger boy at a telegraph office Later served as the private secretary to Thomas Scott, superintendent and later president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Scott promoted Carnegie to superintendent

219 Carnegie realized money could be made investing in industries that serviced the railroad industry He purchased shares of iron mills and factories that produced sleeping cars and locomotives Invested in a construction company that built railroad bridges By his early 30s Carnegie was earning $50,000 a year

220 Quit his railroad job to focus on his business affairs Business trip to Europe, Carnegie met Sir Henry Bessemer Bessemer invented a new process to make high quality steel cheaply and efficiently Carnegie opened a steel mill in Pittsburgh in 1875 using the Bessemer process

221 Carnegie and Vertical Integration

222 To increase efficiency Carnegie vertically integrated his steel manufacturing business Owned all of the different businesses needed to produce steel Bought coal mines, limestone quarries, iron ore fields Carnegie was able to cut costs and enabled his business to grow Carnegie was also a proponent of horizontal integration Carnegie generated enormous profit from his Homestead Steel facility

223 Rockefeller/Standard Oil/ Horizontal Integration

224 Combine firms engaged in the same business activity into one large corporation This was occurring due to competition A company lost market strength and would sell out to competitors 1880 John Rockefeller’s Standard Oil controlled 90% of the oil refineries in the US Some businesses had a domestic monopoly but competed on the world market

225 Standard Oil was close to a monopoly in the US but was in competition with oil companies throughout the world, kept prices low

226 Public/Government Reaction to Monopolies Many citizens feared monopolies that could set prices Others believed monopolies would keep prices low to stop competition Late 1800s to stop horizontal integration and the rise of monopolies many states made it illegal for one company to own stock in another company without permission by the state legislature

227 Investment Banking

228 The size of corporations increased in the mid 1890s due to investment companies helping to put holding companies together The most successful investment banker was J. P. Morgan Started out as an agent in his father’s banking company in New York Morgan and other investment bankers specialized in helping companies issue stock

229 Companies would sell large blocks of stock to the investment bankers at a discount The bankers would then find people willing to buy the stock and sell to them at a profit Mid 1890s, investment banks were interested in selling the stock of holding companies that merged many of America’s large corporations

230 1901. Morgan bought out Andrew Carnegie steel business, made Carnegie the richest man in the world at the time Morgan then merged Carnegie Steel with other large steel companies into US Steel a large holding company worth $1.4 billion US Steel the first billion dollar company in America

231 Selling the Product

232 The new products had to be sold Retailers looked for new ways to market Large display ads in newspapers

233 N. W. Ayer and Son

234 The existence of large manufacturing companies forced retailers, businesses that sell directly to the consumer to expand in size also The great number of products forced retailers to find new ways to attract consumers N. W. Ayer and Son, the first advertising company began creating large illustrated ads instead of small print ads By 1900 retailers were spending over $90 million a year on advertising in newspapers and magazines

235 Wanamaker’s

236 Advertising attracted consumers to the newest retail business the department store 1877 John Wanamaker’s in Philadelphia Billed as the Grand Depot, the “largest space in the world devoted to retail selling on a single floor” Hundreds of department stores opened Made shopping glamorous and exciting

237 Chain Stores

238 Chain store; a group of stores owned by the same company Offered products with low prices Woolworth Stores opened in 1879 One of the most successful retail chains in American history

239 Mail Order Catalogs

240 Mail-order catalogs were used to reach the millions of consumers in rural areas The two largest mail-order catalog companies were Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck Used the mail to send catalogs with illustrations and simple descriptions of thousands of products for sale

241 Factory Work

242 Machines replaced skilled workers Factory work was: – Boring; perform repetitive tasks – Little pride in work – Work conditions; unhealthy and dangerous – Dusty – Toxic fumes – Machinery without safety features

243 High number of injuries Standard of living did increase due to industrialization A small number of entrepreneurs became rich The real wages of the worker increased 50% between 1860-1900 An unequal distribution of wealth existed 1900 average hourly wage of an industrial worker was 22 cents Work week on average 59 hours

244 Deflation

245 1865-1897 the economy experienced deflation An increase in the value of money which caused prices to fall Increased the buying power of worker’s wages Companies cut wages, prices fell faster Workers felt management wanted to pay less for the same work, this angered the workers The only way to improve work conditions was to organize unions

