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2010 INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE JUNE 23-25, 2010 – UCM MADRID Special Roundtable Discussion Panel Organizer: Ronnie Wilbur Moderator: Ronnie Wilbur.

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Presentation on theme: "2010 INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE JUNE 23-25, 2010 – UCM MADRID Special Roundtable Discussion Panel Organizer: Ronnie Wilbur Moderator: Ronnie Wilbur."— Presentation transcript:

1 2010 INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE JUNE 23-25, 2010 – UCM MADRID Special Roundtable Discussion Panel Organizer: Ronnie Wilbur Moderator: Ronnie Wilbur

2 2 ROUNDTABLE An introduction to novel ways of analyzing verbs of motion applied to Spanish and Sign Language Motion verbs in Spanish. Some typological differences. Violeta Demonte & Isabel Pérez-Jiménez Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales - CSIC With the colaboration of Juan Romeu

3 3 Outline 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. 1.1.Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed languages [SFL]. 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route. 2.2.Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. 3.The role of prepositions. 4.Some very preliminary conclusions.

4 4 1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. Motion refers to the fact that some entity changes its location. The Figure is the entity whose location is at issue. The Ground is the reference landmark for the location of the Figure. The Path is the course followed by the Figure with respect to the Ground. Manner describes the way in which the Figure moves. Semantic components of a basic motion event (Talmy 1985).

5 5 1. Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. (1) The pencil rolled off the table [Talmy 1985: 6, (4)] Figure Ground Path Manner

6 6 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. (2) Floyd went from Rochester via Batavia to Buffalo [Bohnemeyer et al. 2007: 503, (9)] Path Functions: Source, Goal and Route (Jackendoff 1983) Source Goal Route Rochester Batavia Buffalo

7 7 Outline 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. 1.1.Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite- framed languages [SFL]. 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route. 2.2.Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. 3.The role of prepositions. 4.Some very preliminary conclusions.

8 8 1.1. Verb-framed languages vs. Satellite-framed languages Verb-framed languages [VFL] (Spanish and most Romance languages, Japanese, Turkish, Tamil, Semitic languages, Polynesian, Bantu, Nez Perce, Caddo, Korean, etc.) Verb roots can express both Motion and Path at the same time. (3) uscire EX IRE ex out: Pathire go: Motion

9 9 1.1. Verb-framed languages vs. Satellite-framed languages Manner is expressed by an external syntactic element. (4) a. La botella salió de la cueva flotando. The bottle went-out from the cave floating a. The bottle floated out of the cave. b. *La botella flotó de la cueva The bottle floated from the cave Spanish is a double-marking verb-framed language (Bohnemeyer et al. 2007) Path functions (sources, goals and routes) lexicalized in the verb: salió expressed outside the verb, in complement PPs: de la cueva Motion + PathManner

10 10 1.1. Verb-framed languages vs. Satellite-framed languages Satellite-framed languages [SFL] (Indoeuropean languages, except for Romance languages and Russian, and Chinese, Finno-Ugric, Ojibwa, Warlpiri, etc.) Verb roots can express both Motion and Manner at the same time. Path is expressed in a satellite (5) The bottle floated out of the cave (6) *La botella flotó fuera de la cueva Motion + MannerPath

11 11 Outline 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. 1.1.Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed languages [SFL]. 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route. 2.2.Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. 3.The role of prepositions. 4.Some very preliminary conclusions.

12 12 SFL have a number of satellite particles that combine with verbs that have a basic meaning of direction to express different types of path movements. (7) go down, go up, get out, get off, get in baja,sube, sal, baja, entra 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 1

13 13 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. SFL have a whole series of verbs that express motion occurring in various manners. (Talmy 1985: 62) (8)John 1. stumbled/ 2. tiptoed/ 3. shrank/ 4. staggered/ 5. hurried into / out of the room 1. John {entró/ salió} de la habitación desmayándose (*se desmayó a la habitación). 2. John {entró/ salió} de la habitación de puntillas (*puntilleó a la habitación). 2

14 14 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. Verb-framed languages lack resultative constructions. (9)a. Mary wiped the table clean. Mary frotó la mesa limpia b. John wiped the crumbs off the table. John frotó las migas fuera (de) la mesa c. Sue danced the night away. Sue bailó la noche fuera 3

15 15 Outline 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. 1.1.Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed languages [SFL]. 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route. 2.2.Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. 3.The role of prepositions. 4.Some very preliminary conclusions.

