Presentation on theme: "Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability"— Presentation transcript:
1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability Chapter 1
2 Question of the DayThe Earth’s natural capital, which supports and sustains the Earth’s life and economies is composed from what two components?
3 Answer of the DayThe Earth’s natural capital, which supports and sustains the Earth’s life and economies is composed from what two components?1. Natural Resources2. Natural Services (p. 7)
4 Key Concepts Population growth and sustainability 2015 World 7.2 b USA 318m China 1.3 India 1.2bEconomic growth and developmentResources and resource usePollutionCauses of environmental problems
5 World Population Exponential growth Poverty Extinction and biodiversityClimate changesGood news: possible solutionsFig. 1-1, p. 1
6 Black Death—the Plague Agricultural revolution World Population?Billions of peopleBlack Death—the PlagueTimeHunting andgatheringAgricultural revolutionIndustrialrevolutionFig. 1-1, p. 1
7 Living More Sustainably Environmentis the sum total of all living and nonliving things that affect any living organism.Ecologystudies relationships between living organisms and their environment.Environmental sciencestudies how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal with environmental problems.
8 Environmental Science Earth’s Life-support SystemAIR (atmosphere)WATER (hydrosphere)Soil and rocks (lithosphere)Life (biosphere)Human CulturespherePopulation sizeWorldviews and ethicsPoliticsEconomics
9 Living More Sustainably Environmentalism see p. s9 - 14a social movement dedicated to protecting the earth’s life support system.Sustainabilitythe ability of earth’s systems to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely
10 Path to Sustainability A Pa t h t o S u s t a i n a b i l i t yNatural CapitalNatural CapitalDegradationSolutionsTrade-OffsIndividualsMatterS o u n d S c i e n c eFig. 1-2, p. 7
11 Natural Capital Earth’s natural capital Capital Financial income Biological incomeDegrading capitalFig. 1-3, p. 7
12 Natural Capital Stepped Art Fig. 1-3, p. 7 NATURAL CAPITAL = NATURAL RESOURCESAirWaterSoilLandLife (biodiversity)Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand)Renewable energy(sun, wind, water flows)Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels, nuclear power)+NATURAL SERVICESAir purificationWater purificationSoil renewalNutrient recyclingFood productionPollinationGrassland renewalForest renewalWaste treatmentClimate ControlPopulation control (species interactions)Pest control
14 Question of the DayAn environmentally sustainable society meets the basic resource needs of its people without ________________the natural capital that supplies these resources.
15 Economics Economic growth - is an increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services.Gross Domestic Product (GDP)- the annual market value of all goods and services produced within a country.Per capita GDP- GDP divided by the total population at midyear.
16 Economic development - is the improvement of human living standard by economic growth. Developed countries – are highly industrialized and have high average per capita GDPDeveloping countries – moderately developed and others are low-income countries.
17 Global Outlook Percentage 19 Population 81 0.1 Population growth 1.5 of World's19Population810.1Populationgrowth1.5Wealth andincome8515Resourceuse881275Pollutionand waste25Developed countriesDeveloping countriesFig. 1-4, p. 9
18 Human Population Growth World totalDevelopingcountriesPopulation (billions)DevelopedcountriesYearFig. 1-5, p. 9
19 Economic Development Fig. 1-6, p. 10 Trade-OffsEconomic DevelopmentGood NewsBad NewsGlobal life expectancy doubled since 1950Infant mortality cut in half since 1955Food production ahead of population growth since 1978Air and water pollution down in most developed countries since 1970Number of people living in povertydropped 6% since 1990Life expectancy 13 years less indeveloping countries than indeveloped CountriesInfant mortality rate in developing countries over 9times higher than in developedcountriesHarmful environmental effects ofagriculture may limit future foodproductionAir and water pollution levels inmost developing countries too highHalf of world's workers trying tolive on less than $2 (U.S.) per dayFig. 1-6, p. 10
20 ResourcesA resource is anything obtained from the environment to meet our needs and wants.PerpetualRenewableNonrenewable
21 Perpetual and Renewable Resources Sustainable yield- the highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely.Environmental degradationTragedy of the Commons
23 Per Capita Ecological Footprint Total Ecological Footprint (Hectares per person)CountryUnited StatesThe NetherlandsIndia188.8.131.52Total Ecological Footprint(Hectares)CountryUnited StatesThe NetherlandsIndia3 billionhectares62 million hectares880 millionhectaresFig. 1-7a, p. 11
24 Ecological Footprint Fig. 1-7, p. 11 1.5 Earth's Ecological Capacity 1.20.9Humanity's Ecological FootprintNumber of Earths0.60.3196019701980199020002010YearFig. 1-7, p. 11
25 Nonrenewable Resources Energy resourcesMetallic mineral resourcesNonmetallic mineral resourcesEconomic depletionRecycling and reuse
