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Entire Year Environmental Review. SUSTAINABLE To use resources in such a way as to meet needs now and provide for needs in the future. Without depleting.

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Presentation on theme: "Entire Year Environmental Review. SUSTAINABLE To use resources in such a way as to meet needs now and provide for needs in the future. Without depleting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Entire Year Environmental Review

2 SUSTAINABLE To use resources in such a way as to meet needs now and provide for needs in the future. Without depleting or degrading the earth’s natural resources Sustainable society: Meets basic needs-food, clean water and air (SOIL?), shelter

3 RULE of 70 (you should KNOW this) Way to estimate population growth Doubling time is years for population to double its size Rule of 70: 70/percentage growth rate = doubling time in years US: 70/0.92 (2005 est.) = 76 years India: 70/1.4= 50 years Sweden: 70/.17 = 412 years

4 What is the current world population? About 6 billion. You should know this. If our growth rate is 1.28%, when will the world population double? Is it within your life time? US population is 300 million

5 Economic growth indices GNI: gross national income (was GNP: gross national product) GNI PPP: gross national income in purchasing power parity GDP: gross domestic product GWP: gross world product Per capita GNI (calculated at midyear) Per capita GNI PPP

6 Developed countries US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, all countries in Europe Highly industrialized Per capita GNI PPP > $10,750/year 19% of world population 85% of world’s wealth Use 88% of world’s resources Generate 75% of pollution and waste of world

7 Developing countries Africa, Asia and Latin American countries Middle income per capita GNI PPP ~$3-11K Low income per capita GNI PPP <$3K 81% of population 15% of world wealth 12% of world resources 25% of world pollution and wastes Increase by 1 million people every 5 days-why?

8 Anthropogenic changes contribute to global change 73% of habitable land has been disturbed Gases emitted into atmosphere largely from burning fossil fuels also from other anthropogenic sources have altered climate: global warming at in increased rate Alterations in climate include shifting arable areas or reduction in arable land Alteration of precipitation by amount, location, and phase Alteration of community structure Sea level rise

9 Resources 3 categories: perpetual, renewable, nonrenewable Perpetual: solar energy; on human time scale renewed continuously Renewable: Replenished within our life time (less than decades, less than 100 years); not sustainable if used more rapidly; forests, grasslands, wild animals, fresh water, fresh air, arable soil Nonrenewable: Fixed quantity on Earth; coal, oil, natural gas, metallic and nonmetallic mine ores

10 What are alternatives once a nonrenewable resource becomes economically depleted? Costs of extraction and using what is left exceed its economic value. Find more Recycle or reuse existing supplies Waste less; use less Try to develop substitute Wait millions of years for more to be made

11 Recycle versus reuse Recycling: products collected and reprocessed into new products Reuse: products are used over and over again-like refilling a water bottle instead of making a new water bottle from recycled products or newly acquired resources

12 5 R’s Refuse: do not use Replace: find a less harmful substitute Reduce: use less Reuse Recycle

13 Ecological footprint Amount of land needed to produce resources needed by an average person in a country It is a way to express environmental impact Hectare metric = 100 acres

14 Relative ecological footprints per person

15 Relative ecological footprints by country

16 pollution Any addition to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival or activities of living organisms Point sources of pollution emanate pollution from a single, identifiable source Nonpoint pollution emanates from many possible sources and are dispersed over a large area land or in water or air Most regulations apply to point pollution sources

17 Tragedy of the commons Degradation of common property or free access resources Air, water, migratory birds, wildlife species, publicly owned lands, space Everyone contributes to degradation and no one feels responsible for conservation or restoration

18 Major Environmental Problems Air pollution Water pollution Food supply problems Waste production Loss of biodiversity

19 Main Causes of Environmental Problems Rapid population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Not including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices Trying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge about how it works

20 Shifting the dominant paradigm From pollution clean up to prevention From waste disposal to waste prevention From protecting species to protecting places From env degradation to env restoration From increased resource use to more efficient resource use From population growth to population stabilization by decreasing birth rates

21 Air Pollution Global climate change Stratospheric ozone depletion Urban air pollution Acid deposition Outdoor pollutants Indoor pollutants Noise Biodiversity Depletion Habitat destruction Habitat degradation Extinction Water Pollution Sediment Nutrient overload Toxic chemicals Infectious agents Oxygen depletion Pesticides Oil spills Excess heat Waste Production Solid waste Hazardous waste Food Supply Problems Overgrazing Farmland loss and degradation Wetlands loss and degradation Overfishing Coastal pollution Soil erosion Soil salinization Soil waterlogging Water shortages Groundwater depletion Loss of biodiversity Poor nutrition Major Environmental Problems Fig. 1.13, p. 14

22 Greatest Cause of Env Problems is increase in human populations globally Rapid population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Not including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices Trying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge about how it works

23 Env History: The Early Conservation Era Period 1832-1960 Concern over resource use Preservation of public lands Public health initiatives Environmental restoration projects

24 Important figures during the early conservation era Henry David Thoreau-naturalist and journalist John Muir-geologist, explorer, and naturalist, CA Yosemite Valley-Yosemite National Park 1890, west, AK, founded Sierra Club, congressional lobbyist George Marsh-VT, questioned country's resources were inexhaustible, formulated basic resource conservations principles Theodore Roosevelt-first to bring issues of conservation to the attention of the American public; contributed more than any other president to natural resource conservation in US Alice Hamilton-expert in industrial medicine, investigated occupational hazards, pollution prevention Franklin Roosevelt-TVA, CCC (Civilian conservation corps)

25 Aldo Leopold LAND ETHICS Forestry and game management Founder of the wilderness society 1935 Problems arise when land viewed as a commodity

26 Environmental Era Period: 1960-2000 Environmental movement Science of ecology Spaceship Earth worldview 1980s anti-environmental movement 1990s environmental awareness

27 Important Figures of Environmental Era Rachel Carson – Silent Spring Richard Nixon-EPA, ESA Jimmy Carter-DOE, Superfund Ronald Reagan-antienvironmentalist Bill Clinton-environmental concerns a priority

28 Clean Air Act 1970, 1977, 1990 The Clean Air Act is the comprehensive Federal law that regulates air emissions from area, stationary, and mobile sources. This law authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and the environment: primary and secondary air quality standards. States directed to develop state implementation plans (SIPs) appropriate for industrial sources in the state. 1977 amended to set new dates for goals. 1990 amendments to meet insufficiently addressed problems including acid rain, ground-level ozone, stratospheric ozone depletion, and air toxics. (Keep in mind that in 1948 in Pennsylvania, 20 people died and 7,000 people were sick in a smog incident. In 1952 in London, 4,000 people died of smog and another 1,000 died from smog in 1956.)

29 The Clean Water Act (CWA); (1977) Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. As amended in 1977, this law became commonly known as the Clean Water Act. regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the US EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. Clean Water Act also set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. The Act made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained under its provisions. funded the construction of sewage treatment plants recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution. law required EPA to establish water quality criteria for the Great Lakes addressing 29 toxic pollutants with maximum levels that are safe for humans, wildlife, and aquatic life (The Act does not deal directly with ground water or with water quantity issues.) Safe Drinking water Act (1974) Set standards for safety of public drinking water supplies and to safeguard groundwater. Major changes made in 1986 and 1996.

30 Endangered Species Act (ESA). (1973) Endangered Species Act provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior maintains the list of 632 endangered species (326 are plants) and 190 threatened species (78 are plants) Species include birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crustaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees. Anyone can petition FWS to include a species on this list.U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceDepartment of the Interior The law prohibits any action, administrative or real, that results in a "taking" of a listed species, or adversely affects habitat. Likewise, import, export, interstate, and foreign commerce of listed species are all prohibited. Pesticides! Regulated to protect species. Environmentalists long considered this act to be the only one w “teeth”

31 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA); (1970) ensure worker and workplace safety make sure employers provide their workers a place of employment free from recognized hazards to safety and health, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions.

32 Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) (1990) focused industry, government, and public attention on reducing the amount of pollution through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use Opportunities for source reduction are often not realized because of existing regulations, and the industrial resources required for compliance, focus on treatment and disposal. Source reduction is fundamentally different and more desirable than waste management or pollution control. Pollution prevention also includes other practices that increase efficiency in the use of energy, water, or other natural resources, and protect our resource base through conservation. Practices include recycling, source reduction, and sustainable agriculture.

33 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (1986) SARA reflected EPA's experience in administering the complex Superfund program during its first six years and made several important changes and additions to the program. SARA: stressed the importance of permanent remedies and innovative treatment technologies in cleaning up hazardous waste sites; required Superfund actions to consider the standards and requirements found in other State and Federal environmental laws and regulations; provided new enforcement authorities and settlement tools; increased State involvement in every phase of the Superfund program; increased the focus on human health problems posed by hazardous waste sites; encouraged greater citizen participation in making decisions on how sites should be cleaned up; and increased the size of the trust fund to $8.5 billion. SARA also required EPA to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) to ensure that it accurately assessed the relative degree of risk to human health and the environment posed by uncontrolled hazardous waste sites that may be placed on the National Priorities List (NPL).Hazard Ranking SystemNational Priorities List

34 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); (1976) EPA tracks 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the US EPA repeatedly screens these chemicals and can require reporting or testing of those that may pose an environmental or human-health hazard EPA can ban the manufacture and import of those chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk EPA has mechanisms in place to track the thousands of new chemicals that industry develops each year with either unknown or dangerous characteristics. EPA then can control these chemicals as necessary to protect human health and the environment. TSCA supplements other Federal statutes, including the Clean Air Act and the Toxic Release Inventory under EPCRAClean Air Act EPCRA

35 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)(1928) Food and Drug Administration oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. Food and Drug Administrationsafety of food In 1968, the Electronic Product Radiation Control DESI provisions were added to the FD&C. The act was amended by the FDA Modernization Act of 1997.DESI The FD&C is perhaps best known by the consumer because of its use in the naming of food coloring additives, such as "FD&C Yellow No. 6." The Act made the certification of food color additives mandatory. The FD&C lists nine certified color additives for use in the United States. Color additives derived from natural sources, such as vegetables, minerals or animals, and man-made counterparts of natural derivatives, are exempt from certification. Both artificial and natural color additives are subject to rigorous standards of safety prior to their approval for use in foods.food coloringadditives These regulations apply to foods produced by genetic enineering and if the protein added to the food by the genetic engineering process is not "Generally Recognised as Safe" then GM food is regarded as containing a "food additive" and is subject to premarket approval by the FDA. All GM foods sold in the USA have been subject to this FDA premarket approval process.

