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Self and Others Unit 2 Chapters 4 & 5. TOPICS Unit 2 – Learning Goals ➲ Gender ➲ Sense of Self – how does it develop? ➲ The Nature-Nurture Debate ➲ Abnormal.

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Presentation on theme: "Self and Others Unit 2 Chapters 4 & 5. TOPICS Unit 2 – Learning Goals ➲ Gender ➲ Sense of Self – how does it develop? ➲ The Nature-Nurture Debate ➲ Abnormal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Self and Others Unit 2 Chapters 4 & 5

2 TOPICS Unit 2 – Learning Goals ➲ Gender ➲ Sense of Self – how does it develop? ➲ The Nature-Nurture Debate ➲ Abnormal Psychology » Neurosis » Psychosis ➲ Ethnicity » Socialization » Agents of socialization » The Process of Socialization Text p74 – 148

3 Use your Unit 2 package to take the following notes. AND Take notes in your notebook for reference.

4 4.1 Our sense of Self ➲ Our self-concept: our ideas about our strengths and weaknesses, our values and beliefs, our hopes and dreams, our achievements and disappointments ➲ Where does it come from?

5 ➲ Believe the concepts of self are culturally constructed i.e. a person's culture is the source of the person's ideas or concepts ➲ Believe the culture constructs the self of each of its members Anthropologists

6 Sociologists Charles Cooley (1864-1929) our sense of self is the result of our interactions with others Beginning in infancy, we develop our sense of self as we interpret how other people react to us He called this the “looking-glass theory”

7 Sociologists 2. George Mead (1863-1931) – Humans have more than one self – We create different personalities, or selves, depending on the social setting we find ourselves in (ex. How we act in front of family vs in front of friends) – The I-self is our private, true self, revealed only to those closest to us – The Me-self is our public self, and is guided by the rules and expectations in the various roles we play

8 Pyschologists - DEFENCES Protecting our sense of self Freud argued that when our sense of self faced a crisis, we protect our ego by the use of defense mechanisms [ex. Priding yourself on honesty and lying to someone you care about] At this point, your ego enters into a conflict.

9 When the EGO is in crisis... Ego in crisis! Happens when we are in conflict with ourselves (superego and id) Freud believed that in order to protect the ego, humans developed defenses Usually unconscious reactions to feelings of frustration, tension, and worry This is where we blame others or make excuses for our behaviour

10 Self Defence Mechanisms -Freud Theory Rationalization - make up excuses to explain away bad behaviour or mistakes – a way to justify it Displacement - lash out at an innocent someone because someone or something else made you upset Repression - put unhappy ideas deep down inside under lock and key Projection - dislike things about a person because secretly you are just like them and hate it

11 Growing up – Psychological head games Teenagers have the biggest challenges: Physical, social, and behavioural issues Erik Erikson identified 12-18 as the period when a teenager’s identify changes its form and they become an individual Who am I compared to others? Teens are insecure, face many identity crisis, suffer low self-esteem, and they struggle to set goals that show positive value of self While exploring identity, teens show moodiness, self-doubt, disturbed thinking, impulsivity, conflicts with parents, & physical discomfort

12 Erik Erikson Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best- known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of personality stages, Erikson’s believes that personality develops across the whole lifespan.

13 Erikson and the identity crisis ♦ in order for adolescents to move toward increased self- awareness and independence, they must go through an identity crisis – a time when one's self-concept and beliefs are challenged ♦ Erikson argues the end result may be a vulnerable self filled with negative feelings which are vital to the formation of the new identity ♦ this may be understood to be a confused state of middle adolesence

14 Erikson’s main premise We are motivated / driven by a need to become competent in an area of life We pass through several key stages throughout our lives In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in our development; each stage has a harder ‘conflict’. At each successful stage, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.

15 ♦ during this confused state of middle adolescence, Kidwell discovered youth experienced symptoms such as: moodiness self-doubt disturbed thinking impulsivity conflicts with parents (and others) reduced ego strength and physical discomfort However painful, Kidwell argues this process is key to the development of self-awareness Kidwell and teens

16 ♦ Self-awareness is fundamental to the development of self-determination Self-determination [motivation] ♦ the ability to identify and achieve goals based on a foundation of knowing and valuing oneself. ♦ the amount of self-determination one has is related to him or her being aware of his or her strengths, limits, needs and preferences.

