Presentation on theme: "LINGUISTIK FUNGSIONAL"— Presentation transcript:
1 LINGUISTIK FUNGSIONAL Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A., Ph.D.Program Doktor LinguistikSekolah Pascasarjana – USU
2 Pengertian Fungsional Bahasa terstruktur berdasarkan fungsi apa yang dilakukan bahasa untuk manusia. Untuk tujuan apakah bahasa digunakan?Metafungsi bahasaSetiap unit bahasa fungsional terhadap unit yang lebih besar, yang di dalamnya unit itu berada.
3 Metafungsi Bahasa 1. Ideational Function (draw, describe) Experiential function (represent)Logical function (relate)2. Interpersonal Function (exchange)3. Textual Function (organize)Tata Bahasa (Lexicogrammar): realization of the three metafunctions in linguistic unit: wording
4 Experiential Function CLAUSE as a unit of experienceThree elements representing experience in CLAUSEProcessParticipantsCircumstanceProcess, Participant: Obligatory; Participant--implicit; Circumstance: OptionalHe bought a book yesterday.
5 Process Nucleus of experience: atomic or solar systems Attract or bind the Participant(s)Valencyavalent (rain, snow…)monovalent (walk, go, sleep…)bivalent (hit, see, meet…)trivalent (send, buy, tell…)quavalent (do, build, make…)He made me a box for pleasure.Circumstance is not governed by Process
6 Types of Process Tyes of Process Semantic criteria Syntactic Criteria 1. Materialoutside human beingphysicalV+INGrun, walk, write, do…2. Mentalinside human beingnot in V+Ing
7 Types of Process (cont) 2. Mentalpsychologicalone human participantreversible in participant-cognitionaffectionperceptionThat-clause (projection)-know, realize, remember..-like, love, hate, enjoy…-see, feel, hear..
8 Types of Process (cont) 3. RelationalInside and outside-identification-attribution-possessionN Λ BE Λ NN Λ BE Λ ADJN Λ BE Λ ADVBE (is, are, was..) become, sound, look, play…4. BehaviouralPhysiologicalsmile, laugh, sleep, bow, die…
9 Types of Process (cont) 5. Verbalinformationhuman and non-human participantthat-clause (projection)say, tell, ask, order, instruct …6. Existentialexistence of entityThere Λ BE …There is a car in the park.BE, come, go…
10 Labels of Participants ProcessParticipant IParticipant IIMaterialMentalRelationalIdentificationAttributionPossessionActorSenserTokenCarrierPossessorGoalPhenomenonValueAttributePossessed
11 Labels of Participants (cont) 4. Behavioural5. Verbal6. ExistentialBehaverSayer--VerbiageExistent
12 Other Participant Functions Participant III1. BeneficiaryMaterial : Recipient (to), Client (for)Verbal : ReceiverRelational: BeneficiaryBeneficiary: participant to whom/which or for whom/which the process + Participant II is addressed or said to take placeHe sent me a letter. (Beneficiary: Recipient)He bought me a book. (Beneficiary: Client)He told us a story. (Beneficiary: Receiver)Ben played Hamlet for the audience. (Beneficiary)2. Rangea. Range: the element (participant) that specifies the range or scope of the process.She sang a song (Range: Material)John smoked cigars (Range: Material)She smiled a nice smile (Range: Behavioural)She enjoyed the scenery (Range: Verbal)John Played the piano (Material)
13 Other Participant Functions (cont) b. Range as another name for the processShe had a bath (bathed)We do some work (work)I will take a look (look)She gave me a smile (smiled)We do a little dance (dance)Kami mengadakan pertemuan (bertemu)Mereka membuat perencanaan (berencana)
14 Circumstance Types Subcategory Probe Example 1. Extent temporal spatialfor how long?how far?For three hoursevery two weeksfor six miles
15 Circumstance (cont) 2. Location temporal spatial when? where? yesterdayLast weekherein the room3. Manner4. Cause--how?why?quicklyvery muchbecause of the rainfor better result
16 Circumstance (cont) 5. Contingency in what circumstances? in the event of rainin the absence of proof6. Rolewhat as?as a concerned parentas an acting manager
17 Circumstance (cont) 7. Matter 8. Accompaniment what about? together with?about thisabout economicswith(out) friendsinstead of the man9. Anglesays who?according to weather forecast
18 Analisis Adik memukul kucing kemarin. Pelaku Proses: Material Gol Sirkumstan:Lokasi:WaktuAdik melihat kucing kemarin.Pengindera Proses: Mental Fenomenon Sirkumstan:Adik memanggil kucingbuku saya anak si Aniistri saya anak si Alimata saya anak Medan
19 How are meanings made? action reflection 1st/2nd person regulatory interactional3rd personinstrumentalpersonalform ofconsciousnessdomainof experience
20 Protolanguage I want I think you to play with me Let’s be together (‘how the world should be’)I think(‘how the world is’)you to play with meLet’s be togetherthe book to be therethat’s niceinner(mental)outer(material)intersubjective‘you and me’objective‘he, she, it’
21 Plane of Content and Expression Plane The protolanguage microfunction or proto-microfunction is the plane of content or meaning plane. They are elastic like rubber and are potential for development. The proto-microfunction is coded by phonetic/kinetic interface such as v.h.p.s (very high-pitched squeak [do…do ])Proto-microfunctionPhonetic/kinetic representation
22 SemogenesisThe protolinguistic redundancy evolves to metaredundancy of the adult language.The protolanguage: bi-stratal evolves to tri-stratal (potentially n-strata). Evolution of language or semohistory coversPhylogenetic (how meaning evolves in the system)Ontogenetic (how it develops in individuals)Logogenetic (how it unfolds in text)
25 Metaredundancy (cont) General semiotics: bi-stratalLanguage semiotics: tristratal — p q r redounds not with l m n but with the redundancy of l m n with a b c. (semantics-lexicogrammar-phonology)p q r (l m n a b c)s t u (p q r (l m n a b c))
26 Metaredundancy (cont) (p q r l m n) a b c))((s t u p q r) l m n) a b cGenre (Register (Semantics (Lex.Grammar Phonology)))((((Genre Register) Semantics)) Lex.Grammar))) Phonology))))
27 Realization and Instantiation Realization: interstratalInstantiation: intrastratalRealization: Field IdeationalInstantiation: Declarative I went to the library.Realization of meaning is not biunique rather one to many
28 Realization and Instantiation Field (Science)Paratactic1+2TaxisLogicalFunctionHypotacticExpansionElaboration =a X bLogicosemanticRelationExtension +Enhancement XLocution “ProjectionIdea ‘
29 Realization and Instantiation (cont) a X bThe rails extend because they are heated by the sun beam.Iron, copper, zinc, water and other metals are called conductor because they pass on electric current.