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SPRING 2012 HISTORY 3401 AMERICA TO 1877 BROOKLYN COLLEGE BRENDAN O’MALLEY, INSTRUCTOR 1840s locomotive built in Philadelphia CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic.

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Presentation on theme: "SPRING 2012 HISTORY 3401 AMERICA TO 1877 BROOKLYN COLLEGE BRENDAN O’MALLEY, INSTRUCTOR 1840s locomotive built in Philadelphia CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPRING 2012 HISTORY 3401 AMERICA TO 1877 BROOKLYN COLLEGE BRENDAN O’MALLEY, INSTRUCTOR 1840s locomotive built in Philadelphia CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution

2 THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  Population Growth: The expanding population of the United States was a significant factor the industrial revolution.  U.S. Population Growth  1790: 4 million  1820: 10 million  1830: 13 million  1850: 17 million  1860 31 million  Why? What were some of the key factors driving this explosive growth?

3 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  KEY FACTORS  Less frequent epidemics and improved public health lead to lower death rate (still had major cholera outbreaks in 1832, 1849 & 1866)  High birth rate among white women: according to the 1840 census, white women bore on average 6.14 children each.  Immigration: After 1830, immigration from Europe escalates.  AFRICAN AMERICAN POPULATION: Slower growth rate among black population: higher death rate due to mostly impoverished living conditions.

4 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  IMMIGRATION BEFORE 1830  1800-1830s: Limited immigration due to wars in Europe.  1830 Population: Of 13 million, fewer that 500,000 are foreign born.  IMMIGRATION POST-1830  Immigration from Europe takes off in the 1830s and skyrockets in the 1840s.  Improved trans-Atlantic transportation is an important factor; makes fares cheaper (indentured servitude no longer exists in part due to cheaper fares)  More economic opportunity opening up in the U.S.  Previous immigration had been dominated by Protestant Northern Europeans; new immigration is largely Irish and German with many Catholics.

5 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution IMMIGRATION TO U.S.: 1820 to 1860 (in thousands)

6 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  IMMIGRATION AND URBAN GROWTH, 1840-1860  Between 1840 and 1860, northeastern cities grow rapidly: City18401860 New York312,000805,000 Philadelphia220,000565,000 Boston93,000177,000  Free States: 26 percent of the population lived in towns (2,500 or more) by 1860; up from 14 percent ion 1840  Slave South: 6 percent in 1840 and 10 percent in 1860  Growth of Western Cities: St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville go from small outposts to significant cities in this period. New port cities along the Great Lakes emerge: Buffalo, Detroit, Milwaukee, Chicago.  Internal Migration: Domestic migration, not just foreign immigration, also drives urbanization: For example, many New Englanders move to NYC.

7 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION American population density in 1820American population density in 1860

8 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  IRISH AND GERMAN IMMIGRANTS  By 1860, there were roughly 1.5 million people of Irish birth in the U.S.  By 1860, there were about 1 million people of German birth.  Irish tended to come with less money and to stay in the Northeastern cities.  Germans tended to come with a bit more money, and headed out to the Northwest to buy land and become farmers, or started small businesses.  Few immigrants interested in settling in the South.

9 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  IRISH AND GERMAN IMMIGRANTS  Germans came for the most part as families.  Young, single Irish women came in large numbers and mostly worked as domestic servants. Irish were less likely to migrate as families than Germans.  “Push” Factors from Ireland: Potato famine of 1845-1849 and unpopular English rule.  “Push” Factors from the German Lands: Beginning of industrial revolution lead to economic upheaval and job loss; failed revolutions of 1848 lead to many political refugees leaving.

10 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  SOURCES OF IMMIGRATION: 1820 and 1860

11 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  Pro-Immigration Forces  Democrats tended to support the new arrivals, and sought to cultivate their political loyalty.  Industrialists favored immigration since they wanted to maintain a source of cheap labor.  Land speculators and developers favored immigration since they wanted to quickly populate the West.