36 National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) charter for protection of the environment It establishes policy, sets goals, and provides means for carrying out the policy. Requires environmental impact statements. Created Council on Environmental Quality.

37 MMPA-Marine Mammal Protection Act 1972 federal responsibility to conserve marine mammals, with management vested in the Department of Commerce for cetaceans and pinnipeds other than walrus. The Department of the Interior is responsible for all other marine mammals, including sea otter, walrus, polar bear, dugong and manatee. certain species and population stocks of marine mammals are or may be in danger of extinction or depletion due to human activities these mammals should not be permitted to diminish below their optimum sustainable population measures should be taken immediately to replenish any of these mammals that have diminished below that level, and efforts should be made to protect essential habitats there is inadequate knowledge of the ecology and population dynamics of these mammals negotiations should be undertaken immediately to encourage international arrangements for research and conservation of these mammals.

38 Riparian Rights and Prior Appropriation Act First user to get the water, has the right to take as much as they did the first year indefinitely. (Riparian means river.) Riparian Rights-If next to property, may use, but cannot divert the entire source of water.

39 Wilderness Act – 1964 Government protects undeveloped land. No roads, no mining, no vehicles – not even bicycles. Hiking, canoeing, camping allowed. Congress can take back if needed for national good.

40 CITES- (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.

41 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act 1935 Secretary of Agriculture conducts soil erosion surveys and prevention measures Soil Conservation Service to conduct these activities Emphasis was given to engineering operations, methods of cultivation, growing of vegetation and other land uses as preventative measures. Subsequent amendments set goals of decreasing soil erosion and maintaining the navigability of rivers. Amendments authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to develop 10-year agreements with farmers for changes in cropping patterns and land use to conserve soil, water, forest, wildlife and recreational resources, and stipulated related procedures.

42 Ecology Study of how organisms interact with one another and with their nonliving environment Sustainable ecosystems have a balance and resilience in these relationships between the organisms and the environment in a way that perpetuates the system without depleting the resources

43 Setting up the hierarchy Cell  organism (prokaryote, eukaryotic, species, asexual, sexual) Population- all individuals of a species in an area genetic diversity: size age distrib density genetic composition Habitat-location, address Niche-function or role in ecosystem community-populations interacting in area ecosystem-community of diff species interacting w one another & with their nonliving env of matter & energy biome biosphere

44 Life Support Systems biosphere: portion of earth in which living exist and interact and w nonliving environment most of hydrosphere (water) and parts of the lower atmosphere (air)and upper lithosphere (rock, crust) deepest ocean floor 20 K to tops of highest mountains TTHINTHINTHINTHIN of this 73% of habitable land has been perturbed by man

45 Sun’s energy most of what reaches the atmosphere is visible light IR UV 1) warms trophosphere and land 2) evap water and cycles it through the biosphere 3) generates winds

46 Fig. 4.8, p. 75 Solar radiation Energy in = Energy out Reflected by atmosphere (34%) UV radiation Absorbed by ozone Absorbed by the earth Visible light Lower Stratosphere (ozone layer) Troposphere Heat Greenhouse effect Radiated by atmosphere as heat (66%) Earth Heat radiated by the earth

47 BIOMES regions char by distinct climate and specific life-forms esp veg adapted to climate climate: long-term patterns of weather climate drives aquatic-freshwater or marine freshwater lotic or lentic no in this book but in most counted as biomes on their own ecotone: transition not truly self-contained- that is why violate 3rd law of thermodynamics 2 sources allochthonous and autochthonous

48 FORCING FUNCTIONS Factor that determines the structure/function of an ecosystem light Hydrology: water Nutrient cycling or availability

49 Range of tolerance each pop has range of tolerance in physical and chem env individuals may have slight differences range is usually average conditions genetics, age, health total range and optimum range

50 Niches producers autotrophs most use light to fix CO2 some are chemoautotrophs consumers heterotrophs Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, scavengers detritivores detritus feeders and decomposers detritus feeders extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter in leaf litter, plant debris, and animal dung decomposers 1) breaking down biodegrading detritus 2) releasing the resulting simpler inorganic compounds in to the soil and water then can be taken up by producers

51 Fig. 4.21, p. 85 Energy Input: 20,810 + 1,679,190 1,700,000 (100%) Energy Output Total Annual Energy Flow Metabolic heat, export Waste, remains 1,700,000 kilocalories Producers Herbivores Carnivores Top carnivores Decomposers, detritivores Energy Transfers 20,810 (1.2%) Incoming solar energy not harnessed 1,679,190 (98.8%) 4,2453,36813,197 7203832,265 9021272 516 Top carnivores Carnivores Herbivores Producers 5,060 Decomposers/detritivores 20,810 3,368 383 21

52 Carbon Cycle

53

54 Phosphorus Cycle

55 Sulfur Cycle

56 Nitrogen Cycle

57 Water Cycle

58 What factors contribute to speciation? Why would an organism be needed? function What could lead to new niches? Structure

59 Adapted to heat through lightweight fur and long ears, legs, and nose, which give off more heat. Adapted to cold through heavier fur, short ears, short legs, short nose. White fur matches snow for camouflage. Gray Fox Arctic Fox Different environmental conditions lead to different selective pressures and evolution into two different species. Spreads northward and southward and separates Southern population Northern population Early fox population Fig. 5.8, p. 113 Allopatric speciation

60 Sympatric Speciation A new species forms within the same spatial and temporal location as the original species; There is no geographic isolation or difference in diurnal or seasonal patterns Changes in niche availability can lead to sympatric speciation Co-evolution can lead to sympatric speciation Need for resource partitioning can lead to sympatric speciation

61 When is selection likely to occur? when change in env conditions occurs pop can adapt through nat select or migrate if poss to better conditions or become extinct example: peppered moth in England soot on tree trunks birds eat if not blend in

62 3 types of natural selection directional natural selection: changing env conditions cause allele freq to shift so individual w traits at end of normal range become more common than midrange forms stabilizing natural selection : favor indivi in mid curve –average; works best if env changes little and most member of pop are adapted to env diversifying natural selection : occurs when env cond favor individuals at extremes of curve ;eliminate indeterminate traits ; pop may be split into two groups

63 ecological niche: function include range of tolerance for physical and chemical factors types and amts of resources it uses how interacts w other living and nonliving components role it plays in energy flow adaptative traits reflect niche traits enable population to survive and reproduce effectively under given set environmental conditions Fundamental niche is what it could be in the best of all circumstances Realized niche is what it is with limitations that are present

64 biodiversity: speciation - extinction extinction followed by period of recovery that are characterized by adaptive radiation new species evolve to fill new or vacated ecological roles or niches in changed environments 5 mya years to rebuild biological diversity

65 Human Impacts on Biodiversity Food supply and demand Freshwater supply and demand Forest product supply and demand Climate change Biodiversity loss Habitat change Changes in transpiration and albedo Loss of crop genetic diversity Reduced resistance to change Loss and fragmentation of habitat CO 2 emission Habitat change and fragmentation of habitat Changes in precipitation and temperature Water availability Water use and pollution and soil nutrient loss CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O emissions Erosion, pollution, and changes in water flow Loss and fragmentation of habitat Loss and fragmentation of habitat Deforestation Changes in water supply and temperature Changes in water supply and temperature Fig. 22.2, p. 551

66 Species Extinction Local extinction Ecological extinction Biological extinction Mass depletion: not extinction, but MANY species become extinct simultaneously

67 Extinction Risks Factors: population size, habitat, and genetics Population viability analysis Minimum viable population Minimum dynamic area Characteristics of extinction-prone species

68 Solutions: Protecting Wild Species from Depletion and Extinction Bioinformatics International treaties: CITES National Laws: Lacey Act Endangered species Act Habitat conservation plans Wildlife refuges and protected areas Zoos, bontanical gardens, and gene banks

69 2 main types of aquatic ecosystems Marine: saltwater Freshwater

70 Advantages of aquatic ecosystems support more dense constant temp nourish dissolved nutrients water easy dispersement of organisms larvae and eggs less UV dilution of dispersion of pollutants

71 Disadvantages of aquatic ecosystems tolerate only a narrow range of temperatures Exposure to dissolved pollutants fluctuating population size for many species dispersion separates many aquatic offspring from parents

72 major types organisms 1-phytoplankton 2-zooplankton 3-nekton 4-benthos 5-decomposers

73 Factors which limit life zones (surface, middle, bottom) temperature Dissolved oxygen (DO) light penetration availability of nutrients

74 Ocean Ecological Services climate moderation CO2 absorption nutrient cycling waste treatment and dilution reduced storm impact habitats and nursery areas genetic resources and biodiversity scientific information

75 Neritic Zone: Coastal zone of Ocean continental shelf 10 % of ocean area 90% of all marine species most commercial fisheries high PP (primary productivity) per unit area : sunlight and nutrients Most prolific in abundance and diversity Greatest nutrient availability Greatest O2 availability Most structure

76 Estuaries (and wetlands) Estuaries partially enclosed saltwater and freshwater mix temperature and salinity vary greatly in estuaries tides/seasonal variation/rain constant water movement stirs up nutrient rich silt high productive ecosystems -ecological and economic services

77 Human Impact degrade resources 40% of our pop on shores w/n 100Km 13 of 19 megacities on shores marshes/mangroves/seagrass lost wetlands gone trawlers coral reef destruct

78 Characteristics of freshwater streams and rivers Less than 1 ppt (book says 10 ppt!) Standing bodies of water: lentic Flowing bodies of water: lotic Flow from streams - rivers-oceans surface water - not sink or evaporate runoff when flows into streams watershed or drainage basin is area that delivers runoff sediment and dissolved substances to a stream

