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LECTURE #15: NATIONAL POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE (1877-1896) Derrick J. Johnson, MPA, JD Advanced Placement United States History, School for Advanced.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE #15: NATIONAL POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE (1877-1896) Derrick J. Johnson, MPA, JD Advanced Placement United States History, School for Advanced."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE #15: NATIONAL POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE (1877-1896) Derrick J. Johnson, MPA, JD Advanced Placement United States History, School for Advanced Studies

2 Requiem for Reconstruction After the election of Rutherford B. Hayes and the Compromise of 1877, the national government entered an era of stalemate and comparative inactivity. After the election of Rutherford B. Hayes and the Compromise of 1877, the national government entered an era of stalemate and comparative inactivity. Americans began to shift their attention away from national politics and towards: Americans began to shift their attention away from national politics and towards: The development of the West. The development of the West. Industrialization and labor movements Industrialization and labor movements The Growth of Cities The Growth of Cities The expression Gilded Age was first used by Mark Twain in 1873 as the title of a book. It referred to the superficial glitter of the new wealth so prominently displayed in the last years of the 19 th Century. The expression Gilded Age was first used by Mark Twain in 1873 as the title of a book. It referred to the superficial glitter of the new wealth so prominently displayed in the last years of the 19 th Century.

3 Development in the West Several acts passed by the federal government in 1862 help to set the stage for the massive movement westward that would take place after the Civil War. Examples of these acts included: Several acts passed by the federal government in 1862 help to set the stage for the massive movement westward that would take place after the Civil War. Examples of these acts included: The Homestead Act The Homestead Act Morill Land-Grant Act Morill Land-Grant Act The expansion of the railroad is greatly tied to western expansion. The expansion of the railroad is greatly tied to western expansion. In acts of 1862 and 1864, Congress gave the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific Railroads land grants to extend the railroads westward. In acts of 1862 and 1864, Congress gave the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific Railroads land grants to extend the railroads westward.

4 Life on the Great Plains The harshness of life on the plains was simply too much to bear for many settlers and their families. The harshness of life on the plains was simply too much to bear for many settlers and their families. By 1900, two-thirds of the homestead farms had failed. By 1900, two-thirds of the homestead farms had failed. Survival on the plains largely depended on cooperation with other settlers. Survival on the plains largely depended on cooperation with other settlers. Success on the plains became increasingly dependent on the use of technology and the introduction of business approaches to agriculture. Success on the plains became increasingly dependent on the use of technology and the introduction of business approaches to agriculture. Slowly, the control of agricultural production on the plains was taken from individual farmers as large bonanza farms developed. Slowly, the control of agricultural production on the plains was taken from individual farmers as large bonanza farms developed. Thousands of African Americans moved to the West after the Civil War. The most prominent members of this group were the Exodusters. Thousands of African Americans moved to the West after the Civil War. The most prominent members of this group were the Exodusters.

5 Life on the Great Plains Despite the new opportunities African Americans had out in the West, they still faced some of the same prejudices that they faced in the South. Despite the new opportunities African Americans had out in the West, they still faced some of the same prejudices that they faced in the South. Many western states, like Wyoming, were also a place of opportunities for women. Many western states, like Wyoming, were also a place of opportunities for women. It was in the West that the first women were given the opportunity to vote. It was in the West that the first women were given the opportunity to vote.

6 The Plight of the Native Americans The westward stream of settlers in the mid 1800s severely disrupted the lives of the Native Americans. The westward stream of settlers in the mid 1800s severely disrupted the lives of the Native Americans. The migration patterns of the buffalos, which the native Americans depended on, were disrupted. The migration patterns of the buffalos, which the native Americans depended on, were disrupted. Settlers thought nothing of seizing lands that previous treaties had given to Native Americans. Settlers thought nothing of seizing lands that previous treaties had given to Native Americans. With the rise of the railroad, there was a move to remove the tribes from their native lands to Oklahoma and South Dakota. With the rise of the railroad, there was a move to remove the tribes from their native lands to Oklahoma and South Dakota. The tribe that resisted the onrush was the Sioux. In, 1865, the government announced their desire to build a road through Sioux territory. The following year, tribesmen attacked and killed 88 soldiers. The tribe that resisted the onrush was the Sioux. In, 1865, the government announced their desire to build a road through Sioux territory. The following year, tribesmen attacked and killed 88 soldiers. After negotiations, the Sioux agreed to move to a reservation in Black Hills of South Dakota. After negotiations, the Sioux agreed to move to a reservation in Black Hills of South Dakota.

7 Battle of the Little Bighorn Gold was discovered in 1874 in Black Hills, as a result, the Sioux, led by Sitting Bull, left the reservation. Gold was discovered in 1874 in Black Hills, as a result, the Sioux, led by Sitting Bull, left the reservation. General George Custer was sent to round up Sitting Bull and the Sioux in June of 1876. Custer and his force of over 200 men were killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. General George Custer was sent to round up Sitting Bull and the Sioux in June of 1876. Custer and his force of over 200 men were killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. This was the last major victory against the U.S. Army. Large numbers of federal troops were brought into the region, returning the Sioux to their reservation. This was the last major victory against the U.S. Army. Large numbers of federal troops were brought into the region, returning the Sioux to their reservation.

