Presentation on theme: " Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the commonest among viral infections during perinatal period that cause congenital infections Seroprevalence in pregnant."— Presentation transcript:
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the commonest among viral infections during perinatal period that cause congenital infections Seroprevalence in pregnant women ranges from 45% to 100%. Its clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic forms to severe foetal damage It is transmitted from person-to-person via close non-sexual contact, sexual activity, breastfeeding, blood transfusions, and organ transplantation.
Studies of CMV during pregnancy have not been conducted in pregnant women in this region. Increased evidence of pregnancy complications and congenital malformations Caring for these children with congenital problems is a challenging task.
No surveillance framework done among pregnant women in Kenya Significance and impact of CMV. CMV infection during pregnancy poses a 30% to 40% risk of intrauterine transmission
h1-Cytomegalovirus infection is high among Pregnant women attending Thika Hospitals. hΦ-Social demographic factors are not significant in CMV transmission and infection among pregnant women
objectives To determine the prevalence of CMV among pregnant women To determine the number of acute and chronic CMV cases. To establish the level of active and protective CMV antibodies in the pregnant women. To determine the social demographic characteristics among study participants
Inclusion criteria: Pregnant women attending the ante natal clinic of Thika Hospitals. Pregnant women in their first or second trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women in the age group of 16-45 years Exclusion criteria Pregnant women in their third trimester Pregnant women not sure of their gestational period.
The study was carried out to show the importance of CMV testing in pregnant women. Identify the groups at risk
Consenting pregnant women filled a questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic data A 5ml blood specimen was obtained for each subject. Quantitative analysis for CMV antibodies(IgG and IgM) was performed using ELISA. Avidity testing was carried out on samples having both antibodies.
serostatus f % IgG15860.8% IgM103.8% both5420.8% none3814.6%
variable participants (%)IgM (%)IgG (%)total(%)p value Age group: 16-20 12 19.4 70.9 90.3 21-25221222.2634.26 26-303813.6881.0594.730.001* 31-35253.785.1988.89 36-40922.2255.5677.78 41-4561090100 marital status: single24.3913.657.671.2 married64.617.28289.20.001* divorced10.39096.3 parity: none4510.3565.575.85 one to four53.085.887.793.50.0006* >four13.59066.7 education none1.20100 primary4.62066.786.7 secondary30.411.473.484.80.014* tertiary63.84.879.584.3
Out of 260 pregnant women, 201 (77.3%) were CMV IgG and 21(8.1%) having IgM. Marital status (OR = 3.7533, 95% CI =3.0231- 6.9631, P < 0.0001), parity (OR = 3.7533, 95% CI = 3.0231-6.9631, P < 0.0001),education (OR = 3.7533, 95% CI = 3.0231-6.9631, P < 0.0001), history of blood transfusion (OR = 0.0374, 95% CI = 0.00120-0.1168, OR = 0.3804) were found to significantly influence seropostivity in univariate analysis.
Findings in this study indicate high prevalence of CMV (85%) among women in Thika. It agrees with previous investigation reported in Nigeria which was at 87%. women who were married, not educated, aged or with high parity, were found to be at higher risk for CMV infection These factors increased susceptibility to acquisition of CMV infection.
The prevalence of CMV is high There is significant relationship between CMV prevalence and social demographic information The level of chronic infection is higher than acute infection Protective antibodies were higher than active antibodies
A follow up study is necessary. Further studies be carried out on the different strains of CMV Large scale studies to ascertain the consequences of CMV infection in infants The 88.4% CMV prevalence rate being detected among pregnant women calls for vaccine and routine screening for CMV infections and its associated risk factors.
National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine Kenyatta University Medical Laboratory Department Kenyatta University Microbiology Department