79 Lentic bodies of water Lakes and ponds (depth) Lakes have 4 zones; ponds usually only one Lakes are formed from depressions caused by glaciation, crustal displacement, or volcanic activity Sources of water include: springs, streams, rainfall, melting snow, and runoff

80 Zones in lakes Littoral zone: shore w emergent vegetation Limnetic zone: surface waters photic zone Profundal zone: deep, open water dysphotic or aphotic zone, low DO Benthic zone: bottom

81 Fig. 7.16, p. 167 Epilimnion Hypolimnion Thermocline SummerFall overturn 22 ˚ 20 ˚ 18 ˚ 8˚8˚ 6˚6˚ 5˚5˚ 4 ˚C 0˚0˚ 2˚2˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ WinterSpring overturn 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4 ˚C Dissolved O 2 concentration High Medium Low 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4˚4˚ 4 ˚C Stratification and seasonal overturn

82 Zonation of freshwater streams 3 aquatic zone in rivers source zone transition zone flood plain zone

83 Sustainability in Aquatic Ecosystems How sustainable are aquatic ecosystems each stream, river, and lake reflects the sum total of all that occurs in watershed nutrients, wastes, pollutants produced by human activities end up in the ocean many chemicals reaching aquatic systems come from the atmosphere

84 structure: 1-physical appearance 2-species diversity 3-species abundance 4-niche structure number and how differ (diversity)

85 3 factors affect species diversity 1-latitude in terrestrial latitudinal species diversity gradient use forest ex 40-100 species in tropical, 10-30 temperate, 1-5 northern coniferous 2-depth in aquatic top and bottom not middle 3-pollution in aquatic decrease in abundance and decrease in diversity (narrow range of tolerance)

86 Major Characteristics of a population Size: N number of individuals Density: number of individuals per unit space Dispersion: spatial pattern Age distribution

87 Limits to Population Growth Births Deaths Immigration Emigration Population change= (births+immigration)-(deaths+emigration)

88 Biotic potential Capacity for growth If a population is at biotic potential, it is probably colonizing new areas Intrinsic rate of increase (r ) is the rate of growth, reproductive rate, if there were unlimited resources

89 Growth factors Favorable environmental conditions High fecundity Generalized niche Adequate food supply Suitable habitat Ability to compete for resources Ability to protect from predation and diseases or parasites Able to migrate Able to adapt to environmental change

90 Environmental resistances Unfavorable abiotic factors Low reproductive rate Specialized niche Inadequate food supply Poor or unsuitable habitat Too much competition Unable to protect against predation and disease Unable to live in other habitats Inability to adapt to environmental change

91 Carrying capacity No population can grow indefinitely Environmental resistances limit population growth Carrying capacity (K) of a population is the result of environmental resistances on biotic potential or the population size that can be sustained indefinitely in a given area

92 Opportunistic vs. Equilibrium Species R selected species small bodied Mature rapidly Highly fecund Numerous offspring No parental care Short lived opportunistic K selected species Larger Slow maturation (yrs) Low fecundity Few offspring Require parental care Live long equilibrium

93 Carrying Capacity dN = rN and dN= rN(K-N) dT dT K

94 Exponential growth If there are few resource limitations, then exponential growth could occur A small population doubles slowly and then as the numbers increase the doubling rate decreases resulting in a J shaped curve

95 Logistic growth Exponential population growth is decreased with the population encounters environmental resistance (no food, no suitable habitat, competition and so on) After a sharp increase, the growth decreases resulting in an S shaped curve

96 Fig. 9.4, p. 201 Time (t) Population size (N) K Exponential GrowthLogistic Growth Exponential and Logistic growth

97 Fig. 9.5, p. 201 2.0 1.5 1.0.5 Number of sheep (millions) 180018251850187519001925 Year Logistic growth

98 Density Independent Factors on population growth Affect population’s size regardless of population density Floods Fires Hurricanes Unseasonable weather Habitat destruction pesticides

99 Density dependent Factors on population growth Competition for resources Predation Parasitism disease

100 Fig. 9.6, p. 201 2,000 1,500 Number of reindeer 19101920193019401950 Year 1,000 500 Exponential growth followed by population crash

101 Types of population fluctuations Stable Irruptive (explosive) Irregular (no known pattern or etiology) Cyclic (boom and bust)

102 Fig. 9.7, p. 202 Number of individuals Time Irruptive Stable Cyclic Irregular Types of population fluctuations

103 Minimum Viable Population MVP The population size required to support a sustained breeding population If fall below MVP then, Mates may not be available Genetically related individuals may interbreed and produce weak or malformed offspring Genetic diversity may be too low to enable adaptation (to little variation in the population) to new environment conditions

104 Survivorship curves Number of survivors of each age group for a particular species at a given point in time Early loss curves: r selected species Constant loss curves: intermediate reproductive pattern constant rate of mortality in all age classes Late loss- K selected

105 Conservation biology addresses the following questions Which species are in danger of extinction? What is the status of the ecosystems’ functioning, and what ecosystem services are we in danger of losing? What measures can we take to help sustain ecosystem functions and viable populations of wild species?

106 Need to know: Current population size Project how population size is likely to change with time Determine whether existing populations are likely to be sustainable

107 Principles of conservation biology Biodiversity is necessary to all life on earth and should not be reduced by human actions. Humans should not cause extinctions or disrupt vital ecological processes. The best way to preserve biodiversity and ecological functions is the protect intact ecosystems.

108 gen types of species native nonnative or alien or exotic indicator serve as warning of damage or degradation of community or ecosystem

109 amphibians vanish habitat fragmentation prolonged drought Pollution increases in UV increased parasitism Overhunting epidemic diseases chytrid fungus and iridoviruses immigration or introduction of non-native predators, competitors, and diseases

110 Keystone species keystone regulate the balance of the ecosystem's populations by virtue of predation on more than one species in differing quantities 1-strong interactions w othe species affect health and survival of these species 2-process material out of proportion to their numbers of bomass

111 ROLES of keystone species pollination of flowering plant species by bees, hummingbirds, bats, mice, rodents.... bats flying foxes durian fruit pollinated by bats in SE Asian tropical forests endangered deforestation and hunting important for plant species they pollinate; plant seeds disperse in droppings, other species depend on them fruits low due to endangered other foods low medicine timber ebony and mahogany fibers, dyes, animal fodder, and fuel dispersion of seeds by fruit eating animals

112 Roles (cont) 3-habitat modification elephants uproot trees create forest openings for herbaceous plants and accelerates nutrient recycling rates beaver dams-ponds lakes attracts fish, birds, muskrats, ducks, etc could be bad no trees in forest 4-predation by top carnivores 5-improving ability of plant species to obtain soil minerals and water 6-efficient recycling of animal wastes dung beetles remove, bury recycle wastes avail for plant growth eat parasitic worms and maggots in dung

113 species interactions 1-interspecific competition intraspecific competition 2-predation 3-parasitism 4-mutualism 5-commensalism

114 Competitive exclusion principle competitive exclusion: 2 species cannot coexist indefinitely in an ecosystem in which not enough of the sahred resource is available to meet the needs of both species niches cannot overlap completely or significantly for very long

115 resource partitioning 1-dividing up of scarce resources so that species w similar needs use them at different times 2-different ways 3-different places resource partitioning is way to create niches that don't overlap in spite of same resource realized niche-can't occupy fundamental niche

116 predator methods: 1-herbivores graze 2-carnivores-pursuit and ambush pursuit-fast, strong, keen eyesight, specialized body parts ambush-camouflage, specialized body parts attract or camouflage

117 prey defenses 1-move fast 2-smell sight to detect predators 3-protective armor shells, bark, spines 4- distractors lizard tails break off spot looks like eye 5-camouflage mimicry 6-chemical warfare-poisonous, taste bad, smell bad, irritating secretions have warning coloration 7-behavioral strategies puff up, spread wings-look bigger, mimick predator-spots on moths look bigger animal eyes, groups

118 Types of succession primary from rock secondary reestablishment of biotic communities

119 Secondary succession abandoned farmland fire polluted areas land dammed flooded

120 Factors Affecting Human Population Size Population change equation Population change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) Zero population growth (ZPG) Crude birth rate (BR) Crude death rate (DR)

121 Fig. 11.5, p. 241 China India USA Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Russia Bangladesh Japan Nigeria 2000 2025 1.26 billion 1.4 billion 1 billion 1.4 billion 276 million 338 million 212 million 273 million 170 million 221 million 151 million 227 million 145 million 137 million 128 million 177 million 127 million 121 million 123 million 205 million 10 most populous countries

122 Fertility Rates Replacement level fertility: the number of children that a couple must bear to replace themselves; currently 2.1 (2.5) due to deaths of females before maturity Total fertility rate: estimate of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years currently 2.8 (3.1)

123 Factors Affecting BR &TFR US BRs and TFRs 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 0 0 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Births per thousand population Demographic transition Depression Baby boom Baby bust Echo baby boom World War II Year Fig. 11.11, p. 243 see Fig. 11-10 p. 243

124 Increase in US population 1.7 million more births than deaths (60% growth) ~1M immigrants and refugees 300K illegal immigrants (ecological footprint!!!!!)