8 Battle of the Little Bighorn Some began to question the current federal policy toward Indians Some began to question the current federal policy toward Indians Others worried the public rage would exterminate the Sioux completely. Others worried the public rage would exterminate the Sioux completely. Most supported the federal movement to squash the Indian rebellions. Most supported the federal movement to squash the Indian rebellions. The army began to take more cautious steps to deal with the Indians. The army began to take more cautious steps to deal with the Indians. Sitting Bull surrendered in 1881 after leading his tribe to Canada. Sitting Bull surrendered in 1881 after leading his tribe to Canada. Major James McLaughlin decided to arrest Sitting Bull, in the cabin of whom the dances took place on the reservation Major James McLaughlin decided to arrest Sitting Bull, in the cabin of whom the dances took place on the reservation When 2 cops came to take Sitting Bull, his bodyguard shot one of them, causing the 2 nd to shoot Sitting Bull point blank; his Bull’s horse went wild, as if a spirit entered it. When 2 cops came to take Sitting Bull, his bodyguard shot one of them, causing the 2 nd to shoot Sitting Bull point blank; his Bull’s horse went wild, as if a spirit entered it.

9 Massacre at Wounded Knee Conflict with the army occurred again in 1890 after the death of Sitting Bull. Some Sioux again tried to leave their reservation; these tribesmen were quickly apprehended. Conflict with the army occurred again in 1890 after the death of Sitting Bull. Some Sioux again tried to leave their reservation; these tribesmen were quickly apprehended. As the male Sioux were handing their weapons in, a shot was fired by someone. The soldiers opened fire on the Native Americans, killing over 200 men, women and children. As the male Sioux were handing their weapons in, a shot was fired by someone. The soldiers opened fire on the Native Americans, killing over 200 men, women and children.

10 The Dawes Act Passed in 1887, it was designed to reform the weakness in Indians life – lack of private property, nomadic style Passed in 1887, it was designed to reform the weakness in Indians life – lack of private property, nomadic style It wanted to treat Indians as individuals and not as part of a tribe. It wanted to treat Indians as individuals and not as part of a tribe. A land of 160 for farming of 320 acre for grazing was provided to each head of the family who accepted the provision A land of 160 for farming of 320 acre for grazing was provided to each head of the family who accepted the provision The rest of the land, usually good, was sold to speculators The rest of the land, usually good, was sold to speculators In 25 years, whoever accepted the act would become a citizen. This destroyed their identity as a tribe. In 25 years, whoever accepted the act would become a citizen. This destroyed their identity as a tribe. By the end of the 19 th Century, virtually all Native Americans had been placed in reservations. Many young Indians attempted to assimilate into white culture. By the end of the 19 th Century, virtually all Native Americans had been placed in reservations. Many young Indians attempted to assimilate into white culture.

11 The Election of 1880 Republican politicians, more interested in spoils and patronage than reform, were happy to honor President Hayes’ pledge to serve only one term. Republican politicians, more interested in spoils and patronage than reform, were happy to honor President Hayes’ pledge to serve only one term. They nominated James A. Garfield of Ohio and Chester A. Arthur of New York to serve as President and Vice President respectively. They nominated James A. Garfield of Ohio and Chester A. Arthur of New York to serve as President and Vice President respectively.

12 The Election of 1880 The Democrats nominated former Union general and Battle of Gettysburg veteran, Winfield S. Hancock. The Democrats nominated former Union general and Battle of Gettysburg veteran, Winfield S. Hancock. Garfield defeated Hancock with 214 electoral votes (4,446,158 popular votes) to Hancock’s 155 electoral votes (4,444,260 popular votes). Garfield defeated Hancock with 214 electoral votes (4,446,158 popular votes) to Hancock’s 155 electoral votes (4,444,260 popular votes).

13 President James A. Garfield President James A. Garfield Born: November 19, 1831 Born: November 19, 1831 Died: September 19, 1881 Died: September 19, 1881 Term in Office: (1881) Term in Office: (1881) Political Party: Republican Political Party: Republican James A. Garfield The James A. Garfield Presidency

14 The Garfield Cabinet OfficeNameTerm PresidentJames A. Garfield1881 Vice PresidentChester A. Arthur1881 Secretary of StateJames G. Blaine1881 Secretary of TreasuryWilliam Windom1881 Secretary of WarRobert Todd Lincoln1881 Attorney GeneralWayne MacVeagh1881 Postmaster GeneralThomas L. James1881 Secretary of the NavyWilliam H. Hunt1881 Secretary of the InteriorSamuel J. Kirkwood1881

15 James A. Garfield The James A. Garfield Presidency Supreme Court Appointments by President Garfield Stanley Matthews -1881 States Admitted to the Union None

16 Assassination of Garfield In his first weeks in office, Garfield was besieged in the White House by hordes of Republicans seeking jobs. In his first weeks in office, Garfield was besieged in the White House by hordes of Republicans seeking jobs. His selection of “Halfbreeds” over “Stalwarts” for political positions, outraged Senator Conkling and his Stalwarts supporters. His selection of “Halfbreeds” over “Stalwarts” for political positions, outraged Senator Conkling and his Stalwarts supporters.