12 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  The Rise of Nativism  Political and cultural anxiety increases over new immigrants in the 1830s: many “old stock” Americans fear that the newcomers cannot assimilate; fear that Catholics will follow political orders of the pope; fear that immigrants will corrupt the political system; dislike their sympathies with the Democratic Party; dislike their alcohol consumption.  The Native American Association was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1837; it develops into the Native American Party in 1845.

13 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  The Rise of Nativism  Native Americans join with the Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner in NYC in 1850; secret society who became known as the “Know Nothings.”  Know-Nothings create a national party in 1852 called the “American Party,” which has great success in the 1854 elections. o Did well in Pennsylvania and New York o Won control of Massachusetts state government o Did not do as well outside of the Northeast; party disappears quickly after 1854. Many nativists join the new Republican Party.

14 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE CHANGING AMERICAN POPULATION  THE RISE OF NATIVISM Political cartoon from 1855

15 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION  Turnpike Era: The 1790s through 1820s were known as the “turnpike era,” with much governments-sponsored road construction. Yet they soon proved inadequate to the nation’s overall needs.  River Systems and Steamboats: Rivers became increasingly significant as steamboats replace slow animal-pulled barges. River systems help to integrate a national market. New Orleans becomes a significant port as the West develops.  Canals: Rivers often took indirect routes, and no direct connection existed between the Eastern Seaboard and the inland system of river and lakes. Overland transportation over mountain ranges was very expensive. These problems drove a wave of canal construction.  Erie Canal: This connection between the Hudson River and the Great Lakes system, built by the State of New York under the leadership of Gov. Dewitt Clinton, was started in July 1817 and completed in Oct. 1825. Other Atlantic seaboard cities sought to connect to the Ohio Valley by water, but did not succeed. New York Governor Dewitt Clinton

16 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION 1852 Erie Canal Map

17 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION Erie Canal Packet Boat of the 1830s and 1840s

18 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION Canals built in the Northeast between 1823 and 1860

19 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution  The Early Railroads: Relatively small role through the 1830s.  New Jersey inventor John Stevens has an experimental engine running on a circular track by 1820.  First Commercial Service: The Baltimore and Ohio opens a 13-mile stretch of track in May 1830 between Baltimore and what is now Ellicott City, Maryland. The race between Peter Cooper’s Tom Thumb locomotive and a horse-drawn vehicle took place on these tracks in August 1830. THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION Replica of Peter Cooper’s Tom Thumb

20 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION  The Triumph of the Rails: Railroads superseded canals as the primary mode of inland transport by the 1850s. circular track by 1820. circular track by 1820.  1840: Total trackage in the U.S. was 3,000 miles.  1860: Total trackage was 27,000 miles, mostly concentrated in the Northeast  Building a Network: Tendency for short lines to be consolidated into longer “trunk lines.”  Trans-Mississippi: Iron bridges begin to cross the Mississippi by the late 1850s; the first opened in 1856, connecting Rock Island, Illinois, to Davenport, Iowa.  Chicago: This city eventually became the West’s dominant city on account of its role as a railroad hub, and also had frontage on Lake Michigan.

21 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION  The Triumph of the Rails  Federal Funding: Railroads required a massive amount of capital to build; private sources were important, but much aid came from state and local governments. Most important was federal aid, especially in the form of land grants: By 1860, the federal government had allotted 30 million acres in 11 states for railroad land grants.  Economic Effects: Markets became year-round, and travel times were cut enormously. New York to Chicago took three weeks by water, but two days by rail. Railroads not only created a truly national market for goods, but also gave birth to the modern corporate form of business organization. They also became the most visible symbol of American progress.

22 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION  The Telegraph  Invention: In 1832, Samuel Morse, (1791-1872), an art professor with an interest in science, began experimenting with the technology.  Federal Funding: Congress provided $30,000 in 1843 for an experimental telegraph between Baltimore and Washington; it is completed the following year.  In Tandem with Railroads: Lines go up alongside railroad tracks to provide clear communication. Low cost of construction made it ideal solution to long- distance communication.  1860: By this time, there is over 50,000 miles of wire connection people.  Western Union Telegraph Company: Founded in 1851, this company completed the first transcontinental telegraph line by 1861.