125 Demographic transition Shift from high birth rates to low birth rates during industrialization Education and working outside the home are 2 of most effective ways to reduce birth rate (reduce family size) Preindustrial stage: little population growth due to harsh living conditions; high birth rate and high death rate transitional stage: food production rises; health care improves; death rates drop; birth rates remain high; population grows rapidly industrial stage: birth rate drops and approaches the death rate as modernization becomes widespread; population growth continues more slowly postindustrial stage: Birth rate further declines; zero population growth

126 Factors affecting Birth Rates and Fertility Rates Importance of children as part of the labor force Urbanization Cost of raising and educating children Educational and employment opportunities for women Infant mortality rate Average age at marriage (birth 1 st child) Availability of private and public pension systems Availability of legal abortions Availability of reliable birth control methods Religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural norms

127 Factors Affecting Death Rate Increased food supplies and distribution Better nutrition Improvements in medical and public health technology Improved sanitation and personal hygiene Safer water supplies

128 Health Indicators Life expectancy Increased from 48 to 67 yrs (76 in dev and 65 in undev) in Africa, <55 yrs Infant mortality rate (indicates quality of life) under nutrition, poor nutrition, >infectious disease

129 Age Structure Diagrams Proportion of the population of each sex at each age level Plot percentages or population numbers in 3 age categories: prereproductive (0-14~), reproductive (14-~44), and postreproductive

130 US has highest rate of infant mortality among developed countries Inadequate health care for poor women during pregnancy and for their babies Drug addiction among pregnant women The highest birth rate among teenagers (low birth rates, inadequate prenatal and postnatal care, unprepared for parental responsibilities-inadequate education as parent)

131 Fig. 11.16a, p. 247 MaleFemale Rapid Growth Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia Slow Growth United States Australia Canada MaleFemale Ages 0-14Ages 15-44Ages 45-85+ Age Structure pyramids

132 Reducing world population Family planning: birth spacing, birth control, prenatal health care and pediatric health care

133 Structures and Hazards Resulting from Plate Tectonics Mountains (including volcanoes) Oceanic ridge system Trenches Hydrothermal vents Cold water seeps Earthquakes Faults and fissures

134 Types of Boundaries Divergent plate boundaries: plates move apart example: Midatlantic Ridge  Convergent plate boundaries: plates are pushed together by internal forces - subduction example: Marianna trench (39,000 feet)  Transform faults: plates slide past one another example: San Andreas fault

135 Geologic Processes on Surface Erosion: process by which rock is dissolved, loosened, or worn away from one part of surface and deposited in other places Weathering: mechanical or chemical process which loosen rock Mechanical weathering large rock masses are reduced to fragments:frost wedging Chemical weathering various chemical rx reduce the surface of rock; usually involves oxidation

136 Minerals and rocks Mineral is an element or inorganic cmpd that occurs naturally and is solid at room temp Rock is large, natural continuous part crust 3 types rock: igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

137 Soil Mature soil complex mixture of eroded rock, mineral nutrients, decaying organic material, water, air, and billions of organisms, most of which are soil microbes Soil considered a renewable resource, but not in your life time!

138 Soil Profile Cross section of soil layers (horizons) Horizons from top to bottom: O horizon: surface litter layer A horizon: partially decomposed, topsoil B horizon: subsoil C horizon: parent material (rock)

139 Soil Content & Classification Clay (very fine particles) Silt (fine particles) Sand (medium size particles) Gravel (coarse to very coarse particles) Relative amount of each determines soil texture and classification

140 100%clay Increasing percentage silt Increasing percentage clay 0 20 40 60 80 60 40 20 0 100%sand80604020100%silt Increasing percentage sand sandy clay silty clay silty clay loam clay loam silty loam silt sandy clay loam sandy loam loamy sand Soil Texture

141 Soil Characteristics Soil permeability: rate at which water and air move through soil Soil porosity: measure of volume of pores or spaces Soil structure: how soil particles are arranged, organized

142 Soil Erosion Movement of soil (especially topsoil) from one place to another Leads to sedimentation, sediment loading Main factors in soil erosion are wind and water Disturbed land has greater rate of erosion

143 Effects of Global Soil Erosion Degradation reduces food production by 16% of world’s cropland Dust plumes reduce visibility and contribute to air pollution Loss of soil nutrients and organic matter in soil Reduces ability to retain water Increases runoff, increases sediment loading Sediment loading

144 Desertification Conversion of raingeland, rainfed cropland, or irrigated cropland into desert like conditions resulting in a drop in productivity Caused by overgrazing, deforestation, surface mining, soil erosion, salinization, prolonged drought, and climate change Results in worsening drought, famine, economic losses, lower living standards, and environmental refugees

145 Salinization Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant life Irrigation water not absorbed evaporates leaving salts behind – concentrates Reduced yields on 51% of irrigated cropland

146 Waterlogging If apply large amounts of water when irrigating to get the salts to leach, water accumulates due to inadequate drainage Saline water surrounds roots Can be prevented by reducing irrigation, installing drainage, and reduced by growing salt tolerant crops or lying fallow 2-3 years

147 Soil Conservation Conservation tillage: disturb soil as little as possible when planting Terracing Contour farming Stripcropping-plant 2 crops in same area-one tall one ground cover to prevent erosion Alley cropping or agroforestry: crops planted together in strips between shrubs/trees Windbreaks Gully reclamation Land classification to identify land not to farm

148 Maintain and Restore Soil Fertility Organic fertilizer: plant and animals Includes: animal manure, green manure, compost, spores of mushrooms (mycorrhizae) Commercial inorganic fertilizer Contain: nitrogen, phosphorus Don’t have humus, lower water retention, lower oxygen content,all the normal problems….

149 Risk Risk is the possibility of suffering harm from a hazard that can cause injury, disease, economic loss, or environmental damage Probability is used to describe the likeliness of a specific risk occurring within a population Risk = exposure x harm Probability of having an accident on the way to school = # accidents/# miles traveled # miles traveled = all trips X length of trip = all cars that traveled between those two points x miles traveled

150 Risk Assessment Identifying a real or potential hazard Determining the probability of its occurrence Assessing the severity of its health, environmental, economic, and social impact

151 Major Types of Hazards Cultural hazards: unsafe working conditions, smoking, poor diet, drugs, driving….. Chemical hazards: air borne, water, soil, & food Physical hazards: ionizing radiation, fire, earthquake, volcanic eruption… Biological hazards: pathogens, pollen & other allergens, animals – “dangerous” bees, snakes, bears, …

152 Factors related to Toxic Agent Chemical composition and reactivity Physical characteristics (solubility, state) Presence of impurities or contaminants Stability and storage characteristics of toxic agent Availability of vehicle (solvent) to carry agent Movement of agent through environment and into cells

153 Factors related to Exposure Dose: concentration and volume of exposure Route, rate, and site of exposure Duration and frequency of exposure Time of exposure (time of day, season, year)

154 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification Bioaccumulation: the selective absorption and storage of a molecule Biomagnification: toxic burden of a large number of organisms at lower trophic levels is accumulated and concentrated by a predator in a higher trophic level

155 Solubility, Persistence, Chemical Interactions Oil or water soluble (w reference to cell storage and function and env storage) Persistence: how long molecule remains intact (DDT doesn’t degrade rapidly; some herbicides do) Additive: sum is greater than individual parts Antagonistic: interfere w effects or stimulate breakdown of another chemical Synergistic: one substance exacerbates the effects of another (asbestos increases lung cancer rates 20x’ if also smoke, 400x increase in lung cancer)

156 Minimizing Toxic Effects, Metabolic degradation and Excretion Dose and length of time: 100 cups coffee, 100 aspirin, 22 lbs. spinach are all lethal doses, but not over a lifetime Enzymes in liver (doesn’t always detox), breathe out CO2, HCN, & ketones, salts in sweat, kidneys, some in feces Tissues w high cell-replacement rates are more likely to develop cancers

157 The dose makes the poison. Paracelus What is safe? Do you choose most sensitive person? “normal” sensitivity? Organic/natural vs synthetic: moot LD50 lethal dose for 50% of population Poison lethal for 50% of population at 50 mg/kg Toxicity varies As is poison; 50 mg/kg lethal; lower chronic doses are also lethal but response time is different

158 Determining Toxicity Case reports: physician reports; adverse effects, accidental poisonings, drug od, homicides, suicide attempts….. Epidemiological studies: comparison of groups exposed to possible harmful agent and a similar population not exposed to agent In both sources, too few people have been exposed to high enough levels of agents to detect differences, hard to isolate effect of agent from others exposed to in lifetime, new chemicals or technologies not around long enough to be tested

159 Laboratory Testing Modeling (PETA pleasers) based on past animal studies; can use bacteria (prokaryotes, we’re eukaryotes); cell/tissue cultures; chicken egg membranes; animal studies; human studies Animal: matched genetically, exposed to same conditions; use high dosages to reduce the number of test animals required and obtain results quickly Costs $2million/substance and takes 2-5 years High dose extrapolated to low dose and low dose to humans

160 Dose Response Models Nonthreshold dose-response models assume that any amount of substance will be harmful; more is more harmful (carcinogens, teratogens) Threshold dose-response models establish a threshold up to which there is no observable harmful effect and after which more is more harmful (up to response, body compensates)

161 Chemical Hazards Toxic chemicals: substances at LD50 (at given concentrations???) Hazardous chemicals: flammable or explosive, irritating or damaging to tissues, asphyxiants, or allergens Mutagens: cause random mutations in DNA; autonomic or germ cell mutations Teratogens: cause birth defects to embryo-PCBs, thalidomide, steroids Carcinogens: cause or promote growth of malignant tumors

162 Precautionary Approach Prevent pollution Few chemicals have or will be tested for toxicity or mutagenic capability The cost would be prohibitive and the time would be lengthy, to the point of being moot (exposure and interactions over a life time of individuals)

163 Transmissible and Nontransmissible Diseases Nontransmissible diseases: not caused by living organism and cannot spread from one affected organism to another organism (some genetic disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes, asthma, emphysema, malnutrition) Transmissible diseases: caused by pathogen in host organism which may be spread to other organisms

164 Pathogens Bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoans Infectious diseases cause 25% of all deaths globally (mostly in undeveloped countries) 7 deadliest diseases: acute respiratory infections, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis B, and measles

165 Epidemiological Transition When countries move from undeveloped to developed status, the main causes of death move from transmissible to nontransmissible diseases

166 Infectious Disease Transmission Facilitated by Global Change Globalization Migration to urban areas Deforestation and migration into new areas Hunger and malnutrition Increased rice cultivation (water breeding insects) Global warming High winds/hurricanes and flooding Accidental introduction of insect vectors bioterrorism

167 Global Tuberculosis Epidemic Under reported; highly infectious; 1 in 3 infected Screening best prevention Drug resistant forms due to incomplete treatment Urbanization, poverty and AIDS contributing factors to spread of TB