17 Assassination of Garfield However, Garfield had little time in office. The President had been walking through the Sixth Street Station of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad (a predecessor of the Pennsylvania Railroad) in Washington, D.C. Garfield was on his way to his alma mater, Williams College, where he was scheduled to deliver a speech, accompanied by Secretary of State James G. Blaine, Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln (son of Abraham Lincoln) and two of his sons, James and Harry. However, Garfield had little time in office. The President had been walking through the Sixth Street Station of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad (a predecessor of the Pennsylvania Railroad) in Washington, D.C. Garfield was on his way to his alma mater, Williams College, where he was scheduled to deliver a speech, accompanied by Secretary of State James G. Blaine, Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln (son of Abraham Lincoln) and two of his sons, James and Harry. As he was preparing to board a train, he was shot on July 2, 1881, at 9:30 a.m. by Charles J. Guiteau, a disgruntled Stalwart who failed in his efforts to secure a federal post. As he was preparing to board a train, he was shot on July 2, 1881, at 9:30 a.m. by Charles J. Guiteau, a disgruntled Stalwart who failed in his efforts to secure a federal post. As he was being arrested after the shooting, Guiteau repeatedly said, "I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts! I did it and I want to be arrested! Arthur is President now!" This briefly led to unfounded suspicions that Arthur or his supporters had put Guiteau up to the crime. As he was being arrested after the shooting, Guiteau repeatedly said, "I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts! I did it and I want to be arrested! Arthur is President now!" This briefly led to unfounded suspicions that Arthur or his supporters had put Guiteau up to the crime.

18 Assassination of Garfield One bullet grazed Garfield's arm; the second bullet lodged in his spine and could not be found, although scientists today think that the bullet was near his lung. Alexander Graham Bell devised a metal detector specifically to find the bullet, but the device was reading the metal bed springs. One bullet grazed Garfield's arm; the second bullet lodged in his spine and could not be found, although scientists today think that the bullet was near his lung. Alexander Graham Bell devised a metal detector specifically to find the bullet, but the device was reading the metal bed springs. After an 11 week struggle, the gunshot wound proved to be fatal. Garfield became the fourth U.S. President to die in office and the second to be assassinated. Chester A. Arthur became the fourth sitting Vice President to ascend to the presidency due to the death of the incumbent. After an 11 week struggle, the gunshot wound proved to be fatal. Garfield became the fourth U.S. President to die in office and the second to be assassinated. Chester A. Arthur became the fourth sitting Vice President to ascend to the presidency due to the death of the incumbent. Garfield's assassination was instrumental to the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act on January 16, 1883. Garfield's assassination was instrumental to the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act on January 16, 1883.

19 President Chester A. Arthur President Chester A. Arthur Born: October 5, 1829 Born: October 5, 1829 Died: November 18, 1886 Died: November 18, 1886 Term in Office: (1881-1885) Term in Office: (1881-1885) Political Party: Republican Political Party: Republican Chester A. Arthur The Chester A. Arthur Presidency

20 The Arthur Cabinet OfficeNameTerm PresidentChester A. Arthur1881–1885 Vice PresidentNone1881–1885 Secretary of State James G. Blaine1881 Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen1881–1885 Secretary of Treasury William Windom1881 Charles J. Folger1881–1884 Walter Q. Gresham1884 Hugh McCulloch1884–1885 Secretary of WarRobert T. Lincoln1881–1885 Attorney General Wayne MacVeagh1881 Benjamin H. Brewster1881–1885 Postmaster General Thomas L. James1881 Timothy O. Howe1881–1883 Walter Q. Gresham1883–1884 Frank Hatton1884–1885 Secretary of the Navy William H. Hunt1881–1882 William E. Chandler1882–1885 Secretary of the Interior Samuel J. Kirkwood1881–1882 Henry M. Teller1882–1885

21 Chester A. Arthur The Chester A. Arthur Presidency Supreme Court Appointments by President Arthur Roscoe Conkling -1882 Samuel Blatchford - 1882 Horace Gray - 1882 States Admitted to the Union None

22 Chester A. Arthur The Chester A. Arthur Presidency Even though he was viewed as a “weak president,” Arthur proved to be a much better president than people expected. He distanced himself from the Stalwarts, supported a bill reforming the civil service, and approved the development of a modern day navy. He also began to question high protective tariffs. His reward was the denial of re-nomination by the Republican Party in 1884.