16 16 2.A classification of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. Directed motion verbs: (10) [ V Motion GO + Goal/ Source/ Route] (11) a. Goal of the Path: llegar (arrive), entrar (go-in), irrumpir (burst), penetrar (enter), venir (come), caer (fall), subir (go-up), bajar (go-down), descender (go-down), volver (go-back), dirigirse (go), desplazarse (move), acercarse (approach), aproximarse (approach) b. Source of the Path: salir (go out), partir (leave), volver (go- back), venir (come), regresar (return), retroceder (go-back), bajar (go-down), alejarse (go-away), distanciarse (move-away) (12)Route of the Path: atravesar (cross), bordear (go-around), cruzar (cross), pasar (pass-by)

17 17 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal (11) a. llegar [ V Motion GO + Goal] Juan llegó al aeropuerto. Juan arrived to-the airport Juan arrived at the airport b. partir [ V Motion GO + Source] El tren partió de la estación. The train left from the station The train left the station (13)a. Goal: a (to), hasta (until). b. Source: de, desde (from).

18 18 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal Properties of these verbs: Syntactic Properties: Unaccusative (14) a. El tren llegó a la estación. The train arrived to the station a. Llegado el tren a la estación, … Arrived the train to the station b. Juan sonrió. Juan smiled b. *Sonreído Juan, … Smiled Juan Participial construction *Participial construction 1

19 19 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal Aspectual Properties: Telic (15) a. *Llegó a la ciudad durante una hora. Arrived-3s to the city for an hour b. Llegó a la ciudad en una hora. Arrived-3s to the city in an hour Except for iterative reading / duration of a resultative state: (16) Luisa subió a la terraza durante una hora. Luisa went-up to the terrace for an hour 2

20 20 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal Combination with Spanish prepositions. (17) Telic: a (to), hasta (until), de (from), desde (from). (18) Atelic: hacia (towards), para (towards), por (through), vía (via), a lo largo de (along), alrededor de (around), a través de (across), por encima de (over), por debajo de (under). (19)a. *Llegó hacia la terraza (Arrived-3S towards the terrace) b. *Volvió a lo largo de Madrid (Came-back-3S along Madrid) (20)Subieron hacia la cima (Went-up3P towards the top) (21) Gradual accomplishments: subir, bajar, descender, acercarse, alejarse go-up, go-down, go-down, go-near (approach), go-away 3

21 21 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route-Path Directed Motion verbs that lexicalize the Route-Path in the verbal base: (22)cruzar, recorrer, atravesar, etc. (cross, go across) [V Motion GO + Route] (23) El forastero atravesó la ciudad. The outsider crossed the city

22 22 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route-Path (23) El forastero atravesó la ciudad. The outsider crossed the city Incremental theme: Its internal structure is homomorphically related to the structure of the event. It defines a Route that is coextensive with the Path. City Event

23 23 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route-Path Incremental themes vs. Route PPs headed by por (vía) (24) a. El forastero atravesó la ciudad por la calle principal. The outsider crossed the city through the main street b. Juan fue de Madrid a Barcelona por/vía Valencia. Juan went from Madrid to Barcelona through/via Valencia c. El niño fue a su casa por la calle principal y por una calle estrecha. The kid went to his house through the main street and through a narrow street d. El niño fue a su casa por la calle principal por la acera. The kid went to his house through the main street on the sidewalk

24 24 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. Summary a. llegar [ V Motion GO +Goal] b. partir [ V Motion GO +Source] c. atravesar [ V Motion GO +Route-Path] Juan llegó al aeropuerto. Juan arrived to-the airport Juan arrived at the airport El tren partió de la estación. The train left from the station The train left the station El forastero atravesó la ciudad. The outsider crossed the city

25 25 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. Summary The syntactic representation of Direct motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal.