23 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS REVOLUTION  NEW FORMS OF JOURNALISM  New Printing Press: Richard Hoe’s 1846 steam cylinder rotary press allowed rapid and cheap newspapers, telegraph increased news speed.  Associated Press: Organization formed in 1846 formed to share reporting over the wires.  New York as Media Capital: The city’s major papers included Horace Greeley’s Tribune, James Gordon Bennett’s Herald, and Henry Raymond’s Times. Most major magazines and newspapers were located in North and fed sectional differences. The biggest paper of the 1830s, the New York Sun, had 8,000 readers in 1834; the Herald had 77,000 in 1860.

24 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY  The Expansion of Business, 1820-1840  Factors in Growth: Business grew with expanding population, the transportation revolution, and new practices.  Retailing: Distribution became more efficient with specialty stores in cities  Corporations Emerging: Individual and small merchant capitalist companies still dominated the nation’s economy, but in some areas, larger businesses had given way to corporations, which combined resources of large number of shareholders.  1830s: States pass easier incorporation laws, as well as limited liability laws.  Bank failures remain frequent; deposits are lost in failures. Dearth of credit thwarts economic development.  Financial Panics in 1815, 1819, 1825, and 1837

25 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY  The Emergence of the Factory  Before War of 1812 most manufacturing occurred in private households in small workshops. Technology and demand led to factories beginning in New England textile industry, where large water-driven machines increased production.  By the 1830s, a factory system in the shoe industry had spread throughout Northeast. By 1860, the value of manufactured goods roughly equaled that of agricultural goods produced in the U.S. Largest manufacturers were located in the Northeast, with a large number of people employed.

26 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY  Advances in Technolo gy  Developed industries remained relatively immature through the 1830s; fine items came from England. But by 1840s rapid, U.S. machine technology advances, especially with devices used for the textile industry.  Manufacture of machine tools—tools used to make machinery—were vastly improved by government supported research for military, such as that at the Springfield Armory in Massachusetts). Engineers had perfected the turret lathe and universal milling machine in early 19th century, followed by a precision grinder at a later date.  Better machine tools allowed for wide use of interchangeable parts, creating new uses for products.  Industrialization aided by new energy sources: coal replacing wood + water in factories. Allowed mills to be located away from streams, easier expansion

27 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY: ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY  1840s to 1860s: American inventors generate a vast increase in the yearly number of patents. These included Goodyear vulcanized rubber (1847) and Howe-Singer sewing machines (mass production starts in the 1850s).

28 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY  Innovations in Corporate Organization  Merchant capitalists were still prominent in the 1840s; their clippers were fastest sailing ships afloat at time and their counting houses and warehouses filled the streets of lower Manhattan.  By mid-century merchant capitalism was declining because of foreign competition in the export trade and greater profits found in manufacturing than trade. But industry grew in the Northeast because this older merchant class had the money to finance factories  By 1840s corporations spreading rapidly. Company ownership moved from families and individuals to many shareholders.

29 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK  Recruiting a Native Workforce  In the factory system’s early years, recruiting labor was difficult because there was so much competition with agricultural labor. But new farmlands in Midwest and new farm machinery and techniques increased food production and decreased need for labor. New transportation allowed importation of food from other regions. All of this created a surplus of labor and forced many people to move to urban areas.  Some recruitment brought whole families from farms to the mills with parents and children, but the Lowell/Waltham system enlisted only young women. The Lowell women often contributed to a newspaper called The Lowell Offering and formed a proto-union, the Lowell Factory Girls Association.

30 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK First issue of the Lowell Offering (1840)

31 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK  Recruiting a Native Workforce  Labor conditions were relatively good in early years of system, certainly better than in Europe. The young, unmarried women in Lowell had relatively good housing and food.  Even well-treated workers found transition from life on farm to life in a factory difficult: regimented environment and repetitive tasks. Factory work became one of the few options for lower-class women.  In the competitive textile market of 1830s and 1840s, manufactures had difficulty maintaining good working conditions and wages fell. The Lowell Factory Girls Association struck twice (they called it a “turn out”) in 1834 and 1836 over reductions in wages. Both failed; eventually native girls were replaced with immigrants to fill the factory jobs.

