Presentation on theme: "The Trial and Martyrdom of Rizal. The Trial of Rizal An eloquent proof of Spanish injustice and misrule A mistrial He was considered guilty before the."— Presentation transcript:
The Trial of Rizal An eloquent proof of Spanish injustice and misrule A mistrial He was considered guilty before the actual trial
December 26, 1896 – the court martial started at 8:00 am in the Military building known as Cuartel de España. There are Seven Members of the Military Court: – Lt. Col. Jose Togores Arjona – president – Capt. Ricardo Muñoz Arias – Capt. Manuel Reguera – Capt. Santiago Izquierdo Osorio
There are Seven Members of the Military Court: – Lt. Col. Jose Togores Arjona – president – Capt. Ricardo Muñoz Arias – Capt. Manuel Reguera – Capt. Santiago Izquierdo Osorio – Capt. Braulio Rodriguez – Capt. Manuel Diaz Escribano – Capt. Fermin Perez Rodriguez
Lt. Enrique Alcocer – Prosecuting Attorney Rizal sat on a bench between two soldiers, his arms were tied behind, elbow to elbow. – He wore a black woolen suit with white vest and black tie – Rizal proved his innocence by twelve points.
He could not be guilty of rebellion, for he advised Dr. Pio Valenzuela in Dapitan not to rise in revolution. He did not correspond with the radical, revolutionary elements. The revolutionists used his name without his knowledge. If he were guilty he could have escaped in Singapore.
If he had a hand in the revolution, he could have escaped in a Moro vinta and would not have built a home, a hospital, and bought lands in Dapitan. If he were the chief of the revolution, why was he not consulted by the revolutionists? It was true he wrote the by-laws of the La Liga Filipina, but this is only a civic association, not a revolutionary society.
The La Liga Filipina did not live long, for after the first meeting he was banished to Dapitan and it died out. If the La Liga Filipina was reorganized nine months later, he did not know about it. The La Liga Filipina did not serve the purpose of the revolutionists, otherwise they would not have supplanted it with the Katipunan.
If it were true that there were some bitter comments in Rizal’s letters, it was because they were written in 1890 when his family was being persecuted, being dispossessed of houses, warehouses, lands, etc. and his brother and all his brothers-in-law were deported.
His life in Dapitan had been exemplary as the politico-military commanders and missionary priests could attest.
It was not true that the revolution was inspired by his one speech at the house of Doroteo Ongjungco, as alleged by witnesses whom he would like to confront. His friends knew his opposition to armed rebellion. Why did the Katipunan send an emissary to Dapitan who was unknown to him? Because those who knew him were aware that he would never sanction any violent movement.
The military court, prejudiced as it was, remained indifferent to Rizal’s pleading. After a short deliberation, the military court unanimously voted for the sentence of DEATH. On the same day, the court decision was submitted to Gov. Gen. Polavieja.
Polavieja signs Rizal’s EXECUTION December 28 – Polavieja approved the decision of the court-martial and ordered Rizal to be shot at 7:00 o’clock in the morning of December 30, 1896.
Last Hours of Rizal 6:00 am – (December 29) – Captain Rafael Dominguez – designated by Gov. Gen. Polavieja to take charge of all arrangements for the execution of the condemned prisoner, read the death sentence to Rizal To be shot by a firing squad at 7:00 am in Bagumbayan.
7: 00 am – Rizal was moved to the prison chapel where he spent his last moments – He was visited by: Father Miguel Saderra – Rector of Ateneo Father Luis Viza – Jesuit teacher 7:15 am – Rizal reminded Father Viza of the Sacred Heart of Jesus which he had carved with his pen knife as an Ateneo student. – Father Viza brought it and gave it to Rizal
8:00 am – Fr. Antonio Rosell arrived to relieve Fr. Viza. Rizal and Fr. Rosell ate breakfast together – Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade arrived and Rizal thanked him for his gallant services 9:00 Father Federico Faura arrived. Rizal reminded him of what he said that he would someday lose his head for writing the Noli.
