Presentation on theme: "Planning Planning is considered the most important element of the administrative process. The higher the level of administration, the more the involvement."— Presentation transcript:
1PlanningPlanning is considered the most important element of the administrative process.The higher the level of administration, the more the involvement and time devoting to planning.A good plan is the basis of any successful program.Sufficient time should be given to the process of planning.More than one plan should be available to choose from to meet the existing plan.
2Definition of Planning “Planning is a projected or predetermined course of action designed to achieve a specific goal or objective.”Planning determines What? When? Where? How? Why? And by whom? Things will be done.It involves “decision making for future events”.
3Process of systemic planning 1. Establishing goals and objectives2. Designing alternative courses of action3. Analyzing and predicting the consequences4. Selecting the best course of action5. Implementing the selected plan and performing periodic evaluation to assure success of plan
4Principles of planning cont….. Planning is a dynamic (non-static) processIt is a continuous circular processPlanningExecution(implementation)EvaluationFuturisticDecision making processDynamicFlexible
5Principles of planning cont….. Participative planning is sharing the program planning with other people, staff and agencies concerned with the program.Participative planning have advantages and disadvantages.
6Principles of planning cont….. Planning of a program is based on:Needs and demands of the publicAvailable resourcesAttitude of the public
7Principles of planning cont….. intervening factors to a plan may besocial,economical orpolitical, andthey may be related to either:External environment (community)Internal environment (the organization)Establishing priorities are essential in planning(What are these priorities???)
8Principles of planning Being an intellectual activity it needs knowledge, experience, reasoning and the mastering of special skills and techniques. Examples of different techniques of planning are:PPBS: Planning/Programming/Budgeting systemPERT: Performance/Evaluation/Review techniqueCPM: Critical Path Method
9Steps for Developing a Financial Plan 1. NeedsGoalsObjectivesProgramsBudgetEvaluation
10Planning/programming/budget systems (PPBS introduced by U.S. Department of DefenseDesigned to provide better and more objective information for planningeducational programs and making choices among alternatives way of extending planning period and duration of a program
11PPBS Cycle determining financial cost of alternative plans objective goals1. establishdeterminingfinancial costofalternativeplansevaluatingresultsimproving theobjectivesadding to &improving
12Performance/Evaluation/Review technique PERTWhen we use PERT ?PERT is used when activity times are uncertain.Determine the duration of the project .Decision making under risk
13objectives: time, resources, and technical performance specifications. Program evaluation and review technique cont……The new technique takes recognition of three factors that influence successful achievement of research and development programobjectives: time, resources, and technical performance specifications.PERT employs time as the variable that reflects planned resource-applications and performance specifications. With units of time as a common denominator, PERT quantifies knowledge about the uncertainties involved in developmental programs requiring effort at the edge of, or beyond, current knowledge of the subject – effort for which little or no previous experience exists.
14The Critical Path Method (CPM) is one of several related techniques for doing project planning. CPM is for projects that are made up of a number of individual "activities." If some of the activities require other activities to finish before they can start, then the project becomes a complex web of activities.
15Organization Definitions: “ Organization is any collection of persons, materials, procedures, ideas or facts arranged and ordered that the combination of parts makes a meaningful whole that works towards achieving organizational objectives.”“The process of organization implies to the arrangement of human and non-human resources in an orderly fashion to make a meaningful whole that accomplishes organizational objectives.”
16Organization The organizational process is classified into: Structural organizationFunctional organization
17Organization Principles of organization: Departmentation Acquisition of human and non-human resourcesSpecialization and division of laborCoordinationAuthority and responsibilityCentralization and de-centralizationUnity of commandLine and staff
18StaffingIt is the process of “personnelizing” the organization, by hiring the right type and adequate number of workers to each unit for the time required for the program, through the following steps:Identifying the type and number of personnelRecruitmentSelection and appointmentOrientationJob analysisJob descriptionJob specification
19Financial administration Financial administration consists of a series activities were funds are made available for certain people in the organization under procedures that will ensure their efficient use.The main activities are:BudgetingAccountingAuditingPurchasing
20Definitions Budgeting: It is the allocation of financial resources in support for programs or projects for a special period of time.A budget is defined as “a balanced estimate of expenditures and receipts for a given period of time”.
21Accounting“It is recording assembly and summarization of financial effects of executive action. a harmonious relationship between budget and account is important to current comparisons, between goals set in and accomplished.”
22Auditing“It is the investigation and report on the fidelity and legality of all financial transactions”.
23Purchasing“It is the acquisition of the property and materials needed in administration”.
24SupervisionSupervision refers to the day-to-day relationship between an executive and his immediate subordinates.Supervision aims at satisfying both:WorkWorkers
25SupervisionMotivation is defined as: “an externally induced behaviour which occurs in order to bring about or maintain need fulfillment”.The following conditions if present build high levels of motivation:Organizational policyTechnical supervisionInterpersonal relationsSalary and compansationsJob securityAchievementRecognitionAdvancementWorking conditionsResponsibility
26Supervision Factors affecting style of supervision: Condition present Type of workSubordinates characteristicsPersonal characteristic of manager
27Evaluation Definition: “systemic collection of information about the activities, characteristics and outcomes of programs, personnel, and products use by specific people to reduce uncertainties, improve effectiveness and make decision with regard to what those programs, personnel or products are doing and affecting.”
28Types of EvaluationProcessOutcome /impactStructure
29Types of Evaluation Facilities/ Equipment/ Manpower/ organization StructureevaluationProgramplanningPerformanceof staff/ wayproceduresare doneProgramImplementationProgramimpactMeasurableIndicators +Health relatedimpactsProcess orFormative evaluationImpact or summativeEvaluation