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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control Section 1: Deviance Section 2: Crime.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control Section 1: Deviance Section 2: Crime."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control Section 1: Deviance Section 2: Crime

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives:  Explain the nature and social functions of deviance.  Compare the theories that have been proposed to explain deviance. Section 1: Deviance

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Nature of Deviance  Because there are so many norms governing behavior, occasional violations are unavoidable  What is considered deviant varies from society to society Section 1: Deviance

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 Social Functions of Deviance 1. Clarifying Norms – defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior 2. Unifying the Group – serves to draw the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders” – the nonconforming members 3. Diffusing Tension – acts that allow individuals to relieve tension without disrupting the basic fabric of society Section 1: Deviance

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Social Functions of Deviance 4. Promoting Social Change – can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas 5. Providing Jobs – provides legitimate jobs for a wide range of people Section 1: Deviance (continued)

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Theories of Deviance  Functionalists – as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structures of society  Conflict Theorists – as a result of competition and social inequality  Interactionists – as either natural in people with weak ties to the community (control theory), as a learned behavior (cultural transmission theory), or as a label (labeling theory) Section 1: Deviance

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 SECTION 1 Deviance Perspective Theory Questions Functionalist How do individuals respond to culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving them? (conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion) StrainConflict What is the result of competition and social inequality? (deviance) Who decides what is deviant? (ruling classes) Conflict Interactionist Why do people conform to norms? (The strength of social ties determines conformity.) Control How do people learn conformity or deviance? (through socialization, or interaction with others) Where does this learning mainly occur? (primary groups) Cultural Transmission How do people become identified as deviant? (through secondary deviance, or being labeled as deviant) Labeling

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Objectives:  Identify the principal types of crime in the United States.  Explain the characteristics of the American criminal-justice system. Section 2: Crime

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.  Violent Crime – includes murder, robbery; most victims are African Americans  Robbery- larceny from the person or presence of another by violence or threat.  Crime Against Property – includes burglary, larceny, vehicle theft; more common than violent crimes.  Burglary- the act of breaking and entering a dwelling at night to commit a felony  Felony- a crime for which the punishment in federal law may be death or imprisonment for mote than one year.  Larceny- the unlawful taking and removal of another person's property.  Victimless Crime – includes prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use; offender is the only victim Section 2: Crime

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.  White Collar Crime – committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions; includes fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement  Organized Crime – the pursuit of crime as a big business Section 2: Crime (continued) Bernie Madoff

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 SECTION 2 Question: What are some characteristics of the American criminal-justice system? Crime

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 SECTION 2 Crime AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM Police 1.Have the most control over who is arrested for crimes. 2.The use of police discretion, has raised the controversial issue of racial profiling

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 SECTION 2 Crime AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM Courts 1.Determines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial. 2.The court assigns a punishment percent of cases are actually settles through plea bargaining.

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 SECTION 2 Crime AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM Corrections 1.Includes probation, imprisonment, and parole, which serves four functions: Retribution- Revenge for the victims and for society. Deterrence- Discourage offenders and non offenders from committing future crimes. Rehabilitation- Serves to reform criminals so that they can return to society as law abiding citizens. Social protection- Limit the freedom of criminals so they cannot commit additional crimes.

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 SECTION 2 Crime AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM Juvenile-Justice System 1.Applies to offenders younger than Guarantees juvenile defendants the same legal rights and privileges as adults. 3.Often provides more services.

16 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 SECTION 2 Crime AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM Police have the most control over who is arrested for crimes; use police discretion, which has raised the controversial issue of racial profiling Courts determines the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial and then assigns a punishment; actually settles 90 percent of cases through plea bargaining Corrections includes probation, imprisonment, parole; serves four functions—retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and social protection Juvenile-Justice System applies to offenders younger than 18; guarantees juvenile defendants the same legal rights and privileges as adults; often provides more services

17 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 Chapter Wrap-Up 1.What are the functions of deviance? 2.How does labeling theory differ from other theories of deviance? 3.Describe the five general categories of crime. Be sure to list the types of crime in each category. 4.What purposes does the corrections system fulfill? How does the juvenile-justice system meet these same purposes? 1.What are the functions of deviance? 2.How does labeling theory differ from other theories of deviance? 3.Describe the five general categories of crime. Be sure to list the types of crime in each category. 4.What purposes does the corrections system fulfill? How does the juvenile-justice system meet these same purposes? CHAPTER 8


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