Topics What is management? What do managers do? What challenges do managers at different levels face?
Management is… 1 EffectivenessEffectiveness EfficiencyEfficiency Getting work done through others
Management Functions Planning Controlling Organizing Leading Planning Controlling Organizing Leading Making Things Happen Meeting the Competition Organizing People, Projects, and Processes Leading Making Things Happen Meeting the Competition Organizing People, Projects, and Processes Leading Classical Management Functions Updated Management Functions 2
Levels of Management 3 CEO COO CIO General Mgr Plant Mgr Regional Mgr Office Manager Shift Supervisor Department Manager Team Leader Top Level Management Middle Level Management First-Line Management
Top Managers 3.1 Responsible for… Creating a context for change Developing attitudes of commitment and ownership in employees Creating a positive organizational culture through language and action Monitoring their business environments
Middle Managers 3.2 Responsible for… Setting objectives consistent with top management goals, planning strategies Coordinating and linking groups, departments, and divisions Monitoring and managing the performance of subunits and managers who report to them Implementing the changes or strategies generated by top managers
First-Line Managers 3.3 Responsible for… Managing the performance of entry-level employees Teaching entry-level employees how to do their jobs Making schedules and operating plans based on middle management’s intermediate-range plans
Team Leaders 3.4 Responsible for… Facilitating team performance Managing external relationships Facilitating internal team relationships
Managerial Roles 4 Figurehead Leader Liaison Figurehead Leader Liaison Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator Entrepreneur Disturbance Handler Resource Allocator Negotiator InterpersonalInformationalDecisional H. Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: Harper & Row, 1973) Adapted from Exhibit 1.3
What Challenges Do Managers Face? Developing the appropriate skills for managerial work Avoiding “typical” managerial mistakes Making the transition from individual contributor to manager
What Companies Look for in Managers 5 Technical Skills Human Skill Conceptual Skill Conceptual Skill Motivation to Manage
What Companies Look for in Managers 5 Interpersonal Skills Diagnostic Skills Communicationn Skills Decision Making Skills Time Management Skills
Management can be referred to as SCIENCE or ARTS? 5
Theory X and Y Managerial beliefs or philosophies with regard to how to manage others Includes assumptions about human behavior as well as what makes a business successful Our beliefs have consequences on how we manage others and the expectations they have of us
Theory X Management's only responsibility is to improve the company's "bottom line." The employees of an organization are tools to be used to meet this goal. People are basically unwilling to work in the best interests of the company, cannot handle responsibility, and must be tightly controlled, prodded, and punished to get their work done.
Theory Y Management should create conditions that enable and encourage employees to attain their own goals by working toward the goals of the organization. Employees are inherently ready to accept responsibility, do a good job, and work in the best interests of the company. It is management's responsibility to create the conditions that will allow employees to develop their fullest potential.
Mistakes Managers Make 6 Adapted from Exhibit 1.5 McCall & Lombardo, “What Makes a Top Executive?” Psychology Today, Feb 1983 1. Insensitive to others 2. Cold, aloof, arrogant 3. Betrayal of trust 4. Overly ambitions 5. Specific performance problems with the business 6. Overmanaging: unable to delegate or build a team 7. Unable to staff effectively 8. Unable to think strategically 9. Unable to adapt to boss with different style 10. Overdependent on advocate or mentor
The First Year Management Transition 7 Exercise formal authority Manage tasks, not people Help employees do their jobs Hire and fire Exercise formal authority Manage tasks, not people Help employees do their jobs Hire and fire Cannot be “bossy” Manage people, not tasks Coach employee performance Fast pace, heavy workload Cannot be “bossy” Manage people, not tasks Coach employee performance Fast pace, heavy workload Initial AssumptionsReality