23 The Undistinguished Gentlemen of Congress Lawmakers during the Gilded Age had long but undistinguished careers. Congressmen, like John Sherman, who served from 1855 to 1898, did very little other than allow their names to be attached to legislation. Thomas Reed, as Speaker of the House, had a reputation of being a bully. He created a system of autocratic rule over the house that took years to break. Senator James G. Blaine had the potential to become a great political leader, however, his reputation was tarnished by evidence of his connection with railroad scandals and other corrupt dealings.

24 The Growth of Industrial America Radical transformation took place in America in terms of industry. Radical transformation took place in America in terms of industry. The essential characteristics of the Second Industrial Revolution developed because of a combination of new developments in technology and business organization. The essential characteristics of the Second Industrial Revolution developed because of a combination of new developments in technology and business organization. Things such as time clocks, schedule breaks, and repetition of doing the same tasks over and over made work very different for those who came from rural areas. Things such as time clocks, schedule breaks, and repetition of doing the same tasks over and over made work very different for those who came from rural areas. The growth of industry in this period was largely aided by the lack of governmental control over the affairs of business (laissez-faire capitalism was the dominant economic theory). The growth of industry in this period was largely aided by the lack of governmental control over the affairs of business (laissez-faire capitalism was the dominant economic theory). Another key component of the Second Industrial Revolution was the development of new and more efficient sources of power. For example, the discovery of anthracite coal caused the price of coal to drop dramatically. Also, by 1890, 70% of industries used steam power. Another key component of the Second Industrial Revolution was the development of new and more efficient sources of power. For example, the discovery of anthracite coal caused the price of coal to drop dramatically. Also, by 1890, 70% of industries used steam power. During this period, industrialization spread into other geographical areas. For example, many fore sharecroppers of the “New South” went to work in textile factories which utilized many “state of the art” machinery of the North. During this period, industrialization spread into other geographical areas. For example, many fore sharecroppers of the “New South” went to work in textile factories which utilized many “state of the art” machinery of the North.

25 The Growth of Industrial America Changes also occurred in the work place. Efficiency experts, like Frederick W. Taylor, a mechanical engineer who emphasized speed in the work place, were utilized by many businesses. Soon, businesses began to implement “Taylorism.” Changes also occurred in the work place. Efficiency experts, like Frederick W. Taylor, a mechanical engineer who emphasized speed in the work place, were utilized by many businesses. Soon, businesses began to implement “Taylorism.” Factories found that paying workers by the piece made them produce more. As a result of Taylorism, a system of elimination emerged where the more efficient workers maintained their jobs, while the slower and less efficient workers were “let go.” Factories found that paying workers by the piece made them produce more. As a result of Taylorism, a system of elimination emerged where the more efficient workers maintained their jobs, while the slower and less efficient workers were “let go.” The best example of Taylorism efficiency was Henry Ford’s assembly line. It was a successful combination of technology and business organization. The Ford Motor Company was first established in 1903, and by 1913, it was producing 12,000 cars per year. The best example of Taylorism efficiency was Henry Ford’s assembly line. It was a successful combination of technology and business organization. The Ford Motor Company was first established in 1903, and by 1913, it was producing 12,000 cars per year. With the introduction of the assembly line, many unskilled immigrant workers could perform simple tasks associated with many industrial jobs. With the introduction of the assembly line, many unskilled immigrant workers could perform simple tasks associated with many industrial jobs. During this period, many children, ages 10 to 15, were working in textile or shoe factories. As a result, some states began to develop child labor laws. During this period, many children, ages 10 to 15, were working in textile or shoe factories. As a result, some states began to develop child labor laws.

26 The Growth of Industrial America Many women also worked in a lot of factories during this period. A typical skilled woman could earn $5.00 a week, while unskilled men would make $8.00 per week. Many women also worked in a lot of factories during this period. A typical skilled woman could earn $5.00 a week, while unskilled men would make $8.00 per week. Marriage would often end a woman’s factory career. Marriage would often end a woman’s factory career.

27 The Rise of Big Business John D. Rockefeller made millions through Standard Oil, as did Andrew Carnegie through U.S. Steel. John D. Rockefeller made millions through Standard Oil, as did Andrew Carnegie through U.S. Steel. During this period, these business men and others attempted to further control the industries in which they were invested. During this period, these business men and others attempted to further control the industries in which they were invested. Many of these schemes allowed the rich to get richer, with little to no benefit for those who worked for them. Many of these schemes allowed the rich to get richer, with little to no benefit for those who worked for them. Influential stockholders of companies of the same industry would agree to limit production, set prices, and even share profits. These activities became illegal in 1887 by the Interstate Commerce Act. Influential stockholders of companies of the same industry would agree to limit production, set prices, and even share profits. These activities became illegal in 1887 by the Interstate Commerce Act. Another popular method of business was the creation of trusts, an organizational technique which was perfected by Rockefeller. Even though it was illegal for one corporation to hold stock in another, it was legal to create a trust, by which stockholders in a smaller oil company could be “persuaded” to give control of their shares in that company “in trust” to the board of trustees of a large corporation. Another popular method of business was the creation of trusts, an organizational technique which was perfected by Rockefeller. Even though it was illegal for one corporation to hold stock in another, it was legal to create a trust, by which stockholders in a smaller oil company could be “persuaded” to give control of their shares in that company “in trust” to the board of trustees of a large corporation.