246 Early Unions

247 There were two basic types of industrial workers in the 1800s Craft workers and common workers Craft workers had special skills ;machinists, iron molders, stonecutters, glassblowers, shoemakers, and printers Craft workers usually received higher wages and more control over how they organized their time on the work floor

248 Common workers; few skills = lower wages 1830s industrialism spread Craft workers began to form trade unions By 1873, 32 national trade unions in US Largest and most successful; the Iron Molders’ International Union, the International Typographical Union, and the Knights of St. Crispin (shoemakers’ union)

249 Industry and Unions

250 Management was forced to recognize and negotiate with trade unions The trade union represented workers with skills that were needed Management saw unions as conspiracies that interfered with property rights Owners of the large corporations were opposed to industrial unions (united all workers in a particular industry)

251 Management used many techniques to stop unions from forming – Yellow dog contracts, workers had to take an oath not to join the union in order to get a job – Hired detectives to go undercover and identify union organizers – Union organizers were fired and blacklisted (no company would hire them) – Used the lockout to break the union – If the union called a strike management would hire strikebreakers = scabs

252 Karl Marx/Marxism

253 Late 1800s Karl Marx and his principle of Marxism gained popularity in Europe Workers would revolt and seize control of the factories and overthrow the government The revolution government would take all private property and create a socialist society Wealth would be equally distributed Some Marxists supported anarchism

254 Anarchism; society does not need a government A few acts of violence would ignite the revolution to overthrow the government Late 1800s anarchists assassinated government officials, set off bombs across Europe to trigger the revolution Marxist ideas spread to the US, nativism already strong

255 The public tied immigrant workers to anarchism, made the public suspicious of unions These fears and the duty of the government to keep the peace led officials to use the police and the courts to crush strikes and break up unions

256 The Struggle to Organize The attempts to organize large industrial unions rarely succeeded Confrontations with the owners and the government often led to violence and bloodshed

257 The Great Strike of 1877 The Panic of 1873 forced companies to cut wages July, 1877 the recession continued, the railroads announced another round of wage cuts This resulted in the first nationwide labor protest Railroad workers in Martinsburg, West Virginia walked off the job

258 Rail workers across the nation walked off the job Involved 80,000 workers in 11 states The strikers smashed equipment, tore up tracks, blocked rail service in New York, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, and Chicago The governors of the states called out the militias to stop the violence

259 Gun battles took place between the militia and the striking workers President Hayes sent in the Army to open the railroad between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh Sent troops to Chicago At the end of the strike 100 people dead, millions of dollars of property destroyed

260 The Knights of Labor The failure of the Great Strike convinced labor organizers that workers needed to be better organized Late 1870s the Knights of Labor had become a national industrial union The Knights of Labor wanted: – 8 hour workday – A government bureau of labor statistics – Equal pay for women – Ban on child labor – The creation of worker owned factories

261 The Knights of Labor at first opposed the use of strikes Preferred to use boycotts to pressure employers Wanted arbitration Early 1880s the Knights of Labor began to use strikes

262 Early Successes of the Knights of Labor The Knights of Labor had some early successes The striking Knights convinced Jay Gould’s railroad to reverse wage cuts 1885 the membership of the Knights of Labor went from 100,000 to 700,000 In the spring of 1886 the Haymarket Riot hurt the reputation of the Knights of Labor and membership began to decline

263 Urbanization The growth of cities Immigration because….. – US abundance of jobs – Came to avoid military service in home country – Many including Jews came to escape religious persecution – Restrictive laws on immigrants were dropped Could now take savings with them Peasants could leave villages Skilled workers could leave the country Chance to break the class structure of Europe, US a democratic nation, social mobility

264 Atlantic Voyage

265 Immigrants came to the US by ship Most booked passage in steerage The cheapest accommodations on a steamship Crowded, no ventilation, food served from a communal pot Trip lasted on average 14 days

266 Ellis Island

267 Most immigrants from Europe arrived at Ellis Island in New York City Immigrants were processed Stood in long lines to be inspected by a doctor, any medical problems the immigrant was pulled aside If there was a major medical problem the immigrant would be separated from family and sent back to Europe

268 The Return of Nativism

269 The influx of new immigrants renewed nativist sentiment in the US During the 1840s and 50s nativists focused on Irish immigrants Late 1800s to early 1900s anti-immigration sentiment for Asians, Jews, and Eastern Europeans The nativists opposed immigration because