32 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK  The Immigrant Workforce  Increasing supply of immigrant workers after 1840 is a boon for manufacturers: a large and inexpensive labor source. They had little leverage with employers: lack of skills, native prejudice, and oversupply of workers led to low wages and greater poverty among factory workers.  Irish workers predominated 1840s textile industry, and their arrival led to deteriorating working conditions, with less social pressure on owners to maintain a decent environment. Piece rates instead of daily wages helped to speed production.  Factories becoming large, noisy, unsanitary, and dangerous places to work, with long hours and declining wages. Conditions, however, were still better better than they were in England and Europe.

33 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK  The Factory System and the Artisan Trade  Factory system displaces many skilled artisans, who had been the embodiment of the “republican” independent worker. Artisans were unable to compete with factory-made goods, which could be sold for fraction of artisan’s prices.  In the early 19 th -century, artisans began to form the first labor organizations to protect their position. In the 1820s and 1830s, trade unions developed in cities.  Interconnected economies of cities made national unions or federations of local unions increasingly possible; an early attempt was the National Trade’s Union in 1834.  Yet labor leaders struggled with hostile laws and courts; common law made worker “combinations” illegal, considered an unfair conspiracy. The Panic of 1837 also weakened this early movement.

34 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution MEN AND WOMEN AT WORK  Fighting for Control  Workers at all levels in the industrial economy tried to improve their position by pushing for ten-hour workday laws or restricting child labor, but laws changed little in these areas.  One significant victory was the 1842 Massachusetts Supreme Court decision Commonwealth v. Hunt: declared that unions were legal and strikes lawful; other states gradually agreed. But unions of factory workers were still largely ineffective in the 1840s and 50s.  Artisans and skilled workers unions were more successful in the 1850s, but their unions more like preindustrial guilds that restricted admission to skilled trades.  The working class of 1840s and 50s had only modest power; their leverage was limited by the influx of immigrant laborers who could replace strikers; ethnic divisions led to worker disunity. Industrial capitalists had great economic, political, and social power

35 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  The Rich and the Poor  Commercial and industrial growth raised average income of Americans, but wealth was distributed unequally; for slaves, Indians, landless farmers, and many unskilled workers, there was little change. A small percentage of families owned majority of wealth.  There had been a class who enjoyed inherited wealth dating from the colonial era, but the character of that class was changing. Wealthy industrialists, financiers, and professionals in cities found new ways to display wealth publicly: mansions, social clubs, fine clothing, etc.  A large population of the destitute grew in urban areas: little resources, often homeless. This group included recent immigrants, widows, orphans, and people with mental illness. Most free blacks could obtain only menial jobs with little pay; they generally had no vote and no access public schools (some exceptions).

36 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  The Rich and the Poor  Commercial and industrial growth raised average income of Americans, but wealth was distributed unequally; for slaves, Indians, landless farmers, and many unskilled workers, there was little change. A small percentage of families owned majority of wealth.  There had been a class who enjoyed inherited wealth dating from the colonial era, but the character of that class was changing. Wealthy industrialists, financiers, and professionals in cities found new ways to display wealth publicly: mansions, social clubs, fine clothing, etc.  A large population of the destitute grew in urban areas: little resources, often homeless. This group included recent immigrants, widows, orphans, and people with mental illness. Most free blacks could obtain only menial jobs with little pay; they generally had no vote and no access public schools (some exceptions).

37 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  Social Mobility  Class conflict quelled because working standards declined but living standards improved; to some extent, opportunity for social mobility helped to defuse large- scale social unrest.  Geographic mobility of the population was far more extensive than in Europe; Western lands acted as a “safety valve” for discontent. Travel from city to city to search for new opportunities also helped in this regard.  Opportunity to participate in politics expanded in this period; the ballot did tie people to communities as politics was far more participatory than it is now.