28 The Rise of Big Business Using this technique, Standard Oil established a horizontal integration of the Oil industry in the early 1880s, meaning that the board of trustees o Standard Oil also controlled other oil-producing companies. Standard Oil also achieved vertical integration when the company not only moved to control production but also the marketing and distribution of the finished product. Using this technique, Standard Oil established a horizontal integration of the Oil industry in the early 1880s, meaning that the board of trustees o Standard Oil also controlled other oil-producing companies. Standard Oil also achieved vertical integration when the company not only moved to control production but also the marketing and distribution of the finished product. William Graham Sumner wrote in this period about “Social Darwinism,” which proclaimed that God had granted power and wealth to those who deserved it. This theory was used to justify the wealth of people like Rockefeller and Carnegie. William Graham Sumner wrote in this period about “Social Darwinism,” which proclaimed that God had granted power and wealth to those who deserved it. This theory was used to justify the wealth of people like Rockefeller and Carnegie. Carnegie took it a step further which the so called “Gospel of Wealth,” where he proclaimed that America’s industrialists were the “guardians” of the wealth of America. He also said that industrialists also had a duty to “give back to the community.” Carnegie took it a step further which the so called “Gospel of Wealth,” where he proclaimed that America’s industrialists were the “guardians” of the wealth of America. He also said that industrialists also had a duty to “give back to the community.” Despite the fact that both Carnegie and Rockefeller established foundations for worthy causes, they were still known to be “robber barons.” Despite the fact that both Carnegie and Rockefeller established foundations for worthy causes, they were still known to be “robber barons.”

29 The Election of 1884 In 1884, the Republicans nominated James Blaine for president, but due to suspicions about Blaine’s honesty, the reform-minded Mugwumps switched allegiance and they supported the Democratic nominee, Grover Cleveland. In 1884, the Republicans nominated James Blaine for president, but due to suspicions about Blaine’s honesty, the reform-minded Mugwumps switched allegiance and they supported the Democratic nominee, Grover Cleveland. Unlike most Gilded Age politicians, Cleveland was honest, frugal, conscientious, and uncompromising. Unlike most Gilded Age politicians, Cleveland was honest, frugal, conscientious, and uncompromising. He had been an honest mayor of Buffalo and an incorruptible governor of New York. He had been an honest mayor of Buffalo and an incorruptible governor of New York. However, the Republicans targeted Cleveland’s private life. They took issue with the fact that he had fathered an illegitimate child. They also waved the bloody shirt and labeled the Democrats as the party of “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion.” However, the Republicans targeted Cleveland’s private life. They took issue with the fact that he had fathered an illegitimate child. They also waved the bloody shirt and labeled the Democrats as the party of “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion.”

30 The Election of 1884 Cleveland ultimately defeated Blaine with 219 electoral votes (4,874,621 popular votes) to Blaine’s 182 electoral votes (4,848,936 popular votes). He would become the first Democratic President to win the White House since Buchanan in 1856. Cleveland ultimately defeated Blaine with 219 electoral votes (4,874,621 popular votes) to Blaine’s 182 electoral votes (4,848,936 popular votes). He would become the first Democratic President to win the White House since Buchanan in 1856.

31 President Grover Cleveland President Grover Cleveland Born: March 18, 1837 Born: March 18, 1837 Died: June 24, 1908 Died: June 24, 1908 Term in Office: (1885-1889) Term in Office: (1885-1889) Political Party: Democratic Political Party: Democratic Grover Cleveland The Grover Cleveland Presidency

32 The Cleveland Cabinet OfficeNameTerm PresidentGrover Cleveland1885–1889 Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks1885 None1885–1889 Secretary of StateThomas F. Bayard1885–1889 Secretary of Treasury Daniel Manning1885–1887 Charles S. Fairchild1887–1889 Secretary of WarWilliam C. Endicott1885–1889 Attorney GeneralAugustus H. Garland1885–1889 Postmaster General William F. Vilas1885–1888 Donald M. Dickinson1888–1889 Secretary of the NavyWilliam C. Whitney1885–1889 Secretary of the Interior Lucius Q. C. Lamar1885–1888 William F. Vilas1888–1889 Secretary of AgricultureNorman Jay Coleman1889

33 Grover Cleveland The Grover Cleveland Presidency Supreme Court Appointments by President Cleveland Melville Weston Fuller (Chief Justice) – 1888 Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar – 1888 States Admitted to the Union None

34 Grover Cleveland The Grover Cleveland Presidency The Democratic president believed in frugal and limited government in the tradition of Jefferson. He implemented the new civil service system and vetoed hundreds of private pension bills for those who falsely claimed to have served in or was wounded during the Civil War. The Democratic president believed in frugal and limited government in the tradition of Jefferson. He implemented the new civil service system and vetoed hundreds of private pension bills for those who falsely claimed to have served in or was wounded during the Civil War. He signed the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was the first effort to regulate business. Cleveland also signed the Dawes Act which was an effort to help Native Americans. He signed the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was the first effort to regulate business. Cleveland also signed the Dawes Act which was an effort to help Native Americans.