270 1. many of the immigrants form Eastern Europe were Catholic, too much power of the Catholic Church over government 2. labor unions were opposed to immigration, immigrants worked for low wages, worked as strike breakers, undermined American-born workers

271 Catholic Prejudice In the Northeast and the Midwest 2 groups emerged as anti-immigration organizations 1. American Protective Association, founded by Henry Bowers, hated Catholics and foreigners, committed to stop immigration, membership peaked at about 1 million, membership declined with the recession of 1893

272 2. in the Western US, anti-Chinese feelings were very strong, racial violence occurred, Dennis Kearney founded the Workingman’s Party of California in the 1870s, opposed Chinese immigration, the party won two seats in the California state legislature, made opposition to Chinese immigration a national issue

273 Migration to the Cities

274 During the 30 years after the Civil War urban populations grew from 10 million to over 30 million Immigrants lacked money to buy farms, forced to stay in cities, no education, took low paying jobs Rural Americans moved to the cities, urban areas more employment opportunities and better paying jobs

275 Cities offered bright lights, running water, indoor plumbing, museums, libraries, and theaters Great Migration, after the Civil War, African Americans began to move North in search of jobs and to escape discrimination and racism

276 The City Landscape

277 Millions moved to the cities Engineers and architects developed new technologies to house and transport the growing urban populations population up, demand for land increased as did the price Cities began to grow upward instead of outward

278 Tall steel framed buildings, skyscrapers The Home Insurance Building in Chicago, ten stories high, the first skyscraper New York City with limited land forced to build upward Louis Sullivan, skyscraper design, simple lines, spacious windows used plate glass

279 Tall steel framed buildings, skyscrapers The Home Insurance Building in Chicago, ten stories high, the first skyscraper New York City with limited land forced to build upward Louis Sullivan, skyscraper design, simple lines, spacious windows used plate glass

280 Frederick Olmstead

281 1837-1857, a clerk, sailor in the China trade, a farmer Moved to New York City in 1848 Became the superintendent of New York’s Central Park in 1857 Served as administrator and architect-in-chief of Central Park’s construction Designs for urban life, wanted to preserve areas of natural beauty for future public enjoyment

282 Served as first head of the commission in charge of preserving Yosemite Valley Led in establishing the Niagara Reservation 1872-1895 Olmstead’s firm carried out 550 projects, college campuses, the Capitol grounds and residential communities

283 Division by Class In the cities the wealthy, middle class, and the working class all lived in different areas of the city The boundaries between the neighborhoods was very evident

284 High Society

285 The wealthy lived in the middle of the city They build homes modeled after castles, manor houses, French Chateaus, Tuscan Villas, a Persian pavilion In New York City, Vanderbilt’s grandson commissioned the construction of a $3 million chateau

286 The Middle Class

287 Industrialization made great wealth for some Created a growing middle class Doctors, lawyers, social workers, architects, and teachers The middle class moved away from the central part of the city Took advantage of the commuter rail lines, moved to “streetcar suburbs” Middle class salaries roughly twice that of the factory worker

288 The Working Class

289 In New York 75% of the residents lived in dumbbell tenements

290 Family Economy Some of the working poor were better off than others Native-born white men earned higher wages than African American men, immigrants, and women Roughly 64% of the working poor needed at least two incomes in 1900 In some cases entire families worked, including children

291 Dangerous work conditions for children and that they were not in school came to the attention of reformers More and more women were forced to work outside the home Native-born white women on average more education than other women Used education to obtain jobs as teachers or clerical workers

292 Most women worked as domestics Immigrant women worked as domestic servants in the North African American women worked as domestic servants in the South Domestic work involved long hours, low wages, and social isolation People no longer physically able to work, forced to rely on family members or charity

293 When a worker was hurt or killed on the job there was usually no compensation Most older Americans lived with family members Almost 70% of those 65 or older lived with grown children A growing number lived independently or in homes for the aged

294 Crime and Pollution

295 Crime Violence Fire Disease Pollution Hard on the working poor Rapid growth of cities made the problems worse

296 Machine Politics Political machine; informal political organization whose goal is to obtain and keep power A growing city with a government unable to meet needs allowed the political machines to take root City residents needed jobs, housing, food, heat, and police protection