38 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  Middle-Class Life  Fastest growing group in America in the decades before the Civil Wae was the middle class. Economic development offered new opportunities to own and work for businesses. Land ownership was no longer the only major source of wealth.  Middle class life became the most influential cultural form in American cities and towns: the ethos of the “good neighbor,” women staying in the home to care for children.  Better nutrition: Cast-iron stoves used to cook, diets improved with new access to meats, grains, and dairy.

39 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  Middle-Class Life  Fastest growing group in America in the decades before the Civil War was the middle class. Economic development offered new opportunities to own and work for businesses. Land ownership was no longer the only major source of wealth.  Middle class life became the most influential cultural form in American cities and towns: the ethos of the “good neighbor,” women staying in the home to care for children.  Better nutrition: Cast-iron stoves used to cook, diets improved with new access to meats, grains, and dairy.

40 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  The Changing Family  Families moved from farms to cities where jobs, not land, was most important. Patriarchal system of inherited farm land largely disappeared.  Work moved out of home and into shop, mill, factory, and office. The family as the principal economic unit gave way to individual wage earners. Even farms became commercialized because larger lands required more labor than just family.  The changing family role led to decline in birth rate by the mid-19th century. Deliberate effort to limit family size was the result of family planning, which became more secular and rationalized.

41 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  Women and the “Cult of Domesticity”  Growing distinction between the workplace and home led to distinction in societal roles of men and women. Women had long been denied legal and political rights, little access to business, and less access to education at high levels.  Middle-class husbands increasingly viewed as the wage earner, while the wife was seen as engaging in domestic activities: “guardians of domestic virtues” whose central role was to nurture the young.  A “Separate sphere” female culture emerged. Women were seen as having special qualities than men: custodians of morality who shaped the home as a refuge from the male sphere of the competitive marketplace. Were seen as providing religious moral instruction to children.  By 1840s, few genteel women considered working, which was seen as “lower class.” Business owners rarely hired women anyway. But working-class women couldn’t afford to stay home; many went into domestic service.

42 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution PATTERNS OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY  Leisure Activities  Leisure time was generally scarce for all but wealthy; vacations were rare even for the middle class. Sundays were often the only day of rest, and often used to attend long church services.  Print cultures expanded: new newspapers, magazines, and books targeted the affluent.  Dramatic theater, opera, minstrel shows, and public sporting events became increasingly popular. Some theaters had relatively affordable seating.  Traveling circuses and lectures also became very popular.

43 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE AGRICULTURAL NORTH  Northeastern Agriculture  After 1840, there was an overall decline and transformation in the northeast. Farmers couldn’t compete with the new rich soils of the Northwest. Rural population in the Northeast declined.  Some farmers moved west for new farms, while others moved to mill towns and became laborers. Others turned to providing eastern urban centers with vegetables, fruit, and dairy products.

44 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE AGRICULTURAL NORTH  The Old Northwest  The region developed some industry (more than in South), but industrial growth before the Civil War was limited as the area was initially better suited to agriculture.  Rising world farm prices gave incentive for commercial agriculture: growing single crop for both the international and American market. Grains from the Northwest were shipped to via the Erie Canal to New York City, where it was shipped overseas.  Growth of factories and cities increased demand for farm goods. Northwest farmers sold most goods to the Northeast and were dependent on the purchasing power of that region. Likewise, Eastern industry found markets for its products in the prosperous Northwest.  To expand production, Northwesterners expanded into prairie regions during the 1840s and 1850s; new farm techniques and inventions were used to cultivate these grasslands: John Deere’s steel plow could cut through the tough top layer of the prairie  Cyrus McCormick’s automatic reaper and thresher revolutionized grain production  Northwestern politics were largely based on defense of economic freedom and rights of property.

45 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE AGRICULTURAL NORTH  The Old Northwest The McCormick Reaper

46 CHAPTER TEN America’s Economic Revolution THE AGRICULTURAL NORTH  The Rural Life  Religion becomes a powerful force drawing farm communities together. Also joined together to share tasks that were difficult for single family, such as house building and barn raising.  Rural life was not always isolated, but there was less contact with popular culture and public social life than in towns and cities. Many rural people cherished the autonomy of farm life.


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