35 The Growth of Labor Unions Although craft unions existed in the period before the Civil War, the first major strike in American History was the large strike of railroad workers that began in July 1877. Although craft unions existed in the period before the Civil War, the first major strike in American History was the large strike of railroad workers that began in July 1877. Railroad workers protested layoffs and the reduction of their wages. In various parts of the country, railroad rails were derailed. The president had to take steps to suppress the unrest. Railroad workers protested layoffs and the reduction of their wages. In various parts of the country, railroad rails were derailed. The president had to take steps to suppress the unrest. The Knights of Labor, which was founded in Philadelphia in 1869 emerged as a major union. Brochures written by the Knights of Labor opened their doors to skilled and unskilled workers and proposed a new, cooperative society, in which laborers would one day work for themselves and not for their bosses. The Knights of Labor, which was founded in Philadelphia in 1869 emerged as a major union. Brochures written by the Knights of Labor opened their doors to skilled and unskilled workers and proposed a new, cooperative society, in which laborers would one day work for themselves and not for their bosses. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the next major national labor organization to achieve national stature. The AFL was organized by crafts and made up almost exclusively of skilled workers. They, unlike the Knights of Labor, bargained for bread and butter issues. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was the next major national labor organization to achieve national stature. The AFL was organized by crafts and made up almost exclusively of skilled workers. They, unlike the Knights of Labor, bargained for bread and butter issues. By 1917, the AFL had had over 2.5 million members. By 1917, the AFL had had over 2.5 million members. Miners in the West also were engaged in labor activity, and in late 1905, they formed the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Miners in the West also were engaged in labor activity, and in late 1905, they formed the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW).

36 Transformation of the American City The construction of new factories and influx of immigrants from abroad and from the countryside helped force the radical transformation of many industrial cities in this era. The construction of new factories and influx of immigrants from abroad and from the countryside helped force the radical transformation of many industrial cities in this era. New methods of transportation helped to aid in the transformation of the industrial city. Such as elevated trains, cable cars, electric trolleys and subways. New methods of transportation helped to aid in the transformation of the industrial city. Such as elevated trains, cable cars, electric trolleys and subways. Almost all cities had poor sections. The rapid influx of poor immigrants turned into horribly overcrowded slums. Almost all cities had poor sections. The rapid influx of poor immigrants turned into horribly overcrowded slums. The development of stronger and more durable Bessemer steel girders could now support taller buildings, and the first elevators were developed. The development of stronger and more durable Bessemer steel girders could now support taller buildings, and the first elevators were developed. The first skyscraper would be finished in 1885, The Home Insurance Company building in Chicago. The first skyscraper would be finished in 1885, The Home Insurance Company building in Chicago. City officials in almost every industrial city realized the necessity of construction and city improvements. After the turn of the century, schools, public buildings, and even sewers began to be built at a rapid rate. City officials in almost every industrial city realized the necessity of construction and city improvements. After the turn of the century, schools, public buildings, and even sewers began to be built at a rapid rate. However, the lack of housing was a major problem that urban planners were unable to solve, resulting in a large number of homeless people. However, the lack of housing was a major problem that urban planners were unable to solve, resulting in a large number of homeless people.

37 The Election of 1888 Towards the end of his first term, Cleveland created a political storm by challenging the high protective tariff. He proposed that Congress set lower tariff rates, since there was a growing surplus in the federal treasury and the government did not need the added tax revenue. Towards the end of his first term, Cleveland created a political storm by challenging the high protective tariff. He proposed that Congress set lower tariff rates, since there was a growing surplus in the federal treasury and the government did not need the added tax revenue. With the tariff issue, Cleveland introduced a real issue, the first in years that truly divided Democrats and Republicans. With the tariff issue, Cleveland introduced a real issue, the first in years that truly divided Democrats and Republicans. Benjamin Harrison was nominated by the Republicans and Cleveland was re- nominated by the Democrats. Harrison campaigned for a higher tariff and he stated that a low tariff would hurt American businesses. The Republicans also attacked Cleveland’s veto on the pension bills to secure the veteran vote. Benjamin Harrison was nominated by the Republicans and Cleveland was re- nominated by the Democrats. Harrison campaigned for a higher tariff and he stated that a low tariff would hurt American businesses. The Republicans also attacked Cleveland’s veto on the pension bills to secure the veteran vote.