17 Self-enhancers ♦ are people tend to describe themselves more positively than they describe others more positively than others describe them ♦ are better adjusted emotionally than those who are more critical of themselves

18 The downside to self-enhancement ♦ self-enhancement can lead to disillusionment when one becomes aware of the gaps between the enhanced self-image and reality ♦ thus self-enhancement can lead to maladjustment Self Concept, behaviour and context ♦ our behaviours are often influenced by the context or situation we find ourselves in ♦ this does not mean we are phoney but simply that we are not entirely independent of our surroundings

19 ♦ we depend on and interact with others ♦ this involves learning to adapt to different situations and contexts ♦ each different set of behaviours is seen as a role by sociologists ♦ sociologists refer to the many roles we play simultaneously as our status set ex. a woman's status set may be: – Mother to her children – Daughter to her parents – Wife to her husband – Friend to her peers – Sister to her siblings

20 4.2 Nature vs Nurture

21 The Nature vs Nurture Debate

22 The nature vs nurture debate is an ongoing discussion surrounding the study of personality. Nature- inherited, biological characteristics Nurture – learned, environmental forces The question remains, which of the two has more of an impact on personality development.

23 Questions to ponder If nature pre-determines us, does this open the door to genetic manipulation to develop what we consider a more ideal society OR accept people as they are? Should governments and corporations invest money on improving nature? If nurture determines us, then do we need to focus our attention on monitoring and developing parents and teachers to be the best they can be, and drastically change the media infiltration which bombards us daily? Should governments invest heavily in early childhood education programs?

24 Nature – the gene pool -at conception we inherit 46 chromosomes [23 from each parent] - 23 formed the DNA which became you - each chromosome contains thousands of genes genes – the building blocks that determine an individual's characteristics - the question remains do such genes determine aspects of our personality such as intelligence, humour and temperament?

25 Nurture – the influences around us Environmental actors influencing the nurture argument: Interactions with: parents peers teachers the media – how much do you think you have been influenced by television, internet and the advertising surrounding it?

26 Time spent viewing television and the influence this would have on young children “' of the most troubling aspects of modern life is how much time children spend glued to the screens of television, computers and electronic games,' said Kelly Murumets, president and CEO of Participaction. On average, Canadian children spend about six hours every weekday and seven hours daily on weekends watching TV, chatting online or engaging in virtual games.” the Globe and Mail, April 2010

27 What are the effects of this much television viewing on the development of children? i. obesity ii. increased violent behaviour iii. poor academic performance – particularly in reading iv. problems with social skills may arise as children are not interacting with each other

28 Journalist Richard Nilsen and “secondhandedness” Nilsen believes we do not obtain enough “first- hand” experiences from which to build our lives because we get the experiences second- hand from others instead such as television. We get too wrapped up in the lives of those on television and social websites, that we are almost forgetting to live our own lives. Ironically the education system seeks to bring more technology into the classroom

29 Advertising Advertising impacts us in 4 ways: i. encourages consumerism and materialism – me see me want attitude ii. promotes child sexuality iii. objectification of women and men iv. an unattainable image of beauty.

30 How can we CONTROL the IMPACT of television and advertising? - don't have a television - don't have cable - become media literate - aware of and resistant to media influence; know what your children are watching; watch television together – ex. my Korean student - not allow television sets in the bedroom - parents being television role models {no tv during dinner} - reduce the time watching tv – engage in other activities

31 The Human Genome Project What? ○ an international effort aimed at identifying the location and function of all human genes. ○ The project originally was planned to last 15 years, but rapid technological advances accelerated the completion date to 2003.  the complete sequence of the 3 billion DNA and all human genes have been identified What's a genome?  A genome is all the DNA in an organism, including its genes.  these genes have been linked to several disorders such as kidney disease and cancer  such discoveries can help scientists better understand illness such as Alzheimer's Disease and Down Syndrome

32 4.3 Abnormal Psychology Open mental illness deck...after next slide

33 When we face inadequacies... Disorders can emerge Neurotic disorders ◦- panic attacks ◦- phobias ◦- Obsessive-compulsive disorder Psychotic disorders ◦- psychosis ◦- delusions and hallucinations Antisocial Personality Disorder ◦-impulsive, grandiose, lack empathy, lay blame

34 4.4 Gender Boys verus Girls Who am I?

35 What are little boys made of? Frogs and snails And puppy dogs' tails, That's what little boys are made of. What are little girls made of? Sugar and spice And all that's nice, That's what little girls are made of.

36 Non- Physical Gender Differences  I. Differences in Speaking Styles a. Generally, women work from a consensus model of communication [everyone has input]  more inclusive manner [than men]  wanting to hear more variety of opinions before sharing their own  women do not want to appear bossy and arrogant b. Women do not call attention to their accomplishments to the same extent as men.  women tend not to toot their own horn about their accomplishments for fear of bragging

37  The use of pronouns – women use “we” when discussing accomplishments and men use “I”.  By downplaying their role in such accomplishments, women sound less arrogant but therefore have less chance of being recognized for them  This is called the glass ceiling – the invisible barrier some believe keep women from rising to higher levels of management in the corporate world

38 II. Sense of Humour Men = slapstick humour [ physical stunts ex. walking into a door ] and gallows humour [gory/sick situations ex. someone getting killed] Women = irony/sarcasm and incongruity [ideas are put together in an unexpected way/illogical way so that ideas seem absurd or out of place]

39 What’s in a name? Who are you? What does your name say about you? Is this a boy’s name or a girl’s name?  - Addison- Alex-Alexis -Avery  - Devon- Drew- Harley- Jaime  - Jessie- Morgan- Logan- Sidney Do these children suffer more (teased)? What happens if we change our name? Why when we are older is it so important to tell people what we do for a living? Are we defining ourselves – “making a name for ourselves”?