26 26 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. Summary The syntactic representation of Direct motion verbs that lexicalize Route-Path.

27 27 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. Summary Source/Goal vs. Route-Path in Japanese (25)John-waeki-nimodotta [Beavers 2008, (1)] John-TOPstation-towent John went up to the station (26)Jun-wa kawa-o watatta [Muehleisen e Imai 1997, (5)] Jun-TOP the river crossed Jun crossed the river

28 28 Outline 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. 1.1.Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed languages [SFL]. 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route. 2.2.Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. 3.The role of prepositions. 4.Some very preliminary conclusions.

29 29 2. A classification of motion verbs. 2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. Manner of motion verbs: (27) [ V Motion + Manner] (28) Temblar class: Temblar (tremble), tiritar (shiver), etc. (29) Flotar class: Flotar (float), bailar (dance), tambalearse (wobble), retorcerse (squirm), resbalar (slide/slip), etc. (30) Volar class: Volar (fly), nadar (swim), caminar (walk), correr (run), etc.

30 30 2. A classification of motion verbs. 2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. The temblar class: They describe a motion without change of location that originates due to internal properties of the subject (Morimoto 2001) This motion activity cannot be associated with a Path: (31) a. *{Tembló / Tiritó} {a / hasta} la puerta Trembled-3S / Shivered-3S to/until the door b. *Tembló {hacia/por} la habitación Trembled-3S towards/through the room Atelic verbs: (32) Juan {tembló/tiritó} {durante cinco minutos/*en cinco minutos} John trembled/shivered for five minutes / in five minutes 1

31 31 2. A classification of motion verbs. 2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. The flotar class: they describe a motion activity that can be associated with an external point of reference These verbs can be combined with a PP headed by hacia denoting the orientation or point of reference towards which the Figure is moving. (33) Los cuerpos flotaron hacia la costa. The bodies floated towards the coast These verbs cannot combine with PPs denoting a telic goal introduced by a: (34)Los cuerpos flotaron {*a/hasta} la costa. The bodies floated to/until the coast 2

32 32 2. A classification of motion verbs. 2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. The volar class: they describe an agentive process of motion These verbs can be combined with a non-goal PP headed by hacia: (35)Volar, caminar, nadar, correr {hacia la orilla} Fly, walk, swim, run {towards the shore} These verbs can become accomplishment (telic) predicates if a goal PP headed by a is added (they can also be combined with directional PPs introduced by hasta): (36)a. Luisa voló a/hasta Barcelona. Luisa flew to/until Barcelona b. Juan nadó a/hasta la orilla. Juan swam to until the shore 3

33 33 2. A classification of motion verbs. 2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. (36)Juan nadó a la orilla. Juan swam to the shore Parallel to English structures in (37)?: (37) John {floated/swam/walked} to the shore. Telic but unergative vs. parallel verbs in Italian: (38)a. Gianni a corso (per mezzora). Gianni has run (for half an hour) b. Gianni è corso a casa. Gianni is run to home Gianni has run home

34 34 2. A classification of motion verbs. 2.2. Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. The syntactic representation of Manner of motion verbs. English: Spanish:

35 35 Outline 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. 1.1.Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed languages [SFL]. 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route. 2.2.Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. 3.The role of prepositions. 4.Some very preliminary conclusions.