38 The Election of 1888 Cleveland defeated Harrison in the popular votes. He wins of the popular vote 5,534,488 to Harrison’s 5,443,892. Cleveland defeated Harrison in the popular votes. He wins of the popular vote 5,534,488 to Harrison’s 5,443,892. Harrison defeated Cleveland with 233 electoral votes (4,874,621 popular votes) to Cleveland’s 168 electoral votes (4,848,936 popular votes). Harrison defeated Cleveland with 233 electoral votes (4,874,621 popular votes) to Cleveland’s 168 electoral votes (4,848,936 popular votes). For the third time in U.S. History, the winner of the popular vote did not prevail in the electoral college. For the third time in U.S. History, the winner of the popular vote did not prevail in the electoral college. Benjamin Harrison became the only president to have his grandfather, William Henry Harrison, to have been elected president. Benjamin Harrison became the only president to have his grandfather, William Henry Harrison, to have been elected president.

39 President Benjamin Harrison President Benjamin Harrison Born: August 20, 1833 Born: August 20, 1833 Died: March 13, 1901 Died: March 13, 1901 Term in Office: (1889-1893) Term in Office: (1889-1893) Political Party: Republican Political Party: Republican Benjamin Harrison The Benjamin Harrison Presidency

40 The Harrison Cabinet OfficeNameTerm PresidentBenjamin Harrison1889–1893 Vice PresidentLevi P. Morton1889–1893 Secretary of State James G. Blaine1889–1892 John W. Foster1892–1893 Secretary of Treasury William Windom1889–1891 Charles W. Foster1891–1893 Secretary of War Redfield Proctor1889–1891 Stephen B. Elkins1891–1893 Attorney GeneralWilliam H. H. Miller1889–1893 Postmaster GeneralJohn Wanamaker1889–1893 Secretary of the NavyBenjamin F. Tracy1889–1893 Secretary of the InteriorJohn W. Noble1889–1893 Secretary of AgricultureJeremiah M. Rusk1889–1893

41 Benjamin Harrison The Benjamin Harrison Presidency Supreme Court Appointments by President Harrison David Josiah Brewer -1890 Henry Billings Brown – 1891 George Shiras, Jr. - 1892 Howell Edmunds Jackson – 1893 States Admitted to the Union North Dakota – November 2, 1889 South Dakota – November 2, 1889 Montana – November 8, 1889 Washington – November 11, 1889 Idaho – July 10, 1890 Wyoming – July 10, 1890

42 The Rise of Populism In 1867, the Grange organization was founded by Western farmers. By 1875, it boasted over 800,000 members. In 1867, the Grange organization was founded by Western farmers. By 1875, it boasted over 800,000 members. Through the Grange, framer cooperatives were formed Through the Grange, framer cooperatives were formed On July 4, 1892, a national convention of Farmers’ Alliances created the People’s Party in Omaha, Nebraska. Supporters of this party were known as Populists. On July 4, 1892, a national convention of Farmers’ Alliances created the People’s Party in Omaha, Nebraska. Supporters of this party were known as Populists. The Populist Party main aims were to appeal to workers in all parts of the country and to have Government take a larger role in American Society. The Populist Party main aims were to appeal to workers in all parts of the country and to have Government take a larger role in American Society. The party platform included all of the following: The party platform included all of the following: Implementation of an eight hour work day. Implementation of an eight hour work day. The creation of a progressive income tax. The creation of a progressive income tax. Increasing the circulation of money. Increasing the circulation of money. Government ownership of communication and transportation systems Government ownership of communication and transportation systems More direct methods of democracy (recalls, referendums, direct primaries, etc.) More direct methods of democracy (recalls, referendums, direct primaries, etc.)

43 The Election of 1892 The 1892 Election sets the stage for a rematch between the two major parties. The Republicans re-nominated Harrison as their party’s nominee. The Democrats nominated former President Grover Cleveland (for the third consecutive time) to be the Democratic Party’s Presidential nominee. The 1892 Election sets the stage for a rematch between the two major parties. The Republicans re-nominated Harrison as their party’s nominee. The Democrats nominated former President Grover Cleveland (for the third consecutive time) to be the Democratic Party’s Presidential nominee. However, the newly formed populist movement produced Populist candidate, James Weaver. The fear of Populists uniting poor blacks and whites drove conservative Democrats to use every technique to disfranchise African Americans. However, the newly formed populist movement produced Populist candidate, James Weaver. The fear of Populists uniting poor blacks and whites drove conservative Democrats to use every technique to disfranchise African Americans.