40 It is important to be careful when choosing a child's name ♦ names have a lasting affect on our sense of personal identity ♦ unusual names may make a person feel different/uncomfortable ♦ being named after someone famous may develop strong self-esteem issues or feelings of inadequacy if they cannot live up to their namesake's legend.

41 Gender Changes and Effects John/Joan Case David Reimer Read p85 of your textbook and answer the questions in groups.

42 Gender and our sense of self - Psychology Is it a boy or a girl? ◦How many things change with that answer? Psychologically, it defines us to ourselves What really is the difference in the brain? Turn to Page 103 More men are left handed Men favour the left ear when listening Men are better at seeing 3D in their minds Women can read emotions in photographs  These are GENERALIZATIONS...

43 5.1 Culture and Socialization

44 What are the stages an individual goes through, from the raw material of personality at birth, to emerge with a self? The following theories aim to answer this question. I. Sigmund Freud and the Psychosexual Theory - the id [pleasure seeker], ego [reality/conscience] and superego [morals] play a large role here - our personality is formed as either the id or the superego predominates 5.3 The Process of Socialization

45 ID as winner - selfish - inconsiderate - concerned only with own pleasure SUPREGO as winner - Extremely concerned about how others should behave - Judgmental moral police EGO as winner - between the two extremes - playful but not reckless For Freud, personality development depends largely on how we deal with toilet and sexual functions [text p132]. Deal with them openly = develop as happy and confident people Guilt and shame toward such functions = nervous, self-doubting and insecure

46 II. J Piaget and the Cognitive Development Theory - children go through a series of chronological developmental stages that are orderly and predictable i. sensorimotor [birth-2yrs] -understand something exists only when it is seen ii. pre-operational [2-7] -symbols -understand concept of objects without seeing them iii. concrete operational [7-11] -develop logic iv. formal operational [11 +] -think abstractly and can admit they can be wrong

47 III. C. Cooley and G. Mead: The Social Experience Theory -The self did not exist at birth; not driven by our biology. Self developed mainly = social experience -The self is based on how we think others see us. This they termed the looking glass self; the idea that we view ourselves as having features we think others see in us. - We react to others -growing up we observe people's reactions to us -such reactions act as mirrors that show us who we are -we cannot picture ourselves without referring to some group

48 The looking-glass theory is based on the interaction of the self and society. As you recall from earlier notes, Cooley and Mead present the I-self and the Me-self. I-self = our true self -revealed only to those close to us -the subjective part of us Me-self = the mask -our public self -influenced by and reactive to the rules and expectations of the roles we play

49 Example I -a baby begins to develop his/her sense of self [I- self] as s/he interprets how other people react to him/her -cuddled/smiled at/verbal approval = learns to feel proud of his/herself negative feedback = feels anxious/insecure Example II -young child is mistreated = learns that her/his needs are not important; s/he not loveable -s/he knows something is wrong and the me-self concludes s/he is the problem; develops a sense of worthlessness

50 Example III -you ask someone out on a date -you form impressions of yourself based on this person's response -if s/he says “yes”, the Me-self is moulded positively -if s/he says “no”, the Me-self is moulded negatively

51 The Looking-glass Self – A 3-step process I. Presentation -we imagine how we look to others when we present ourselves II. Interpretation -we imagine how others judge us by their response III. Develop a sense of self -we internalize what others think of us -our evaluation of this response helps us develop our self

52 IV. E. Erikson – The Psychosocial Theory "It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him." — Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994) His work was influenced by his study of Sioux Indians on a reservation. Erikson believed culture vastly influence behavior and society Development is determined by the: – interaction of the body (genetic biological), – mind (psychological), and – cultural (ethos) influences.

53 Erikson divides human life into 8 chronological stages from birth to death [text p137] - in each stage, the subject faces a conflict between personal wants and family/societal expectations - the self emerges/grows as we resolve each conflict - the more successful the resolution, the more ready the subject is to move onto the next stage - an individual who successfully resolves all eight conflicts [all eight stages] will, in old age, be a complete self, able to look back at life with a sense of pleasure - the individual who has not = haunted by a sense of lost opportunity

54 V. L. Kohlberg – Moral Development Theory - our judgment of morals evolve through stages and brain development 3 stages Preconventional Stage – young children -moral reasoning -follow rules strictly or else suffer punishment Conventional Stage – teen years -acknowledge the needs of other/less selfish -begin to understand society's norms [expected social behaviours] Postconventional Stage – adults -challenge/question the norms we so blindly followed ex. treatment of others; steal food if starving?

