2 Articulatory phonetics focuses on the organs of speech and their role in producing speech sounds, which is based on data provided by other sciences, such as human anatomy and physiology.
3 Speech is the result of neuromotor activity, thus the sound originates in the brain. After the creation of the message in the mind, a number of commands are executed by the organs of speech to physically produce the sound.The physical production initiates in the lungs and undergoes important modifications in the respiratory tract before it is realised.
4 The different stages involved in this process are referred to as a speech chain. Clark and Yallop (1992) view this process as a kind of speech mechanism involving the active or passive functioning of the organs of speech.
5 The stages in physical speech mechanism are as follows: Initiation or Respiration (the lungs provide the energy source);Phonation (the vocal folds convert the energy into an audible sound);The Oronasal Process (the soft palate distributes the audible sound into the oral cavity or nasal cavity);Articulation (the organs of speech transform the sound into an intelligible speech sound).
6 After the initiation and phonation processes in the larynx and the pharynx, the audible sound is formed into a concrete sound with the help of the organs of speech (articulators) situated in the oral cavity.
10 Active and passive organs of speech Active (flexible) organs of speech (because they can be moved into contact with other articulators) arethe lungsthe vocal foldsthe tonguethe soft palate (velum)the uvula the upper lipthe lower lipthe lower jawthe lower teeth
11 Active and passive organs of speech Passive (stable) organs of speech (because they are stable (immobile) in sound production and their most important function is to act as the place of an articulatory stricture)the upper teeththe alveolar ridgethe hard palate the pharynxthe larynxthe vocal tract
12 Consonants are often classified according Voicing, Place and Manner: voicing means that the vocal folds are used; if they are not, the sound is voiceless (note that vowels always imply the use of vocal folds);place of articulation is the place where the air flow will be more or less obstructed;manner is concerned with the nature of the obstruction.
13 VoicingIn a normal position, the vocal folds are apart and we say that the glottis is open.When the edges of the vocal folds touch each other, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration.This opening and closing is repeated regularly and gives what is called voicing.
17 [b] [p] [m]Bilabial sounds are produced when the lips are brought together.
18 [f] [v]Labiodental sounds are made when the lower lip is raised towards the upper front teeth.
19 /θ/ /ð/Dental sounds are produced by touching the upper front teeth with the tip of the tongue.
20 /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/Alveolar sounds are made by raising the tip of the tongue towards the ridge that is right behind the upper front teeth, called the alveolar ridge.
21 /ʃ/ /ʧ/ /ʒ/ /ʤ/Palatoalveolar sounds are made by raising the blade of the tongue towards the part of the palate just behind the alveolar ridge.
22 [ j]Palatal sounds are very similar to palatoalveolar ones, they are just produced further back towards the velum.
23 /r/apico-postalveolar sound is made by upturning the tip of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge
24 /k/, /ɡ/, /ŋ/Velar sounds are made by raising the back of the tongue towards the soft palate, called the velum.
25 [h]Glottal sounds are produced when the air passes through the glottis as it is narrowed.
26 The manner of articulation The manner of articulation has to do with the kind of obstruction the air meets on its way out, after it has passed the vocal folds. It may meet a complete closure (plosives), an almost complete closure (fricatives), or a smaller degree of closure (approximants), or the air might escape in more exceptional ways, around the sides of the tongue (laterals), or through the nasal cavity (nasals).
27 When the obstruction totally blocks the airflow, it is called a complete or occlusive obstruction. The obstruents and sonorants with this type of obstruction are classified under one of two terms:plosive obstruents: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /ɡ/;nasal sonorants: /m/, /n/, /ŋ/.In the production of the plosive obstruents, the air is obstructed and then released with a small burst of noise (plosion). They are also defined as stops because they cannot be prolonged.
28 When the closure is not quite complete, it is called constrictive When the closure is not quite complete, it is called constrictive. The air either escapes through a narrow passage and makes a hissing sound for obstruents, or it penetrates through the sides of the obstruction and escapes rather freely through the nasal or oral cavity for sonorants. The following sounds are produced with constriction:fricative obstruents: /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /h/;constrictive sonorants: /l/, /r/, /j/, /w/.
29 A few sounds are generated with a double-sided obstruction, which may be defined as occlusive-constrictive. Affricates are the two sounds that are produced in this manner: /tʃ/, /dʒ/. The initial complete closure of the plosive sounds /t/ and /d/ is released through a constriction for the fricative sounds /ʃ/ and /ʒ/.
30 The manners of articulation can be put into two major groups, obtruents and sonorants. The obstruents are plosives, fricatives and affricates, all sounds with a high degree of obstruction. Obstruents usually come in pairs, one voiceless, one voiced, e.g. [p/b, t/d].Sonorants have much less obstruction and are all voiced and therefore more sonorous. They include nasals, the lateral, and approximants.