26 Question of the DayExplain what is meant when a nonrenewable resource is economically depleted.
27 Pollution What is pollution? Point and Nonpoint sources Unwanted effects of pollutionA. They can disrupt or degrade life-support systems of any organisms.B. They damage human health, wildlife, and property.C. They can produce nuisances in noise, smells, taste, and sights.
29 Solutions to Pollution Pollution prevention (input control)Pollution cleanup (output control)Disadvantages of output controlOnly a bandageOnly moves the pollutantVery expensive
30 Environmental Problems: Causes and Connections First step: Understanding the causes1. Population growth2. Wasteful resource use3. Poverty4. Bad environmental accounting5. Ecological ignorance6. An inadequate understanding of how the Earth works
31 Causes of Environmental Problems PopulationgrowthUnsustainableresource usePovertyNot including theenvironmental costsof economic goodsand services in theirmarket pricesTrying to manage andsimplify nature with toolittle knowledge abouthow it worksFig. 1-10, p. 14
32 Some Harmful Results of Poverty Lack ofaccess toNumber of people(% of world's population)Adequatesanitation2.4 billion (37%)Enough fuel forheating andcooking2 billion (31%)Electricity1.6 billion (25%)Clean drinking water1.1 billion (17%)Adequatehealth care1.1 billion (17%)Enough foodfor good health1.1 billion (17%)Fig. 1-11, p. 14
34 Economics and Ethics Affluenza p. 14-15 (negative s and positives) An unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers.Globalization and global advertisingLaw of Progressive Simplification“true growth occurs as civilizations transfer an increasing proportion of energy and attention from the material side of life to the nonmaterial side”Positive environmental effects of affluenza
35 Environmental Problems and Their Causes Developing CountriesXX=Consumption per person (affluence, A)Technological impact per unit of consumption (T)Environmental impact of population (I)Population (P)XX=XX=Developed CountriesFig. 1-13, p. 16
36 Question of the DayThe pollutants we produce come from two types of sources,Point source and Nonpoint source. Polluted stormwater runoff is amajor cause of water quality problems in streams, rivers, and bays.This image represents which source?
37 Historical Changes in Human Culture Hunter-gatherersAgricultural revolutionIndustrial-medical revolutionInformation-globalization revolution
38 Eras of US Environmental History Tribal era (before 1600)Frontier era ( )Early conservation era ( )Environmentalism
39 Is Our Present Course Sustainable? Different viewsTechnological optimistsEnvironmental pessimists
40 Sustainability Revolution CurrentEmphasisSustainabilityEmphasisPollution cleanupWaste disposal (bury or burn)Protecting speciesEnvironmental degradationIncreased resource usePopulation growthDepleting and degrading natural capital)Pollution prevention (cleaner production)Waste prevention & reductionProtecting where species live(habitat protection)Environmental restorationLess wasteful (more efficient) resource usePopulation stabilization by decreasing birth ratesProtecting natural capital and living off the biological interest it providesFig. 1-14, p. 18