44 The Election of 1892 Cleveland defeated Harrison and Weaver with 277 electoral votes (5,556,918 popular votes) to Harrison’s 145 electoral votes (5,176,108 popular votes) and Weaver’s 22 electoral votes (1,041,028 popular votes). Cleveland defeated Harrison and Weaver with 277 electoral votes (5,556,918 popular votes) to Harrison’s 145 electoral votes (5,176,108 popular votes) and Weaver’s 22 electoral votes (1,041,028 popular votes). Cleveland’s victory is historic for several reasons. First, he became the only president, to date, to have been elected to two nonconsecutive terms. Cleveland’s victory is historic for several reasons. First, he became the only president, to date, to have been elected to two nonconsecutive terms. Secondly, up until that point, Cleveland was the only Democratic President to have been nominated by his party to run for President three consecutive times. It will not be until Franklin D. Roosevelt that another Democrat would win the nomination three or more three times in a row. Secondly, up until that point, Cleveland was the only Democratic President to have been nominated by his party to run for President three consecutive times. It will not be until Franklin D. Roosevelt that another Democrat would win the nomination three or more three times in a row.

45 President Grover Cleveland President Grover Cleveland Born: March 18, 1837 Born: March 18, 1837 Died: June 24, 1908 Died: June 24, 1908 Term in Office: (1893-1897) Term in Office: (1893-1897) Political Party: Democratic Political Party: Democratic Grover Cleveland The Grover Cleveland Presidency

46 The Cleveland Cabinet OfficeNameTerm PresidentGrover Cleveland1893–1897 Vice PresidentAdlai E. Stevenson1893–1897 Secretary of State Walter Q. Gresham1893–1895 Richard Olney1895–1897 Secretary of TreasuryJohn G. Carlisle1893–1897 Secretary of WarDaniel S. Lamont1893–1897 Attorney General Richard Olney1893–1895 Judson Harmon1895–1897 Postmaster General Wilson S. Bissell1893–1895 William L. Wilson1895–1897 Secretary of the NavyHilary A. Herbert1893–1897 Secretary of the Interior M. Hoke Smith1893–1896 David R. Francis1896–1897 Secretary of AgricultureJulius S. Morton1893–1897

47 Grover Cleveland The Grover Cleveland Presidency Supreme Court Appointments by President Cleveland Edward Douglass White – 1894 Rufus Wheeler Peckham – 1895 States Admitted to the Union Utah - January 4, 1896

48 The Resurrection of Cleveland The re-election of Grover Cleveland angered the agricultural interests greatly, as he announced his continued support of the gold standard during his inauguration speech. In 1893, a depression hit the country, with workers from all parts of the country being laid off. In 1894, Populist marchers joined with marchers from many groups protesting the government’s financial policies. By 1896, it had become quite clear that the American economy was no longer a sectional economic system, but rather a national one. Furthermore, in the battle between the agricultural and industrial visions of the American economy, it was also clear that industry had prevailed.

49 The Election of 1896 The election of 1896 was considered the most emotional in U.S. History. The Democrats were divided between the Gold Democrats (supporters of Cleveland) and Pro-Silver Democrats. The election of 1896 was considered the most emotional in U.S. History. The Democrats were divided between the Gold Democrats (supporters of Cleveland) and Pro-Silver Democrats. Addressing the Democratic Convention in Chicago in the Summer of 1896 was William Jennings Bryan, who appealed to the hearts of the delegates. He gave his greatest speech called the “Cross of Gold.” So powerful was his speech that he became the Democratic nominee overnight. Addressing the Democratic Convention in Chicago in the Summer of 1896 was William Jennings Bryan, who appealed to the hearts of the delegates. He gave his greatest speech called the “Cross of Gold.” So powerful was his speech that he became the Democratic nominee overnight. Bryan favored a platform that sought to make the unlimited coinage of silver at the traditional. But inflationary, ration of 16 ounces of silver to one ounce of gold. Thus the Democrats had taken over the leading issue of the Populist Platform. Bryan favored a platform that sought to make the unlimited coinage of silver at the traditional. But inflationary, ration of 16 ounces of silver to one ounce of gold. Thus the Democrats had taken over the leading issue of the Populist Platform.

50 The Election of 1896 Given little choice, the Populists nominated Bryan and they fused their campaigns with the Democrats. Given little choice, the Populists nominated Bryan and they fused their campaigns with the Democrats. The Republicans nominated William McKinley of Ohio, best known for his support of a high protective tariff but also as a friend to labor. With the help of his financial backer and strategist, Marcus Hanna, McKinley crafted a campaign that blamed the Democrats for the Panic of 1893. He then became the voice of “high tariffs to protect industry” and the upholding of “gold standard against the unlimited coinage of silver.” The Republicans nominated William McKinley of Ohio, best known for his support of a high protective tariff but also as a friend to labor. With the help of his financial backer and strategist, Marcus Hanna, McKinley crafted a campaign that blamed the Democrats for the Panic of 1893. He then became the voice of “high tariffs to protect industry” and the upholding of “gold standard against the unlimited coinage of silver.” McKinley defeated Bryan with 271 electoral votes (7,102,246 popular votes) to Bryan’s 176 electoral votes (6,492,559 popular votes). McKinley defeated Bryan with 271 electoral votes (7,102,246 popular votes) to Bryan’s 176 electoral votes (6,492,559 popular votes). With this election, the country would enter a new era… the progressive era. With this election, the country would enter a new era… the progressive era.

51 THE END OF LECTURE #15


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