168 Malaria Caused by protozoan Plasmodium transmitted by mosquitoes Mosquitoes bite infected person then transmit through biting another person Symptoms: fever/chills, anemia, enlarged spleen, severe abdominal pain/ headaches, extreme weakness, compromised immune system From Anopheles into bloodstream to liver, multiply, move into bloodstream continue to multiply DDT in 1950s and 60s reduced; mosquitoes resistant to DDT, malaria back

169 Preventing Malaria Get rid of standing water: move the water, soak up the water Mosquito nets in windows and doors Cultivate mosquito feeding fish Increased health (vit A and zinc) education

170 Risk Analysis Identifying hazards and evaluating associated risks (assessment) Ranking risks (comparative risk analysis) Determining options and making decisions about reducing / eliminating risks Informing decision makers and the public about risks (risk communication)

171 Limitations of Risk Analysis Quality of data/ models Short term vs long term risks Who profits Acceptable risk or least damage Who should do risk analysis Who profits Cumulative effects of various risks together or individually assessed How widespread; what is acceptable Workers vs general public

172 pests Anything we don’t like! May have niche, but niche isn’t compatible w our needs or wants. Competes w us for food Destroys/disfigures lawns or gardens Consumes wood in houses Spreads disease nuisance

173 Pests and their niche Pests have “natural enemies” Pests are part of the populations that make up an ecosystem, as such they have functions that contribute to the overall functioning of the ecosystem The balances within an ecosystem (competition for food, habitat, predator/prey relationships, trophic levels or food webs) are disturbed when we introduce our own ecosystems eg. monocultures

174 Pest control Insecticides Herbicides Fungicides In ecosystems, there are herbicides (allelopaths) and insecticides (naturally produced toxins) due to the relationship of the pest to the affected species over time - coevolution

175 First generation pesticides Extracting naturally produced toxins Nicotine sulfate Pyrethrum, from chrysanthemums Rotenone, from roots of tropical forest legumes

176 Second generation pesticides Synthetic pesticides DDT diphenyldichlorotrichloroethane Some is good, more is better since the 1950s more is better by 50x More potent than early pesticides; 630 different chemicals used singly or in combinations 75% of the 2.5 metric tons are used in developed countries

177 Targets and persistence Broad spectrum target many species Narrow range target few species Some have low persistence (days to weeks) some may persist for years

178 Why Pesticides could/should be used Save lives (malaria, bubonic plague, typhus,sleeping sickness) Increase food supplies and lower food costs Increase profits for farmers Work faster and more effectively than alternatives If used properly, pose insignificant health threats Newer pesticides are safer than those in the 1950s

179 Perfect Pesticide Kill only the target pest Harm no other species Persist briefly and decomposition products harmless Not cause genetic resistance in target organism Be more cost effective than doing nothing

180 Case Against Pesticides Accelerate development of genetic resistance to pesticides Broad spectrum insecticides kill natural predators and parasites that help control the populations of pest species Pesticides do not stay put Some pesticides harm wildlife (honeybees, birds, fish, other species) Threaten human health (agriculture workers and accidents in home or work)

181 Pesticide Regulation in the US FIFRA Federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act in 1947 (amended in 1972) requires EPA approval for use of all commercial pesticides Biologically active ingredients are tested for toxicity to animals EPA evaluates data and registers pesticide EPA sets tolerance level for human consumption of residues on foods

182 Banned or Restricted use of some pesticides Most chlorinated hydrocarbons insecticides Several carbamates and organo phosphates Systemic herbicides 2,4,5-T and Silvex These can be made and sold in other countries Carcingenic effects have not been fully evaluated Laws are inadequate and poorly enforced Pre1972 pesticides are not properly assessed

183 Economic threshold Point at which the economic losses outweigh the cost of pesticide (time for pests to die) Insurance spraying vs pest loss insurance Additional spray is bad for many reasons, pest loss insurance will help pay for loss of money when crop value is reduced by pests

184 Controlling Pests without Pesticides Cultivation practices: rotate crops, grow crops before after height of pest season, grow where there aren’t pests, plant other crops to distract pests Genetic engineering to speed up dev of pest and disease resistant crop strains Biological pest control – natural predators, parasites, and disease causing bacteria and viruses can be imported to regulate pest populations Insect birth control-sterilize males Pheromones Spray w hot water radiate

185 Integrated Pest Management Assess crop and pests as part of an ecosystem Design a control program that includes cultivation, biological, and chemical methos applied sequentially and timed to meet life cycles of pest and crop Advantages: reduce pesticide use, reduce preharvest pest induced losses, improve crop yields, reduce inputs of fertilizer and irrigation, & reduce genetic resistance Disadvantages: requires time to develop and implement, has to be designed for each situation, initial costs may be higher

186 The Plants and Animals That Feed the World Grains: wheat, rice, and corn (annuals) Meats: beef, pork, and chicken Also, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt….(other products vegans don’t eat, all these are animal products) Fish/shellfish are 6% of protein consumed

187 Major Types of Agriculture Traditional subsistence Traditional intensive Plantation Industrialized (high-input)

188 Traditional Subsistence Mostly human labor & draft animals Low-input agriculture Examples: shifting cultivation in tropical forests and nomadic livestock herding Use interplanting (several crops : 1 plot) Polyvarietal cultivation (1 crop-++variety) Intercropping: 2-3 crops : 1 plot Agroforestry (alley cropping): crops + trees : 1 plot Polyculture: complex intercropping

189 Industrialized Agriculture Large amounts of fossil fuel energy used Irrigation, commercial fertilizers, pesticides Produce huge quantities of single crop or livestock animals for sale Used mostly in developed countries on about 25% of all cropland

190 Croplands Ecological Services Help maintain water flow & infiltration Provide partial erosion protection Build soil organic matter Store atmospheric C Provide wildlife habitat Economic Services Food crops Fiber crops Crop genetic resources jobs

191 US Agriculture Highly productive: 0.3% world labor force Produce 17% of world grain 50% of world grain export US residents spend 12% income on food Japan: 18%; developing countries: 40-70% Uses FOSSIL FUEL: 10x fossil fuel as total food energy on our table

192 Producing Food by Green-Revolution Techniques High-input monoculture Selectively bred or genetically-engineered crops High inputs of fertilizer Extensive use of pesticides High inputs of water Increased intensity and frequency of cropping (multiple cropping) 1950-1970 1 st in developed countries

193 Nutrition Undernutrition: cannot buy or grow enough food for basic energy needs Chronically undernourished consume 100-400 Kcal less than need, can’t do much work; children mr, stunt growth, susceptible to infectious disease Malnutrition: deficiencies of protein & key nutrients 2 diseases: maramos (low Kcal & mal) Kwashiorkor: no protein ages 1-3 yr

194 How prevalent is poor nutrition? Average daily food intake/person up even with population growth Chronically undernourished down to 826 million in 2000, mostly in developing countries 1:6 people in developing countries is hungry 10 million people a year die from hunger or hunger related problems

195 Overnutrition Problem of developed countries Preventable Lower life expectance, greater susceptibility to disease, lower productivity and life quality

196 Distribution is Problem for the hungry Produce enough for everyone to have subsistence diet grains Arable soil distribution uneven Climate varies Political and economic power unevenly distributed Average per capita income unevenly distributed POVERTY

197 Environmental Effects of Food Production Biodiversity loss Soil: erosion, desertification Air pollution Water: deficits and droughts Human health

198 Effects of Global Warming Advantages Increased crop yields Increased precipitation in some dry areas Longer growing seasons in cool areas More warm H2O fish Expanded growing area Disadvantages Lower crop yields Decreased precipitation Shorter growing seasons Increased pest pop Loss wetlands & fertile coastal land Change in fish distribution

199 Increasing World Crop Production Crossbreeding and artificial selection Genetic engineering (gene splicing) Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Continued Green Revolution techniques Introducing new foods Working more land

200 Irrigation? More land is being irrigated Water is pumped faster than the aquifer recharges Inefficient irrigation methods Larger cities have increased demand for water Irrigation is expensive for farmers Global warming will alter rain patterns

201 Is there more land to cultivate? Some cleared land is not truly arable Some land is too dry and irrigation costs outweigh the benefits of cultivation Converting land from range purposes to cultivation is not efficient Converting land that has parasites is not efficient Converting land reduces biodiversity

202 Producing More Meat Rangeland Pasture Efficiency Adaptations of rangeland plants Range condition and management Environmental consequences

203 Industrialized Meat Production o Grow pastures/finish feedlots o Concentrates pollution problems o Uses much of world’s grain supply o Uses some of world’s fish supply o Increased use of fossil fuel o Increases spread of infectious diseases o Anthrax, mad cow

204 Water’s Unique Properties Hydrogen bonding Liquid over wide temperature range High specific heat High heat of evaporation Good polar solvent Neutral pH Adhesion / cohesion Less dense as a solid; most dense at 4C

205 Surface Water Surface runoff: doesn’t infiltrate Reliable runoff: stable source of water, not lost to flooding Watershed: drainage basin

206 Groundwater Zone of aeration: above water table Groundwater: the water that infiltrates and percolates through spaces Water table: top of zone of saturation Zone of saturation: no spaces Recharge area: area where water infiltrates/percolates to aquifer Aquifer: water saturated layers of sand, gravel or bedrock Discharge area: water moving from aquifer to spring, lake, well, geyser, stream, ocean

207 Use of Water Resources Human use about 50% surface water Agriculture Industry Domestic Power plants Transport Pollution Dilution United States Industry 11% Public 10% Power cooling 38% Agriculture 38% Fig. 13.5, p. 298

208 Freshwater Use in US WEST  Irrigation 85%  Low runoff/low precipitation  High evaporation  Recurring prolonged drought  Aquifer depletion EAST  Energy production  Cooling/ manufacturing  A lot of water available  Flooding  Occasional urban shortages  pollution

209 Means to > Water Supply Build dams/reservoirs Transport surface water Tap groundwater Desalination Waste less Import food (reduce irrigation)

210 Ecological Services Provided by Rivers Deliver nutrients to the sea, sustaining coastal fisheries. Deposit silt that maintains deltas Purify water Renew and nourish wetlands Provide habitats for aquatic life Conserve species diversity

