Presentation on theme: "Bell Work 31 May 2016 Copy what is in blue!. 31 May 2016 Bellwork: Imperialism : the seizure of a country of territory by a stronger country. – Industrialization."— Presentation transcript:
31 May 2016 Bellwork: Imperialism : the seizure of a country of territory by a stronger country. – Industrialization encouraged Europe to look for new territories to control and new markets to sell their goods. – Looked to Africa for both. – Colonial powers (Britain, France, Germany, Netherlands) seized many lands in Africa and Asia in the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. Factors Leading to Imperialism: – Belief in European superiority= Racism and Social Darwinism – Europe’s Technological Superiority – Advances in Transportation.
Bell Work cont… Factors: Africa: Made it easy to colonize Variety of Languages and cultures meant they were divided politically Wars of land, water and trade rights weakened them Europeans played rival groups off of each other Berlin Conference: 1884-1885 – Competition for African lands led to conflict among European powers. – European powers met to decide how to divide up Africa – Divided the continent among themselves but didn’t consult anyone in Africa – 1914: only Liberia and Ethiopia were free of European Control.
Forms of Control: – Colony= country or territory governed internally by a foreign power. – Protectorate= country or territory with own internal government but under the control of another country. – Sphere of influence= Outside Power claims exclusive investment/trading rights. – Economic Imperialism= undeveloped country controlled by private foreign business but not a foreign government Methods of Management: – Indirect Control: Local officials used, limited self-rule, Goal= develop future leaders, government based on European styles. – Direct Control: Paternalism: take care of colonial peoples (since they can’t take of themselves) but don’t give them any rights. Assimilation: local populations would adopt European culture (french) and become like Europe.
Legacy of Colonial Rule: forever changed Africa – Positives Reduced local warfare Improved Sanitation and health care in some areas Lifespan and literacy rates improved Railroads, dams, telephone/telegraph lines were introduced= but only benefited business – Negatives Africans lost control of their land and their independence Thousands died from resisting imperialism, from disease like small pox and from famine from focusing on cash crops. Lost traditional culture Division of the continent created artificial combinations and divisions= problems in Africa to this day.
Imperialism in the Muslim World: – Ottoman Empire had trouble keeping up with the pace of change in the modern world. – Nationalism fueled rebellions in the outskirts of their empire and they were losing territory to nationalist movements in Greece and Serbia. – Reforms of the military were met with resistance and sultans were overthrown by the military. – Europe was interested in Ottoman lands because of their strategic location to control both sea and land trade= England and Russia. – Crimean War: Russia needed a warm water port on the Black Sea. England tried to help the Ottomans to stop Russia but failed. – Reformer: Muhammad Ali: Reformer of Egypt. Began an agricultural movement: growing cotton. Grand son began the Suez Canal but Britain took it over when they couldn’t pay their debt.
Bell Work Cont. Tea Opium Connection: – China had resisted European influence for centuries. – Only allowed one southern port for European trade to China’s benefit. – Europe introduced opium to the people to open up markets to trade. – By 1835- 12 million were addicted. Taiping Rebellion- – internal problems in the 19 th century made China vulnerable. – Hong Xiuquon= peasant revolt where all would share China’s great wealth and live in peace. Sound familiar? – Amassed a peasant army of over 1 million – Took control of large parts of southern china but Taiping leaders fought amongst themselves.
Boxer Rebellion – Chinese empress reverses political reforms in favor of foreigners and traditional groups (Qing) – Others were angry at some Chinese for becoming Christian – Boxers= poor peasants and workers who resented foreigners – Kept the city of Beijing under siege for months – Multinational force came in and defeated the Boxers – Gave a sense of nationalism to China.
Japan ends its isolation – Had been isolated from the West since the 17 th century – Lived under a rigid feudal system – Refused trade with British, French, Russian an American interests – US Commodore Perry steamed into Tokoyo harbor with cannons and the shogun (leader of Japan) received him. Other nations followed. Meiji Reform and Modernization – Mutsuhito: young emperor who realized Japan needed to modernize. – Meiji= enlightened rule. Lasted 45 years. – Sent diplomats to the Europe and North America to study Western ways. Connection? – Adapted best practices to their country. Admired Germany – Followed a path of Western Industrialization Connection? – By early 1900s, Japan was as modern as any in the world. – Began to look for colonies and new territories.