10:00 am – Fathers Jose Vilaclara (Rizal’s teacher in Ateneo) and Vicente Balaguer (Jesuit missionary in Dapitan who had befriended Rizal during the latter’s exile) visited him. Santiago Mataix – a Spanish journalist interviewde Rizal for his newspaper El Heraldo de Madrid. 12:00 noon to 3:30 pm – Rizal was left alone
He wrote his farewell poem and hid it inside his alcohol cooking stove (not lamp) which was given by Paz Pardo de Tavera during his visit in Paris. He wrote his last letter to his best friend in German
3:30 pm – Father Balaguer returned and discussed with Rizal about his retraction of the anti-Catholic ideas in his writings and membership in Masonry. 4:00 pm – Rizal’s mother arrived. – Rizal knelt before her and kissed her hands, begging her to forgive him. – Trinidad entered the cell to fetch her mother Rizal gave her the alcohol cooking stove, whispering in English that something is inside.
Fathers Vilaclara and Estanislao March entered the cell, followed by Fr. Rosell. 6:00 pm – Rizal received a new visitor, Don Silvino Lopez Tuñon – dean of the Manila Cathedral 8:00 pm – Rizal had his last supper. Informed Captain Dominguez that he forgave his enemies including military judges who condemned him to death.
9:30 pm – Rizal was visited by Don Gaspar Cestaño – the fiscal of the Royal Audiencia of Manila. 10:00 pm – the draft of the retraction letter sent by the anti-Filipino Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda was submitted by Fr. Balaguer to Rizal for signature, but the latter rejected because it was too long.
Father Balaguer showed a shorter retraction which was prepared by Father Pio Pi – Superior of the Jesuit Society in the Philippines, which was acceptable to Rizal. 3:00 am (December 30) – Rizal heard Mass, confessed his sins, and took Holy Communion. 5:30 am – he took his last breakfast on earth
Rizal wrote two letters, first addressed to his family and second to his only brother Paciano. First Letter: – Rizal was asking for forgiveness for all the pain that he has cause his family – A message to his sisters to love their parents so as to be treated the same by their children in time.
– He wanted to be buried in the ground, with a stone and a cross over it, with his name, birth and death. – Have pity on Josephine
Second Letter – He told his brother how much he misses him. Not seeing him for 4 years and a half. – He was sorry for leaving his brother burdened with the weight of the family and their old parents. – His gratefulness on how hard his brother worked to give him a career, believing that he tried not to waste time.
He knows that his brother suffered much on his behalf He assured his brother that his innocent of the crime of rebellion. 5:30 am – Josephine Bracken accompanied by Josefa arrived. – With tears in her eyes, she bid farewell to Jose.
Rizal gave Josephine a religious book Imitation of Christ by Father Thomas a Kempis, which he signed “to my dearest unhappy wife, Josephine” 6:00 am – the soldiers were getting ready for the death march to Bagumbayan. – Rizal wrote his last letters to his parents.
Death March to Bagumbayan 6:30 am – a trumpet sounded at Fort Santiago, a signal to begin the death march to Bagumbayan, the designated place for the execution. The advance guard of four soldiers with bayoneted rifles moved. Rizal walked calmly, with his defense counsel (Andrade), and two Jesuit priests (Fathers March and Vilaclara) on his side.
Rizal was dressed elegantly in a black suit, black derby hat, black shoes, white shirt, and black tie. His arms tied from elbow to elbow There was a handful of spectators lining the street of the Manila Cathedral
Rizal bade farewell to Fathers March and Vilaclara and his counsel Luis Taviel de Andrade. He was blessed by one of the priests blessed him and offered him a crucifix to kiss. Rizal reverently bowed his head and kissed it. He requested the commander of the firing squad that he be shot facing them. He was denied.
Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo – a Spanish military physician asked his permission to feel his pulse. – It was normal.
Rizal died at exactly 7:03 am aged 35 years, five months and 11 days. He predicted 14 years ago that he would die on December 30 th. He was still a student in Madrid then.
After he was executed, the Spanish spectators shouted “Long Live Spain! Death to the Traitors!” and the Spanish military Band joining the jubilance over Rizal’s death, played the Marcha de Cadiz.