55 VI. C. Gilligan – Gender-Based Theory -Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's method of research which relied solely on boys -she argues = male moral development based on a justice perspective -females = caring and responsibility perspective judge actions on how they affect personal relationships ex. stealing Boy = wrong – against the rules = punishment Girl = why did the person steal and would want to help the person -Gilligan emphasized the importance of caregiving and support [female traits] as key norms in society

56 5.1 Socialization - a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position.identitysocial

57 Socialization... Socialization affects every aspect of our lives from hunger patterns to how we perceive the world around us The corpus callosum is larger in women (23%); communication between the hemispheres is therefore easier in women's brains. Handout: What is socialization? Define: Natural, Planned, Positive, Negative, Prior, and Future Socialization

58 Socialization – our common ground All human beings grow up within a society From their society, they learn how to think and act in certain ways They are expected to participate in their society (marriage, job function, procreation, etc) They are expected to acquire certain behaviour, skills, values, and beliefs The lifelong process through which we become ourselves, in the society in which we live

59 Sociologists focus on how people learn the basic rules and attitudes of human behaviour considered acceptable in our society Psychologists focus on the acquisition of those personal characteristics that make each individual unique Anthropologists see socialization as the means by which permanent human societies are produced - they use the term sapienization [from the term homo sapiens or the human species] Various aspects of socialization

60 Primary Socialization - the process by which we learn language, eat, practice hygiene, deal with our emotions, and learn how to behave as male or female Secondary Socialization -learning how to function in groups, such as school and church, and how to follow the behaviours society expects of us Components of Socialization

61 Anticipatory Socialization -the ability we develop to think ahead and act accordingly Resocialization - the deliberate attempt to replace aspects of a person's socialization with new learnings

62 5.2 Agents of Socialization

63 The term associated with humans being raised by wild animals such as female wolves is feral Romulus and Remus – founder of Rome

64 Children raised in almost total isolation within human households isolate

65 5.4 Culture to Culture

66 Theories of ethnic identity... Developing a sense of self based on ethnicity, moves through five stage models:  1. Conformity  2. Dissonance  3. Resistance and Immersion  4. Introspection  5. Awareness and Adoption Page 111

67 Culture and our sense of self -Psychology Racial, ethnic, religious identity is a feeling of belongingness to a group, traditions, and/or common ancestry ? How many know the ancestry of your parents, grandparents, etc? When someone asks, do you tell them every part of who you are? Why? We are defined by race, religion, and culture Adopted children suffer psychologically due to a lack of information on how they ‘belong’

68 Growing Up Differently Agents of Social Change The Family Primary agent of socialization strong emotional relationships love, concern, attention affect child's entire life Intentional we learn communication skills, normal rules of behaviour [norms] think, talk, walk, play, feed themselves how to get along with others Unintentional Observations: values, attitudes, expectations examples and role models

69 School - first place we deal with formal rules - also first place where caregivers are not family members Intentional [manifest function] - teach academic skills Unintentional [latent function] - socialize us to understand/cooperate with others some of whom we may not like How are gender roles enforced at school? Obvious and less obvious?

70 Peer Group - members of a social group who are the same age and share interests and social position - we can chat, confide with our peers - we socialize with our peers - experience peer pressure How are gender roles reinforced through our peers? Attitudes of males Attitudes of females - conflict may arise between family rules and peer values

71 Media - popular culture greatly impacts our view of life, our values, how we see ourselves - media functions as a commercial operation aimed at making money - to do so – they often present an unrealistic view of life

72 Workplace - socialization also occurs in the workplace - punctuality, appropriate dress, respect for authority [what we learned in school – reinforced in the workplace] - learn how to deal with colleagues, customers, competitors - teambuilding exercises and staff retreats are methods to instill values necessary to act appropriately in the workplace

73 Religion - a notable agent of socialization - religious activities communicate beliefs about gender roles and appropriate sexual conduct - religious values usually coincide nicely with traditional family values - religion also teaches us about community and caring for our neighbour - religion answers our questions about the afterlife leaving to question the value of our life before we die

74 Total Institutions – What are they? - institutions [such as prisons] Examples: prisons, boot camps for young offenders, destructive religious cults Purpose = to re-socialize individuals - give them new and positive socialization experiences to replace the negative results of their prior socialization Key features = individuals are isolated from the rest of society; highly structured environment [such as when to go to bed, when to get up, same haircuts] - Seek to remove individuality and replace it with a common group identity

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