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Planning Planning is considered the most important element of the administrative process. The higher the level of administration, the more the involvement.

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Presentation on theme: "Planning Planning is considered the most important element of the administrative process. The higher the level of administration, the more the involvement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning Planning is considered the most important element of the administrative process. The higher the level of administration, the more the involvement and time devoting to planning. A good plan is the basis of any successful program. Sufficient time should be given to the process of planning. More than one plan should be available to choose from to meet the existing plan.

2 Definition of Planning “ Planning is a projected or predetermined course of action designed to achieve a specific goal or objective. ” Planning determines What? When? Where? How? Why? And by whom? Things will be done. It involves “ decision making for future events ”.

3 Process of systemic planning 1. Establishing goals and objectives 2. Designing alternative courses of action 3. Analyzing and predicting the consequences 4. Selecting the best course of action 5. Implementing the selected plan and performing periodic evaluation to assure success of plan

4 Principles of planning cont….. Planning is a dynamic (non-static) process It is a continuous circular process Planning Execution (implementation) Evaluation Futuristic Decision making process Dynamic Flexible

5 Participative planning is sharing the program planning with other people, staff and agencies concerned with the program. Participative planning have advantages and disadvantages. Principles of planning cont…..

6 Planning of a program is based on: – Needs and demands of the public – Available resources – Attitude of the public Principles of planning cont…..

7 intervening factors to a plan may be social, economical or political, and they may be related to either: – External environment (community) – Internal environment (the organization) Establishing priorities are essential in planning (What are these priorities???) Principles of planning cont…..

8 Principles of planning Being an intellectual activity it needs knowledge, experience, reasoning and the mastering of special skills and techniques. Examples of different techniques of planning are: – PPBS: Planning/Programming/Budgeting system – PERT: Performance/Evaluation/Review technique – CPM: Critical Path Method

9 Steps for Developing a Financial Plan 1. Needs Goals ObjectivesPrograms Budget Evaluation

10 introduced by U.S. Department of Defense Designed to provide better and more objective information for planning educational programs and making choices among alternatives way of extending planning period and duration of a program Planning/programming/budget systems (PPBS

11 1. establish objective goals determining financial cost of alternative plans evaluating results improving the objectives adding to & improving alternative plans PPBS Cycle

12 When we use PERT ? PERT is used when activity times are uncertain. – Determine the duration of the project. – Decision making under risk PERT Performance/Evaluation/Review technique

13 Program evaluation and review technique cont…… The new technique takes recognition of three factors that influence successful achievement of research and development program objectives: time, resources, and technical performance specifications. PERT employs time as the variable that reflects planned resource-applications and performance specifications. With units of time as a common denominator, PERT quantifies knowledge about the uncertainties involved in developmental programs requiring effort at the edge of, or beyond, current knowledge of the subject – effort for which little or no previous experience exists.

14 The Critical Path Method (CPM) is one of several related techniques for doing project planning. CPM is for projects that are made up of a number of individual "activities." If some of the activities require other activities to finish before they can start, then the project becomes a complex web of activities.

15 Organization Definitions: “ Organization is any collection of persons, materials, procedures, ideas or facts arranged and ordered that the combination of parts makes a meaningful whole that works towards achieving organizational objectives. ” “ The process of organization implies to the arrangement of human and non-human resources in an orderly fashion to make a meaningful whole that accomplishes organizational objectives. ”

16 The organizational process is classified into: – Structural organization – Functional organization Organization

17 Principles of organization: – Departmentation – Acquisition of human and non-human resources – Specialization and division of labor – Coordination – Authority and responsibility – Centralization and de-centralization – Unity of command – Line and staff Organization

18 Staffing It is the process of “ personnelizing ” the organization, by hiring the right type and adequate number of workers to each unit for the time required for the program, through the following steps: – Identifying the type and number of personnel – Recruitment – Selection and appointment – Orientation Job analysis Job description Job specification

19 Financial administration Financial administration consists of a series activities were funds are made available for certain people in the organization under procedures that will ensure their efficient use. The main activities are: – Budgeting – Accounting – Auditing – Purchasing

20 Definitions Budgeting: It is the allocation of financial resources in support for programs or projects for a special period of time. A budget is defined as “ a balanced estimate of expenditures and receipts for a given period of time ”.

21 Accounting “ It is recording assembly and summarization of financial effects of executive action. a harmonious relationship between budget and account is important to current comparisons, between goals set in and accomplished. ”

22 Auditing “ It is the investigation and report on the fidelity and legality of all financial transactions ”.

23 Purchasing “ It is the acquisition of the property and materials needed in administration ”.

24 Supervision Supervision refers to the day-to-day relationship between an executive and his immediate subordinates. Supervision aims at satisfying both: – Work – Workers

25 Supervision Motivation is defined as: “ an externally induced behaviour which occurs in order to bring about or maintain need fulfillment ”. The following conditions if present build high levels of motivation: Achievement Recognition Advancement Working conditions Responsibility Organizational policy Technical supervision Interpersonal relations Salary and compansations Job security

26 Supervision Factors affecting style of supervision: – Condition present – Type of work – Subordinates characteristics – Personal characteristic of manager

27 Evaluation Definition: “ systemic collection of information about the activities, characteristics and outcomes of programs, personnel, and products use by specific people to reduce uncertainties, improve effectiveness and make decision with regard to what those programs, personnel or products are doing and affecting. ”

28 Types of Evaluation Process Outcome /impact Structure

29 Types of Evaluation Program Implementation Program planning Program impact Structure evaluation Process or Formative evaluation Impact or summative Evaluation Facilities/ Equipment/ Manpower/ organization Performance of staff/ way procedures are done Measurable Indicators + Health related impacts


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