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Presentation on theme: "LINGUISTIK FUNGSIONAL"— Presentation transcript:

Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A., Ph.D. Program Doktor Linguistik Sekolah Pascasarjana – USU

2 Pengertian Fungsional
Bahasa terstruktur berdasarkan fungsi apa yang dilakukan bahasa untuk manusia. Untuk tujuan apakah bahasa digunakan? Metafungsi bahasa Setiap unit bahasa fungsional terhadap unit yang lebih besar, yang di dalamnya unit itu berada.

3 Metafungsi Bahasa 1. Ideational Function (draw, describe)
Experiential function (represent) Logical function (relate) 2. Interpersonal Function (exchange) 3. Textual Function (organize) Tata Bahasa (Lexicogrammar): realization of the three metafunctions in linguistic unit: wording

4 Experiential Function
CLAUSE as a unit of experience Three elements representing experience in CLAUSE Process Participants Circumstance Process, Participant: Obligatory; Participant--implicit; Circumstance: Optional He bought a book yesterday.

5 Process Nucleus of experience: atomic or solar systems
Attract or bind the Participant(s) Valency avalent (rain, snow…) monovalent (walk, go, sleep…) bivalent (hit, see, meet…) trivalent (send, buy, tell…) quavalent (do, build, make…) He made me a box for pleasure. Circumstance is not governed by Process

6 Types of Process Tyes of Process Semantic criteria Syntactic Criteria
1. Material outside human being physical V+ING run, walk, write, do… 2. Mental inside human being not in V+Ing

7 Types of Process (cont)
2. Mental psychological one human participant reversible in participant -cognition affection perception That-clause (projection) -know, realize, remember.. -like, love, hate, enjoy… -see, feel, hear..

8 Types of Process (cont)
3. Relational Inside and outside -identification -attribution -possession N Λ BE Λ N N Λ BE Λ ADJ N Λ BE Λ ADV BE (is, are, was..) become, sound, look, play… 4. Behavioural Physiological smile, laugh, sleep, bow, die…

9 Types of Process (cont)
5. Verbal information human and non-human participant that-clause (projection) say, tell, ask, order, instruct … 6. Existential existence of entity There Λ BE … There is a car in the park. BE, come, go…

10 Labels of Participants
Process Participant I Participant II Material Mental Relational Identification Attribution Possession Actor Senser Token Carrier Possessor Goal Phenomenon Value Attribute Possessed

11 Labels of Participants (cont)
4. Behavioural 5. Verbal 6. Existential Behaver Sayer -- Verbiage Existent

12 Other Participant Functions
Participant III 1. Beneficiary Material : Recipient (to), Client (for) Verbal : Receiver Relational: Beneficiary Beneficiary: participant to whom/which or for whom/which the process + Participant II is addressed or said to take place He sent me a letter. (Beneficiary: Recipient) He bought me a book. (Beneficiary: Client) He told us a story. (Beneficiary: Receiver) Ben played Hamlet for the audience. (Beneficiary) 2. Range a. Range: the element (participant) that specifies the range or scope of the process. She sang a song (Range: Material) John smoked cigars (Range: Material) She smiled a nice smile (Range: Behavioural) She enjoyed the scenery (Range: Verbal) John Played the piano (Material)

13 Other Participant Functions (cont)
b. Range as another name for the process She had a bath (bathed) We do some work (work) I will take a look (look) She gave me a smile (smiled) We do a little dance (dance) Kami mengadakan pertemuan (bertemu) Mereka membuat perencanaan (berencana)

14 Circumstance Types Subcategory Probe Example 1. Extent temporal
spatial for how long? how far? For three hours every two weeks for six miles

15 Circumstance (cont) 2. Location temporal spatial when? where?
yesterday Last week here in the room 3. Manner 4. Cause -- how? why? quickly very much because of the rain for better result

16 Circumstance (cont) 5. Contingency in what circumstances?
in the event of rain in the absence of proof 6. Role what as? as a concerned parent as an acting manager

17 Circumstance (cont) 7. Matter 8. Accompaniment what about?
together with? about this about economics with(out) friends instead of the man 9. Angle says who? according to weather forecast

18 Analisis Adik memukul kucing kemarin.
Pelaku Proses: Material Gol Sirkumstan: Lokasi: Waktu Adik melihat kucing kemarin. Pengindera Proses: Mental Fenomenon Sirkumstan: Adik memanggil kucing buku saya anak si Ani istri saya anak si Ali mata saya anak Medan

19 How are meanings made? action reflection 1st/2nd person regulatory
interactional 3rd person instrumental personal form of consciousness domain of experience

20 Protolanguage I want I think you to play with me Let’s be together
(‘how the world should be’) I think (‘how the world is’) you to play with me Let’s be together the book to be there that’s nice inner (mental) outer (material) intersubjective ‘you and me’ objective ‘he, she, it’

21 Plane of Content and Expression Plane
The protolanguage microfunction or proto-microfunction is the plane of content or meaning plane. They are elastic like rubber and are potential for development. The proto-microfunction is coded by phonetic/kinetic interface such as v.h.p.s (very high-pitched squeak [do…do ]) Proto-microfunction Phonetic/kinetic representation

22 Semogenesis The protolinguistic redundancy evolves to metaredundancy of the adult language. The protolanguage: bi-stratal evolves to tri-stratal (potentially n-strata). Evolution of language or semohistory covers Phylogenetic (how meaning evolves in the system) Ontogenetic (how it develops in individuals) Logogenetic (how it unfolds in text)

23 Bi-and Tri-Stratal Phonology Semantics Lexicogrammar Content Plane
Expression Plane (phonetic/kinetic coding) Phonology Semantics Lexicogrammar

24 Metaredundancy s t u p q r l m n a b c

25 Metaredundancy (cont)
General semiotics: bi-stratal Language semiotics: tristratal — p q r redounds not with l m n but with the redundancy of l m n with a b c. (semantics-lexicogrammar-phonology) p q r (l m n a b c) s t u (p q r (l m n a b c))

26 Metaredundancy (cont)
(p q r l m n) a b c)) ((s t u p q r) l m n) a b c Genre (Register (Semantics (Lex.Grammar Phonology))) ((((Genre Register) Semantics)) Lex.Grammar))) Phonology))))

27 Realization and Instantiation
Realization: interstratal Instantiation: intrastratal Realization: Field Ideational Instantiation: Declarative I went to the library. Realization of meaning is not biunique rather one to many

28 Realization and Instantiation
Field (Science) Paratactic 1+2 Taxis Logical Function Hypotactic Expansion Elaboration = a X b Logicosemantic Relation Extension + Enhancement X Locution “ Projection Idea ‘

29 Realization and Instantiation (cont)
a X b The rails extend because they are heated by the sun beam. Iron, copper, zinc, water and other metals are called conductor because they pass on electric current.


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