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Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability
Chapter 1

2 Question of the Day The Earth’s natural capital, which supports and sustains the Earth’s life and economies is composed from what two components?

3 Answer of the Day The Earth’s natural capital, which supports and sustains the Earth’s life and economies is composed from what two components? 1. Natural Resources 2. Natural Services (p. 7)

4 Key Concepts Population growth and sustainability
2015 World 7.2 b USA 318m China 1.3 India 1.2b Economic growth and development Resources and resource use Pollution Causes of environmental problems

5 World Population Exponential growth Poverty
Extinction and biodiversity Climate changes Good news: possible solutions Fig. 1-1, p. 1

6 Black Death—the Plague Agricultural revolution
World Population ? Billions of people Black Death—the Plague Time Hunting and gathering Agricultural revolution Industrial revolution Fig. 1-1, p. 1

7 Living More Sustainably
Environment is the sum total of all living and nonliving things that affect any living organism. Ecology studies relationships between living organisms and their environment. Environmental science studies how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal with environmental problems.

8 Environmental Science
Earth’s Life-support System AIR (atmosphere) WATER (hydrosphere) Soil and rocks (lithosphere) Life (biosphere) Human Culturesphere Population size Worldviews and ethics Politics Economics

9 Living More Sustainably
Environmentalism see p. s9 - 14 a social movement dedicated to protecting the earth’s life support system. Sustainability the ability of earth’s systems to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely

10 Path to Sustainability
A Pa t h t o S u s t a i n a b i l i t y Natural Capital Natural Capital Degradation Solutions Trade-Offs Individuals Matter S o u n d S c i e n c e Fig. 1-2, p. 7

11 Natural Capital Earth’s natural capital Capital Financial income
Biological income Degrading capital Fig. 1-3, p. 7

12 Natural Capital Stepped Art Fig. 1-3, p. 7 NATURAL CAPITAL =
NATURAL RESOURCES Air Water Soil Land Life (biodiversity) Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand) Renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows) Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels, nuclear power) + NATURAL SERVICES Air purification Water purification Soil renewal Nutrient recycling Food production Pollination Grassland renewal Forest renewal Waste treatment Climate Control Population control (species interactions) Pest control

13 Solutions to Environmental Problems
Trade-offs (compromises) Individuals matter Sound science Environmentally sustainable societies

14 Question of the Day An environmentally sustainable society meets the basic resource needs of its people without ________________the natural capital that supplies these resources.

15 Economics Economic growth
- is an increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - the annual market value of all goods and services produced within a country. Per capita GDP - GDP divided by the total population at midyear.

16 Economic development - is the improvement of human living standard by economic growth.
Developed countries – are highly industrialized and have high average per capita GDP Developing countries – moderately developed and others are low-income countries.

17 Global Outlook Percentage 19 Population 81 0.1 Population growth 1.5
of World's 19 Population 81 0.1 Population growth 1.5 Wealth and income 85 15 Resource use 88 12 75 Pollution and waste 25 Developed countries Developing countries Fig. 1-4, p. 9

18 Human Population Growth
World total Developing countries Population (billions) Developed countries Year Fig. 1-5, p. 9

19 Economic Development Fig. 1-6, p. 10
Trade-Offs Economic Development Good News Bad News Global life expectancy doubled since 1950 Infant mortality cut in half since 1955 Food production ahead of population growth since 1978 Air and water pollution down in most developed countries since 1970 Number of people living in poverty dropped 6% since 1990 Life expectancy 13 years less in developing countries than in developed Countries Infant mortality rate in developing countries over 9 times higher than in developed countries Harmful environmental effects of agriculture may limit future food production Air and water pollution levels in most developing countries too high Half of world's workers trying to live on less than $2 (U.S.) per day Fig. 1-6, p. 10

20 Resources A resource is anything obtained from the environment to meet our needs and wants. Perpetual Renewable Nonrenewable

21 Perpetual and Renewable Resources
Sustainable yield - the highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely. Environmental degradation Tragedy of the Commons

22 Ecological Footprint Fig. 1-7, p. 11

23 Per Capita Ecological Footprint Total Ecological Footprint
(Hectares per person) Country United States The Netherlands India 9.6 3.8 0.8 Total Ecological Footprint (Hectares) Country United States The Netherlands India 3 billion hectares 62 million hectares 880 million hectares Fig. 1-7a, p. 11

24 Ecological Footprint Fig. 1-7, p. 11 1.5 Earth's Ecological Capacity
1.2 0.9 Humanity's Ecological Footprint Number of Earths 0.6 0.3 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Fig. 1-7, p. 11

25 Nonrenewable Resources
Energy resources Metallic mineral resources Nonmetallic mineral resources Economic depletion Recycling and reuse

26 Question of the Day Explain what is meant when a nonrenewable resource is economically depleted.

27 Pollution What is pollution? Point and Nonpoint sources
Unwanted effects of pollution A. They can disrupt or degrade life-support systems of any organisms. B. They damage human health, wildlife, and property. C. They can produce nuisances in noise, smells, taste, and sights.

28 Point-source Air Pollution
Fig. 1-8, p. 13

29 Solutions to Pollution
Pollution prevention (input control) Pollution cleanup (output control) Disadvantages of output control Only a bandage Only moves the pollutant Very expensive

30 Environmental Problems: Causes and Connections
First step: Understanding the causes 1. Population growth 2. Wasteful resource use 3. Poverty 4. Bad environmental accounting 5. Ecological ignorance 6. An inadequate understanding of how the Earth works

31 Causes of Environmental Problems
Population growth Unsustainable resource use Poverty Not including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices Trying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge about how it works Fig. 1-10, p. 14

32 Some Harmful Results of Poverty
Lack of access to Number of people (% of world's population) Adequate sanitation 2.4 billion (37%) Enough fuel for heating and cooking 2 billion (31%) Electricity 1.6 billion (25%) Clean drinking water 1.1 billion (17%) Adequate health care 1.1 billion (17%) Enough food for good health 1.1 billion (17%) Fig. 1-11, p. 14

33 Malnutrition Fig. 1-12, p. 15

34 Economics and Ethics Affluenza p. 14-15 (negative s and positives)
An unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers. Globalization and global advertising Law of Progressive Simplification “true growth occurs as civilizations transfer an increasing proportion of energy and attention from the material side of life to the nonmaterial side” Positive environmental effects of affluenza

35 Environmental Problems and Their Causes
Developing Countries X X = Consumption per person (affluence, A) Technological impact per unit of consumption (T) Environmental impact of population (I) Population (P) X X = X X = Developed Countries Fig. 1-13, p. 16

36 Question of the Day The pollutants we produce come from two types of sources, Point source and Nonpoint source. Polluted stormwater runoff is a major cause of water quality problems in streams, rivers, and bays. This image represents which source?

37 Historical Changes in Human Culture
Hunter-gatherers Agricultural revolution Industrial-medical revolution Information-globalization revolution

38 Eras of US Environmental History
Tribal era (before 1600) Frontier era ( ) Early conservation era ( ) Environmentalism

39 Is Our Present Course Sustainable?
Different views Technological optimists Environmental pessimists

40 Sustainability Revolution
Current Emphasis Sustainability Emphasis Pollution cleanup Waste disposal (bury or burn) Protecting species Environmental degradation Increased resource use Population growth Depleting and degrading natural capital) Pollution prevention (cleaner production) Waste prevention & reduction Protecting where species live (habitat protection) Environmental restoration Less wasteful (more efficient) resource use Population stabilization by decreasing birth rates Protecting natural capital and living off the biological interest it provides Fig. 1-14, p. 18

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