297 In exchange for votes the political machine and party bosses provided necessities Provided housing, clothing, till people could get back on their feet after a fire George Plunkitt, Irish immigrant one of the most powerful political bosses in New York City How many votes does a fire bring? The poor are the most grateful people in the world, with more friends in their neighborhoods than the rich Urban immigrants had great voting power, voted in large numbers for political bosses

298 Graft and Fraud The political bosses ran the machine and the city’s finances Machine politicians enriched themselves through graft and fraud Plunkitt called it honest graft-might find out in advance where a new park would be built and buy the land near the site-sell the land to the city for a profit

299 Fraud did occur, bosses took bribes from contractors who were supposed to win the contract through the bid process Corrupt bosses sold permits to friends to run public utilities, railroads, waterworks, and power systems

300 Tammany Hall Democratic political machine, for which Plunkitt worked- most famous machine Led by William Marcy Tweed, “Boss” Tweed from 1860s- 1870s Arrested for corruption and sent to prison in 1874 Political cartoonist Thomas Nast blasted the bosses for their corruption The city machines ran public services, voter election fraud was rampant, people were paid to vote and vote repeatedly In spite of the corruption, political machines provided needed services, helped immigrants assimilate into American city life

301 Gilded Age

302 1870-1900 known as the Gilded Age New inventions, rapid industrial growth, cities grew, masses of workers on the street, skyscrapers, electric lights, new rich entrepreneurs built fancy mansions Mark Twain and Charles Warner coined the phrase Gilded Age- on the outside America looked golden but underneath lay corruption, poverty, crime and unequal distribution of wealth

303 Whether the era was golden or gilded, it was a time of cultural activity, industrialization, and urbanization which changed how Americans saw themselves and society New values, new art, and new forms of entertainment

304 Individualism The strongest idea of the time and to some degree today was individualism, now matter where a person starts they could rise in society, go as far as their talents and commitment would take them Horatio Alger- minister from Massachusetts, left the Church, moved to New York City Wrote over 100 “rags to riches” novels

305 A poor person goes to the city and becomes successful The novels were very popular among the young, inspired them, no matter the barriers success was possible

306 Social Darwinism

307 Powerful Gilded Age philosophy which reinforced individualism English philosopher Herbert Spencer applied Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and natural selection to human society 1859, Darwin’s On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection argued that plant and animal life evolved over the years by natural selection

308 Species that can not adapt die out Those that do adapt thrive Spencer took the biological theory and applied it to the evolution of human society Competition and natural selection As society progressed it became better because only the fittest people survived

309 Spencer and others became known as Social Darwinists Social Darwinism= survival of the fittest Social Darwinism paralleled laissez-faire, no government programs to interfere with business Industrialists embraced Social Darwinism, John D. Rockefeller, growth of Standard Oil was due to “the working of the law of nature and the law of God”

310 Carnegie and the Gospel of Wealth

311 Carnegie believed in Social Darwinism and laissez-faire Also believed that those who profited from society, owed society something in return Carnegie softened Social Darwinism with the Gospel of Wealth The wealthy must engage in philanthropy Use great wealth to further social progress

312 Carnegie donated $60 million as the “trustee and agent for his poorer brethren” Other industrialists contributed to social causes

313 Popular Culture A change in popular culture in the late 1800s Industrialization led to an increase in the standard of living for many Money to spend on entertainment and recreation City residents divided their lives into separate units, work and home People looked for things to do outside of the home, began to go out for public entertainment

314 The Saloon Saloons outnumbered groceries and meat markets Saloons were community centers, played a major role in the life of male workers Political centers, saloonkeepers had a key role in political machines Offered free toilets Water for horses

315 Free newspapers Offered first free meal, salty to encourage patrons to drink more Saloons had loyal customers First workers from the night shift arrived around 5:00 AM and the last shift stayed until late at night

316 Amusement Parks and Sports

317 Saloons were for men, working class families and single adults went to amusement parks, Coney Island in New York Water slides and railroad rides cost a nickel or a dime Viewing professional boxing matches became popular Baseball gained popularity in the late 1800s

318 Baseball in its present form started in the early 1800s Grew in popularity, became a source of profit First paid team, Cincinnati Red Stockings, formed 1869, other cities began to field professional teams 1903 first modern World Series, Boston Red Sox vs. the Pittsburgh Pirates

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