36 36 3. The role of prepositions. Preposition a (to) It marks the Goal of the Path. It combines with Directional Verbs with Path (Goal) as in (39a) and also with Manner of Motion verbs from the volar class (39b), not from others (39c): (39) a. Los chicos llegaron a la cima de la montaña. The kids arrived to the top of the mountain b. Juan voló a Barcelona. Juan flew to Barcelona c. *Los cuerpos flotaron a la costa. The bodies floated to the coast

37 37 3. The role of prepositions. Preposition hasta (until) It marks a specified limit of the Path. It combines with Directional Verbs with Path (Goal) as in (40a) and also with Manner of Motion verbs of the volar (40b) and flotar (40c) classes: (40) a. Los chicos llegaron hasta la cima de la montaña. The kids arrived until the top of the mountain b. Juan voló hasta Barcelona. Juan flew until Barcelona c. Los cuerpos flotaron hasta la costa. The bodies floated until the coast

38 38 3. The role of prepositions. Preposition hacia (towards) It marks the orientation of movement. It combines with Directional Verbs with Path (Goal) which are gradual accomplishments as in (41a) and also with Manner of Motion verbs of the volar (41b) and flotar (41c) classes: (41) a. Los chicos {*llegaron/subieron} hacia la cima de la montaña. The kids arrived/went-up towards the top of the mountain b. Juan voló hacia Barcelona. Juan flew towards Barcelona c. Los cuerpos flotaron hacia la costa. The bodies floated towards the coast

39 39 3. The role of prepositions. Prepositions por (through) and vía (via) Por marks one or more intermediate points of the Path (coextensive or non coextensive Route). Vía marks an intermediate point of the Path (non coextensive Route) They both combine with Directional verbs with Path (42a, b). Por also combines with Manner of Motion Verbs, volar and flotar classes, (42c). (42) a. Los chicos llegaron a Madrid {por/vía} Barcelona. The kids arrived to Madrid via Barcelona b. Los chicos llegaron a Madrid {por/*vía} la autopista The kids arrived to Madrid through/via the highway c. Los cuerpos volaron/flotaron {por/*vía} el aire. The bodies flew/floated through/via the sea

40 40 Outline 1.Motion verbs across languages. Typological differences. 1.1.Verb-framed languages [VFL] vs. Satellite-framed languages [SFL]. 1.2. Basic syntactic differences between VFL and SFL. 2. A classification of motion verbs: Directed motion verbs vs. Manner of motion verbs. 2.1.Directed motion verbs in Spanish. 2.1.1. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Source/Goal. 2.1.2. Directed motion verbs that lexicalize Route. 2.2.Manner of motion verbs in Spanish. 3.The role of prepositions. 4.Some very preliminary conclusions.

41 41 Selected references Beavers, John (2008): On the nature of goal marking and event delimitation: Evidence from Japanese. Journal of Linguistics 44, 283-316. Bohnemeyer, J., Enfield, N., Essegbey, J., Ibarretxe, I., Kita, S., Lüpke, F., and F. K. Ameka (2007). Principles of event encoding: The case of motion events, Language 83(3), 495-532. Jackendoff, Ray (1983): Semantics and Cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press. Jackendoff, Ray (1990): Semantic Structures. Cambridge: MIT Press. Mateu, Jaume / Gemma Rigau (2002): A Minimalist Account of Conflation Processes: Parametric Variation at the Lexicon-Syntax Interface. In: Artemis Alexiadou (ed.): Theoretical Approaches to Universals. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 211-236. Morimoto, Yuko (2001): Los verbos de movimiento. Madrid: Visor. Muehleisen, Victoria/ Mutsumi Imai (1997): Transitivity and ground in Japanese path verbs. In: M. Verspoor/ K. Lee/ E. Sweeter (eds.), Lexical and Syntactical Constructions and the Construction of Meaning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 329-361. Talmy, Leonard (1985): Lexicalization patterns: semantic structure in lexical forms. In: Timothy Shopen (ed.): Language Typology and Syntactic Description, Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 57-149. The research underlying this work has been mainly supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación through a grant to the Projects HUM2007-30541-C and FFI2009-07114 (subprograma FILO).


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