211 Colorado River Basin Flows from Colorado to Gulf of California 14 major dams; many smaller dams; aqueducts Supplies energy and water to 7 states Legally, water drained is more than water present-no longer drains in Gulf of CA No spawning, no estuaries, saltwater intrusion Fighting over water rights moot if no water Glen Canyon Dam Hoover Dam Davis Dam Parker Dam Imperial Dam Laguna Dam

212 Other Major Projects China’s Three Gorges Dam on Yangtze Aswan High Dam on Nile California Water Project Sacramento River Canada James Bay Watershed Transfer (19 rivers) Aral Sea, Syr Dar’ya, Amu Dar’ya

213 Withdrawing Groundwater Advantages  Removed as needed, no seasons  No evaporation losses  Less expensive than dams/reservoirs/ aqueducts  Drinking water; irrigation Disadvantages  Water table lowering  Aquifer depletion  Aquifer subsidence  Saltwater intrusion  Polluted groundwater drawn into wells  Reduced stream flow (less discharge)  Can be contaminated by human activities  Used unsustainably

214 Aquifer depletion Overpumping product of better technology-diesel and electric pumps Industry and cities outcompete agriculture for water, limiting future food production

215 Methods for reducing water waste in irrigation Use drip irrigation Lining canals bringing water to irrigation ditches Leveling fields with lasers Irrigating at night to reduce evaporation Using soil and satellite sensors and computer systems to monitor soil moisture and add water only when necessary Polyculture Organic farming Growing water efficient crops using drought-resistant and salt-tolerant crop varieties Irrigating with treated urban waste water Importing water intensive crops and meat

216 Methods of Reducing Water Waste in Industries Redesign manufacturing processes Landscape yards with plants that require little water Fix water leaks Use water meters & charge for all municipal water use Raise water prices Require water conservation in water-short cities Use water-saving toilets, showerheads, & front loading washers Collect & reuse household water to irrigate lawns and nonedible plants Purify & reuse water for houses, apts, & office buildings

217 Desalination Methods: distillation, reverse osmosis Supplies 0.2% of global water requirements Expensive: costs 2x conventional purification methods Produces large quantities of briny water

218 Effects of Flooding/Why flooding is> Water overflows onto floodplain Provides natural flood control Provides erosion control Maintains water quality Recharges groundwater Soil is fertile water for irrigation Refill wetlands Vegetation has been removed Wetlands have been drained Urbanization-> impervious surfaces

219 Major Types/Sources of Water Pollution Organic chemicals: industry, household cleansers, runoff Inorganic chemicals: runoff, industry, household cleansers Oxygen demanding wastes: sewage, feedlots, paper mills, food processing facilities Infectious agents: human and animal wastes (fecal coliforms) Plant nutrients: sewage, manure, fertilizer runoff Sediment: erosion Radioactive materials: nuclear power plants, mining, some natural sources Thermal pollution: water cooling of electric plants, industrial plants (Amoco)

220 Determining Water quality Coliform bacteria (0 colonies / 100 mL for drinking; 200/100mL for swim) grid sample and count BOD: biological oxygen demand (winkler titration or 5 day incubation) Chemical analysis Indicator species (oysters used in Elizabeth river)

221 Multiple Use Lands 156 forests Logging Mining Livestock grazing Farming Oil and gas extraction Recreation Sport hunting, fishing Commercial fishing Conservation of soil, watershed, soil and wildlife resources

222 Moderately restricted use lands 524 national wildlife refuges Protect habitats and breeding areas for waterfowl And for big game to provide a harvestable supply for hunters Few protect endangered species Oil and gas development Mining, logging, grazing Some military activities and farming

223 Restricted Use lands National park system 385 parks Camping Hiking Sport fishing Boating Motor vehicles stay on road Some allow mining, oil/gas drilling

224 National wilderness preservation system Found within the other described areas No roads-no motorized vehicles Hiking, camping, boating, some horseback riding Everything else banned unless those activities predate the designation of the wilderness area

225 Ecological Importance of Forests Food webs and energy flow Water regulation Local and regional climate Numerous habitats and niches Air

226 Economic Importance of Forests Fuelwood (50% of global forest use) Industrial timber and lumber Pulp and paper Medicines Mineral extraction and recreation

227 Types of Forests Old growth (frontier forests): uncut forests or regenerated forests that have not been perturbed for hundreds of years Second-growth forests: secondary succession forests Tree farm/plantations: managed tracts with uniformly aged trees of one species (produce about 10% of timber globally)

228 Forest management Rotation cycle Even-aged management Industrial forestry Uneven-aged management Improved diversity Sustainable production Multiple - use

229 Sustainable Forestry Longer rotations Selective or strip cutting Minimize fragmentation Improved road building techniques Certified sustainable grown Balance estimated ecological services with estimates of their economic value

230 Reducing Impacts of Tree pathogens and pests Preserving biodiversity Banning imported timber that might introduce new pathogens or pests Removing infected and infested trees or clear cutting infected areas and burn Treat trees w antibiotics Develop tree species that are disease resistant Applying pesticides Using integrated pest management

231 Fire Climax Communities Depend on intermittent natural fires set by lightning to maintain the ecosystem (forcing function is fire) Savanna, temperate grasslands, chaparral, southern pine forests (jack pine), western forest (sequoias), & evergreen coniferous forests Surface fires: burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on forest floor, stimulate release of nutrients and for some plants, are necessary for seeds to open

232 Forest Resources and Management in the US Habitat for threatened and endangered species Water purification services Recreation 3% of timber harvest Sustainable yield and multiple use Substitutes for tree-products

233 Use Wood Efficiently Ways to stop junkmail: http://www.obviously.com/junkmail/ http://www.obviously.com/junkmail/ http://www.41pounds.org/?gclid=CKLnr- 7R05ECFQPslgodgEfRaQ http://www.41pounds.org/?gclid=CKLnr- 7R05ECFQPslgodgEfRaQ Reduce inefficiency in construction projects Reduce excess packing materials Recycle paper and cardboard Reuse wooden shipping containers

234 Tropical Deforestation Rapid and increasing Loss of biodiversity Cultural extinction Unsustainable agriculture and ranching Clearing for cash crop plantations Commercial logging fuelwood

235 Reducing Tropical Deforestation Identification of critical ecosystems Reducing poverty and population growth Sustainable tropical agriculture Encourage protection of large tracts Debt-for-nature swaps Less destructive harvesting methods

236 Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves Include some moderate disturbance Sustain natural ecological processes Protect most important areas Buffer zones Gap analysis Wilderness areas

237 Factors Related to Organism Resistance to uptake, storage, or cell permeability of agent Ability to metabolize, inactivate, sequester, or eliminate agent Tendency to activate or alter nontoxic substances so they become toxic Concurrent infections or physical or chemical stress Species and genetic characteristics Nutritional status of subject Age, sex, body weight, immunological status, and maturity Response: acute or chronic

238 Categories of Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Identified resources: deposits of a nonrenewable mineral resource with a known location, quantity, and quality based on geological evidence and measurements Undiscovered resources: potential supplies of a nonrenewable mineral resource assumed to exist but having unknown specific information Reserves: identified resources mineral con be extracted Other resouces: identified and undiscovered not classified as reserves

239 Finding Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Satellite imagery Aerial sensors (magnetometers) Gravity differences Core sampling Sensors to detect electrical resistance or radiation Seismic surveys Chemical analysis of water and plants (to detect leaching ores)

240 Removing Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Surface mining Overburden (material lying over deposit) Spoil (waste) Open-pit Dredging Strip mining (spoil banks) Mountaintop removal (spoil allowed by Bush to be dumped in valleys and streams) Subsurface mining Room and pillar longwall

241 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 Surface mined land not restored in many countries Requires mining companies to restore most surface mined land so it can be used for the same purpose as it was before it was mined Levied a tax on mining companies to restore land that was disturbed by surface mining before the law was passed

242 Environmental Impacts of Using Mineral Resources Scarring and disruption of the land surface Collapse or subsidence of land above (unsettle houses, break sewer, gas, and water lines) Wind/water erosion of toxin laced mining wastes ACID mine drainage-sulfuric acid produced by aerobic bacteria feeding on iron sulfide Emission of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere Exposure of wildlife to toxic mining wastes stored in holding ponds and leakage of toxic wastes

243 Environmental Effects of Processing Mineral Resources Ore mineral Gangue-waste material mixed in ores Tailings-removing the gangue from ores produces piles of waste Smelting-used to separate the metal from the other elements in the ores (emit tons of air and water pollution) Mining uses a lot energy, produces a lot of wastes, and the products after used become wastes Fig. 14.7, p. 326

244 Carrying Capacity for Geologic Resources Exhaustion of the resource or Environmental damage caused by extraction, processing, and conversion to products Mining industry uses 5-10% of global energy use Major contributor to air and water pollution (greenhouse gases)

245 Natural Gas 50-90% methane Conventional gas Unconventional gas Methane hydrate Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LLPG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Approximately 200 year supply

246 Substitutes Ceramics and plastics can be used in place of metals Cost less to produce (less energy), don’t require painting, can be molded, don’t oxidize No substitutes for He, phosphorus for phosphate fertilizers, Mn for steel production, and Cu for wiring Substitutes not viable if require more energy to produce or if they are inferior to the materials they replace

247 Types of Energy the World Uses Solar: directly heats the earth & all buildings Solar indirect: wind, flowing water, biomass Commercial energy: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear

248 Oil Production By 1996, there were 1,047,200,000,000 reserve barrels of crude oil. Oil Production is predicted to continue rising for the next 30 years. 77% of these reserves were produced by countries in OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

249 Low land use Easily transported within and between countries High net energy yield Low cost (with huge subsidies) Ample supply for 42–93 years Advantages Moderate water pollution Releases CO 2 when burned Air pollution when burned Artificially low price encourages waste and discourages search for alternatives Need to find substitute within 50 years Disadvantages Fig. 14.21, p. 340 oil

250 Natural Gas 50-90% methane Conventional gas Unconventional gas Methane hydrate Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LLPG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Approximately 200 year supply

251 Where is natural gas found? Conventional natural gas found above oil deposits Unconventional natural gas found by itself Methane hydrate is a gas trapped in ice crystals deep beneath the arctic permafrost and beneath deep ocean sediments most is in Russia and Kazakhstan (42%)

252 Coal Stages of coal formation Primarily strip-mined Used mostly for generating electricity Enough coal for about 1000 years Highest environmental impact Coal gasification and liquefaction

253 Coal Supplies Coal provides ~21% of world’s commercial energy It is used to generate electricity and make steel ~66% of coal is in US (much anthracite PA) Coal is most abundant fossil fuel Identified sources at current rates about 200 years and unidentified at current rates about 1000 years; when consumption rates go up, estimated coal sources will last about 200 years

254 Coal Mining and Consumption has Greatest Environmental Impacts of all Fossil Fuels Land disturbance Air pollution CO 2 emissions Release of particles of Hg Release of radioactive particles Water pollution Health and property damage

255 Calcium sulfate and ash Air Air nozzles Water Fluidized bed Steam Flue gases CoalLimestone Fig. 14.29, p. 345

256 Using Coal as Energy Source Advantages Ample supplies (225-900 yrs) High net energy yield Low cost with huge subsidies Disadvantages Very high environmental impact Severe land disturbance, air pollution, and water pollution High land use including mining Severe threat to human health High CO2 emissions when burned Releases radioactive particles and Hg into air

257 Syngas as Energy Source Advantages Large potential Supply Vehicle fuel Moderate cost (w lg govt subsidies) Lower air pollution when burned than coal Disadvantages Low to moderate net energy yield Higher cost than coal High environmental impact Increased surface mining of coal High water use Higher CO2 emissions than coal

258 Source of Energy in Nuclear Fission Reactor Neutrons split the nuclei of atoms like U 235 and Pt 239 The chain reaction that results continues to split atoms Energy is release as high temperature heat Rate of fission is controlled by rods made of graphite Heat that is generated is used to produce high pressure steam which spins turbines to generate electricity

259 Main Components of Light water Reactor (LWR) Core: 35,000-70,000 long thin fuel rods which are packed w fuel pellets Fuel pellets made of uranium oxide are 1/3 size of cigarette & has the energy of 0.9 metric ton of coal Control rods are moved in and out of the reactor core to absorb neutrons regulating the rate of fission Moderator slows down the neutrons emitted so chain reaction can be kept going Coolant which circulates through core to remove heat and produce steam for generating electricity

260 Nuclear Energy Fig. 14.32, p. 346 Uranium fuel input (reactor core) Periodic removal and storage of radioactive wastes and spent fuel assemblies Periodic removal and storage of radioactive liquid wastes Pump Steam Small amounts of Radioactive gases Water Black Turbine Generator Waste heat Electrical power Hot water output Condenser Cool water input Pump Waste heat Useful energy 25 to 30% Waste heat Water source (river, lake, ocean) Heat exchanger Containment shell Emergency core Cooling system Control rods Moderator Pressure vessel Shielding Coolant passage Coolant Hot coolant

261 Low Level Radioactive wastes Give off small amounts of ionizing radiation Must be stored safely for 100-500 years before it decays to safe levels Put in steel drums and dumped in ocean Put in steel drums and shipped to regional landfills run by federal and state govt

262 High Level Radioactive Waste Give off large amounts of ionizing radiation Must be stored safely for 10,000 years and 240,000 years if Pt 239 not removed Spent fuel rods stored in water or in dry storage casks at plant sites Asstmt of wastes from plants that produce plutonium and tritium for nuclear weapons

263 Nuclear Power to Produce Electricity Advantages Large fuel supply Low env impact Emits 1/6 CO 2 as coal Moderate land disruption & water pollution Moderate land use Low risk of accidents w multiple safety systems Disadvantages High cost (even w subsidies) Low net energy yield High env impact if accidents Catastrophic accidents have happened Chernobyl No solution for long term storage of wastes Spreads knowledge & technology for building nuclear weapons

264 Comparison of Risks in Coal & Nuclear Power Coal Ample supply High net energy yield Very high air pollution High CO2 emissions 65K to 200K deaths/year in US High land disruption High land use Low cost w huge subsidies Nuclear Power Ample supply of uranium Low net energy yield Low air pollution Low CO2 emissions About 6K deaths / year in US much lower land disruption Moderate land use High cost (w huge subsidies)

265 Saving Energy: Use/Develop More Energy Efficient Devices Energy efficient cost more up fronts but have lower lifetime operating costs Insulation Elimination of air leaks Air to air heat exchangers Cogeneration of electricity and heat Efficient electric motors High-efficiency lighting Increasing fuel economy

266 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE) Government mandated Automakers have powerful lobbies to prevent rise of CAFE standards If raised by 5% for 10 years, we wouldn’t be importing oil from Persian gulf Automakers sold the US public on larger, less efficient vehicles

267 Energy Saving Energy House Designs A cost effective commercial building technologies could reduce energy use by 75% in the US Cut CO2 emissions in half Save more than $130 billion per year in energy bills

268 Improving the energy efficiency of houses Superinsulated house cost more (5%) but save more over 40 year period Strawbale homes (R 35, R 60 compared to R12, R 19 – resistance to heat flow) Use passive solar heat Use active solar cells for electricity Use wind for electricity (split water for H) Plant covered roof gardens High efficiency furnace

269 Easy ways to save energy Plug leaks around windows and doors Install energy saving windows low emissivity windows Wrap water heater Tankless instant water heaters Install energy saving lighting Use energy saving appliances

270 Advantages of Direct and Indirect Solar Energy Save money (wind) Reduce air pollution (99% less than coal) Greatly reduce CO 2 emissions Reduce dependence on imported oil Last as long as coal and nuclear plants (30–40 years) Land use less than for coal; Low land use with new solar cell and window glass system Backup and storage devices available (such as gas turbines, batteries, and flywheels) Backup need reduced by distributing and storing solar-produced hydrogen gas

271 Disadvantages of Direct and Indirect Solar Energy Making solar cells produces toxic chemicals Solar systems last only 30–40 years Take large amounts of land because of diffuse nature of sunlight Can damage fragile desert ecosystems used to collect solar energy Need backup systems at night and during cloudy and rainy weather

272 Solar Thermal Systems Collect and transform radiant energy from the sun into high temperature thermal energy which can then be converted to electricity Power tower: central receiver system has arrays of heliostats, mirrors, which are controlled by computer to orient to the sun

273 Thermal Plants Thermal plant: distributed receiver system, sunlight collected and focused on oil-filled pipes Concentrated sunlight can generate temperatures high enough for industrial processes or for producing steam Gas turbines used on cloudy days and at night

274 Advantages of Using Solar Cells to produce electricity Moderate net energy Moderate environmental impact No CO 2 emissions Fast construction (1–2 years) Costs reduced with natural gas turbine backup

275 Disadvantages of Using Solar Cells to produce electricity Low efficiency High costs Needs backup or storage system Need access to sun most of the time High land use May disturb desert areas

276 Using heated or moving water to produce electricity Hydropower plants over rivers Hydropower plants using tides or waves Using thermocline to generate electricity (OTEC) ocean thermal energy conversion Saline solar ponds Freshwater solar ponds

277 Advantages of Hydropower Moderate to high net energy High efficiency (80%) Low-cost electricity Long life span No CO 2 emissions during operation May provide flood control below dam Provides water for year-round irrigation

278 Disadvantages of Large Dams High construction costs High environmental impact High CO 2 emissions from biomass decay in Shallow tropical reservoirs Floods natural areas Converts land habitat to lake habitat Danger of collapse Uproots people Decreases fish harvest below dam Decreases flow of natural fertilizer (silt) to land below dam

279 Advantages of wind power Moderate to high net energy High efficiency Moderate capital cost Low electricity cost (and falling) Very low environmental impact; land can be used for grazing No CO 2 emissions Quick construction; Easily expanded

280 Advantages of wind power Moderate to high net energy High efficiency Moderate capital cost Low electricity cost (and falling) Very low environmental impact; land can be used for grazing No CO 2 emissions Quick construction; Easily expanded

281 Disadvantages of wind power Steady winds needed Backup systems when needed winds are low High land use for wind farm Visual pollution Noise when located near populated areas May interfere in flights of migratory birds and kill birds of prey

282 Hydrogen Fuel Cells Burn hydrogen and oxygen gas to form water vapor High efficiency (65%) No moving parts-quiet, low wear and tear Low CO2 (if source is hydrocarbon) Better than electrical grid

283 Advantages of using hydrogen as fuel Can be produced from water Low environmental impact No CO 2 emissions Good substitute for oil Competitive price if environmental and social costs are included in cost comparisons Easier to store than electricity Safer than gasoline and natural gas High efficiency (65–95%) in fuel cells

284 Disadvantages of using hydrogen as fuel Not found in nature Energy is needed to produce fuel Negative net energy High costs (but expected to come down) Short driving range for current fuel cell cars

285 Geothermal heat: tapping Earth’s energy Geothermal energy heat underground reservoirs of dry steam (no water droplets) Wet steam Hot water Reservoirs close to Earth’s surface can be tapped by drilling Hot rocks zones; warm rock zones; magma

286 Advantages of Geothermal Power Very high efficiency Moderate net energy at accessible sites Lower CO 2 emissions than fossil fuels Low cost at favorable sites Low land use Low land disturbance Moderate environmental impact

287 Disadvantages of Geothermal Power Scarcity of suitable sites Depleted if used too rapidly CO 2 emissions Moderate to high local air pollution Noise and odor (H 2 S)

288 Solutions for improving energy efficiency Increase fuel-efficiency standards for vehicles, building, and appliances Mandate government purchases of efficient vehicles and other devices Provide large tax credits for buying efficient cars, houses, and appliances Offer large tax credits for investments in efficiency Reward utilities for reducing demand Encourage independent power producers Greatly increase efficiency research and development

289 More Renewable Energy Increase renewable energy to 20% by 2020 and 50% by 2050 Provide large subsidies and tax credits for renewable energy Use full cost accounting and least cost analysis for comparing all energy alternatives Encourage government purchase of renewable energy devices Greatly increase renewable energy research and development

290 Reduce pollution and health risk Cut coal use 50% by 2020 Phase out coal subsidies Levy taxes on coal and oil use Phase out nuclear power or put it on hold until 2020 Phase out nuclear power subsidies

291 Atmosphere Layers Each layer characterized by distinct temperature differentiation, Troposphere: most mass, where weather occurs, largely N2 and O2, 17 km Stratosphere: less molecules, roughly same proportions as troposphere, more O3 and less H2O, reflects UVA and UVB Mesophere: -100C, ice clouds, layer where meteor burns up – shooting stars Thermosphere: 1,727C; fast chemical reactions, considered upper atmosphere Exosphere- ionosphere, magnetosphere

292 Outdoor Air Pollution Air pollution: presence of one or more chemicals in the atmosphere in sufficient quantities and duration that cause harm to life or alter climate COx, NOx, SOx Volatile organic cmpds, (VOCs) Suspended particulate matter SPM Photochemical oxidants Radioactive substances Hazardous air pollutants (HAPS)

293 Primary and Secondary Pollutants Primary: harmful when released directly into the atmosphere Secondary: form after released as a result of chemical reactions in atmosphere producing harmful products

294 Indoor Air Pollution Infiltration of outside pollution Chemicals used inside buildings Organisms that grow inside buildings (spores, for example)

295 Photochemical Smog Primary and secondary air pollutants Rx facilitated by sunlight >100 compounds, of which O3 is worst problem N2+O2  2NO yellowish, choking odor 2NO+O2  2NO2 brown color 3NO2 + H2O  2HNO3 + NO NO2 + UV  NO + O O + O2  O3 Photochemical reactions and oxidants

296 Photochemical Oxidants NO2, O3, PANs React with and oxidize certain compounds in the atmosphere that are not usually oxidized Traces of photochemical oxidants or aldehydes in the atmosphere can irritate respiratory tracts and kill trees Spotted leaves in Raleigh, NC

297 Industrial Smog Grey air smog Sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Particulates Aerosols (suspended droplets) C + O2  CO2 2C + O2  2CO S + O2  SO2 (coal and smelting of PbS) 2SO2 + O2  2SO3 SO3 + H2O  H2SO4 2NH3+H2SO4  (NH4)2SO4 salt

298 Factors Contributing to Smog Local climate Topography Population density Amount of industry Fuels used in industry, heating, and transportation Reduced by precipitation and wind Increased by tall buildings in close proximity, mountains, high temperatures

299 Warmer air Inversion layer Cool layer Mountain Valley Decreasing temperature Increasing altitude Fig. 17.8a, p. 426 Temperature Inversions Subsidence inversion Mass warm air at high altitude moves over colder air in valley (Raleigh)

300 Acid Deposition Secondary pollutants form nitric acid and sulfuric acid in addition to sulfates and nitrate salts Retention time 2-14 days Back to surface as wet deposition (rain, snow, fog) or acid anhydrides Acid anhydrides fall first and closer to site of pollution Fall downwind of pollution source-sometimes long distances across oceans and continents

301 Effects of Acid Rain on Human Health and Economy Respiratory diseases Acid rain in water leaches toxic metals (Pb & Cu) into drinking water Property damage Reduce atmospheric visibility (sulfate particles) Lower productivity of fisheries, forests, farms Local example Sandy Bottom ponds

302 Prevention Reduce air pollution by improving energy eficiency Reduce coal use Increase natural gas use Increase use of renewable resources Burn low-sulfur coal Remove SO2 particulates, andNOx from smokestack gases Remove NOx from motor vehicles’ exhaust Tax emissions of SO2

303 Indoor Air Pollution People spend 70+% of time inside, exacerbating problems of air pollution High risk members of population are infants, children, elderly, pregnant women, sick people, people w respiratory or heart problems, factory workers, and smokers Problems include cancer, headaches, flu like symptoms, chronic fatigue – sick building syndrome Problems drive up absenteeism, health care costs, and reduce productivity

304 3 greatest indoor pollutants Cigarette smoke Formaldehyde (outgassed from common household materials) 1 in 5K people will develop cancer Radioactive radon-222 gas often associated with coal deposits and uranium-238, phosphate, granite and shale-lung cancer and smokers at much greater risk

305 Asbestos This is not as great a problem in US as it once was-illegal to have in buildings as insulation material. Led to asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma Now a problem in developing countries.

306 Respiratory diseases Lung cancer Asthma Chronic bronchitis emphysema

307 Temperature Inversions Normally warm air w pollutants rises and mixes with cool air above; resulting turbulence disperses pollution If the warm air cannot rise due to cold layer underneath then pollutants concentrate in cooler denser layer near the ground

308 Global Change Population growth Distribution of water Distribution of food Climate change

309 Climate Change Earth’s average surface temperature Distribution of rainfall Patterns of temperature change and global conveyor belt

310 Factors Affecting Global Climate Change Relationship of Earth to Sun Anthropogenic causes

311 Global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is a pole-to-pole overturning circulation in the Atlantic, which drives warm water north from the tropics, raising Europe's temperature an estimated 5 o to 10 o C As the Arctic ice shrinks due to global warming, the exposed ocean warms the atmosphere, leading to more breakup of the ice and a greater flux of freshwater to the North Atlantic (Mysak).

312 Anthropogenic Causes Atmospheric change due to carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, destruction of ozone by providing more surfaces-free radicals for reactions to occur in stratosphere (SOX, NOX, CO2, CH4), changes in vegetative cover, water pollution - eutrophication

313 How do we know? Recent history-have sufficient data from a variety of sources (hot air balloons, buoys, satellite data, pollen records, coral...) Ancient history- ice cores (Vostock), rocks, tree rings ) Geologic history-, deep ocean sampling(plankton & radioisotopes), rocks(fossils & radioisotopes)

314 Global cooling and warming cycles Global cooling, Ice Ages, last about 100,000 years Global warming, interglacial periods, last about 10,000 to 13,000 years Currently, we are living in an interglacial period

315 Climate and global warming Climate is statistics of meteorological conditions, temperature, precipitation, winds, over a long period of time-at least 30 years 0.5C of warming has occurred in last 130 years with the 1980s the warmest during that period Pattern parallels that of fossil fuel use and injection into the atmosphere of gases that can absorb radiation and lead to global warming

316 Greenhouse Effect Molecules of atmospheric gases vibrate and transform the absorbed energy into longer wavelength infrared radiation in the troposphere Convection currents distribute the heat Half of solar heat goes into latent heat, absorbed by water changing to water vapor Of 47% of initial solar energy absorbed at Earth’s surface, only 18% lost by radiation The remainder is captured by atmosphere-surface cycling which causes Earth to be 33C warmer than is would be without an atmosphere

317 Greenhouse Gas CO2 fossil fuel burning (75%), biomass burning CH4 rice, cows, landfills, coal production, coal seams, natural gas leaks, oil production N2O fossil fuel burning, fertilizers, livestock wastes, nylon prod CFCs air conditioners, refrigerators, foams HCFCs-” “ Halons- fire extinguishers CCl4 cleaning solvent

318 Global warming is cyclical; the rate is not The rate of global warming is greater than past interglacial periods The CO2 in troposphere is higher than probably the last 20 million years 75% of CO2 since 1980 is due to fossil fuel burning; remainder is human changes in land use Average global temp has >0.6C mostly since 1946 Since 1861 9 of 10 warmest years have occurred since 1990 with the hottest in 1998 and 2001 Ice caps and glaciers shrinking Global sea level rise of 10-20 cm in 100 years Plants and animals are migrating north to meet optimum temperatures

319 Global Change Affect the availability of water resources by altering rates of evaporation and precipitation Shift areas where crops can be grown Change average sea levels Alter the structure and location of the world’s biomes

320 Positive feedback More product results in more production-eg. “nothing succeeds like success” Greater temp, more melting of snow, loss of albedo effect results in greater temp and still more melting of snow Thawing soil results in more microbial activity; more microbial activity results in more CO2 and more thawing soil Arctic circle, Greenland, and Antarctica all have thinning ice sheets, particularly Greenland The influx of freshwater from melting glaciers on Greenland could stop the global conveyor belt in the Atlantic

321 Climate Models and IPCC IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2,000 climate scientists 90-95% chance that earth’s mean surface temp will >1.4- 5.8C between 2000 and 2100; change btwn 2000 and 2030 will equal that of entire 20 th century Many greenhouse gases show increases due to anthropogenic activities Bush administration 2002 says climate changes anthropogenic and then reject Kyoto Treaty! Climate models are only models & have limitations

322 Change will not be evenly distributed Temp increases higher over land than over oceans Greater in high latitudes near earth’s poles than in lower latitude equatorial regions Much higher in inland regions in the northern latitudes

323 Agriculture Shifts in food-growing areas Changes in crop yields Increased irrigation demands Increased pests, crop diseases, and weeds in warmer areas

324 Biodiversity Extinction of some plant and animal species Loss of habitats Disruption of aquatic life

325 Weather extremes Prolonged heat waves and droughts Increased flooding More intense hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, and violent storms

326 Water Resources Changes in water supply Decreased water quality Increased drought Increased flooding

327 Forests Changes in forest composition and locations Disappearance of some forests Increased fires from drying Loss of wildlife habitat and species

328 Sea Levels and Coastal Areas Rising sea levels Flooding of low-lying islands and coastal cities Flooding of coastal estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs Beach erosion Disruption of coastal fisheries Contamination of coastal aquifiers with salt water

329 Human Population Increased deaths More environmental refugees Increased migration

330 Human Health Increased deaths from heat and disease Disruption of food and water supplies Spread of tropical diseases to temperate areas Increased respiratory disease Increased water pollution from coastal flooding

331 Prevention Cut fossil fuel use (especially coal) Shift from coal to natural gas Transfer energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to developing countries Improve energy efficiency Shift to renewable energy resources Reduce deforestation Use sustainable agriculture Slow population growth

332 Clean UP Remove CO2 from smokestack and vehicle emissions Store (sequester CO2 by planting trees) Sequester CO2 underground Sequester CO2 in soil Sequester CO2 in deep ocean

333 Prepare Waste less water Develop crops that require less water Prohibit new construction on low-lying coastal areas Stockpile 1-5 years of food supplies Expand existing wildlife reserves towards poles Connect wildlife reserves with corridors


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